Author Archives: deepaprakasa

mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 221-230

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 221

Introduction: After defining this upAya, he quotes several texts wherein such emphasis has been made, as example for this, starting with ”mAmEva”:

mAmEva yE prapathyanthE”, “thamEva chAdhyam”, “thvamEva upAya bhUthO mE bhava”, “ARenakku nin pAdhamE SaraNAgath thanthozindhAy” enRum sollugiRapadiyE.

”மாமேவ யே ப்ரபத்யந்தே”, “தமேவ சாத்யம்”, “த்வமேவோபாய பூதோ மே பவ”, “ஆறெனக்கு நின்பாதமே சரணாகத் தந்தொழிந்தாய்” என்றுஞ்சொல்லுகிறபடியே.

Simple meaning: As has been stated in: “mAmEva yE prapadhyanthE”, “thamEva chAdhyam”, “thvamEva upAya bhUthO mE bhava”, “ARenakku nin pAdhamE saraNAgath thandhozhindhAy”

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in the texts bhagavath gIthA 7-14 “mAmEva ye prapadhyanthE” (those who seek only me as the refuge), bhagavath gIthA 15-5 ”thamEva chAdhyam purusham prapadhyE” (You should surrender only unto him who is the primeval lord), ahirbhudhdhnya samhithai 36-38 ”thvamEva  upAya bhUthO mE bhava” (only you should be the means for me),  thiruvAimozhi 5-7-10”ARu enakku nin pAdhamE SaraNAgath thanthozhindhAy” (you gave me your divine feet only, as the means), wherever the reference occurs to the divine feet which are the means, there is this emphasis, such as ”mAmEva”,  “thamEva” ”thvamEva”, ”nin pAdhamE”.

sUthram – 222

Introduction: What is the distinguishing factor? lOkAchArya says:

iththAl “vraja” engiRa svIkAraththil upAya bhAvaththaith thavirkkiRadhu.
இத்தால், ‘வ்ரஜ’என்கிற ஸ்வீகாரத்தில் உபாய பாவத்தைத் தவிர்க்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this, in the word “vraja”, seeking refuge, the sense of upAya bhAva (the act of seeking refuge being considered as upAyam) is averted.

vyAkhyAnam: That is,  if the word Ekam (only) has to be distinguished from other means. it would amount to repetition [since he has already rejected other means in the verse sarva dharmAn parithyajya]; if it has to be distinguished from other dhEvathas [such as indhran, kubEran et al], by saying “mAm” as an exclusive form as the charioteer, he has already excluded them; thus, this Ekam word indicates exclusion of upAyam from the word vraja which is spoken of next [in other words, our act of surrendering to ISvaran too is not the upAyam].

sUthram – 223

Introduction: As obtaining of the goal is impossible until after  acceptance of  upAya, this is vital. Yet, how do we get rid of making this as the means for obtaining the goal? lOkAchArya explains this through the next sUthram:

svIkAram thAnum avanAlE vandhadhu.
ஸ்வீகாரந்தானும் அவனாலே வந்தது.

Simple meaning: Acceptance (of means) also came because of him.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, just as this process of obtaining the desired and obviating the undesirable happened due to him, acceptance of the means, which comes earlier itself, also resulted because of him. Thus, this act of surrendering can be considered as upAyakAryathvam (that which makes bhagavAn to become happy with the sentient for accepting him) and not as upAyam (means to attain him) [in rAmAnuja sampradhAyam, this is a very important part: emperumAn alone is the upAyam; it is not the act of surrender carried out by the chEthana (sentient entity). At best, the act of surrendering will make emperumAn to be happy with the chEthana and make emperumAn to grant mOksham to the chEthana]

sUthram – 224

Introduction: What is meant by “resulted because of him”?

srushtyavathArAdhi mukaththAlE paNNina krushipalam.
ஸ்ருஷ்ட்யவதாராதி முகத்தாலே பண்ணின க்ருஷிபலம்.

Simple meaning: Result of his labour in creation (srushti), incarnation (avathAra) etc.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, when the chEthana, in the absence of sensory organs, totally ignorant of the desire for mOksha, was lying without any distinction from insentient, ISvaran gave the chEthana sensory organs and also blossoming of wisdom, he came on his own in incarnations to approve and accept him, just as it has been sung by nammAzhwAr in thiruvAImozhi 2-7-6 “edhir sUzhal pukku” (going opposite to the chEthana, surrounding him in all ways), and also established his archA form to create taste in the chEthana for attaining him and to have firm faith in him through his auspicious qualities and deeds. Thus his labour bore fruit.

sUthram – 225

Introduction: He quotes authentic text to prove this:

“adhuvum avanadhu innaruLE”.
“அதுவும் அவனது இன்னருளே”.

Simple meaning: “adhuvum avanadhu innaruLE” – It is also by his grace.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, just as it has been said in thiruvAimozhi 8-8-3 “uNarvil umbar oruvanai avanadhu aruLAl uRaR poruttu en uNarvin uLLE iruththinEn” (to attain him (through his grace) , who is the controller of nithyasUris and who is beyond even their comprehension, I retained him in my mind). As soon as he completed saying that he retained emperumAn in his knowledge which is in the form of desire [to be with emperumAn] AzhWAr said, ”adhuvum avanadhu innaruLE” (that acceptance is also because of his grace). Therefore, acceptance of our seeking by him is also a result of his labour for us.

sUthram – 226

Introduction: Therefore, one should have absolute trust in him when he could grant us mOksham even without our surrendering.

iththai ozhiyavum thAnE kAryancheyyum enRu ninaikkak kadavan.
இத்தை ஒழியவும் தானே கார்யஞ்செய்யும் என்று நினைக்கக்கடவன்.

Simple meaning: Even without this, he will do our work on his own.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, since it is he who works for our acceptance, he does not do our work for this [our act of surrendering]; even without this [act of surrender on our part] the chEthana should firmly believe that ISvaran will carry out the activities for uplifting the chEthana, fulfilling the desires and obviating the undesired.

sUthram – 227

Introduction: Why should he (the sentient, soul) think so?

allAdha pOdhu upAya nairapEkshyam jIviyAdhu.
அல்லாதபோது உபாய நைரபேக்ஷ்யம் ஜீவியாது.

Simple meaning: Otherwise, (ISvaran’s) quality of not expecting upAya nairapEkshyam (assistance in means), would not sustain.

vyAkhyAnam: If we do not think that he would protect us even without our seeking his help, the quality of his being the protector without any expectations would not survive. We should not think that this seeking is also required for him to act.

sUthram – 228

Introduction: Then what happens to this acceptance (svIkAram)?

idhu sarvamukthi prasanga parihArArtham, budhdhi samAdhAnArtham, chaithanya kAryam, rAga prAptham, svarUpa nishtam, aprathishEdhadhyOthakam.

இது ஸர்வமுக்தி ப்ரஸங்க பரிஹாரார்த்தம், புத்தி ஸமாதாநார்த்தம், சைதந்ய கார்யம், ராக ப்ராப்தம், ஸ்வரூப நிஷ்டம், அப்ரதிஷேத த்யோதகம்

Simple meaning: This gives  a solution to the possible doubt of mOksha for all; doubt of the divine intervention to save as he has not done until now; work of the intellectual faculty of the sentient; obtainable through his love; the discipline of the intrinsic self (svarUpa nishtam); enlightening ISvaran that he [chEthana] is no more preventing ISvaran when he comes to protect him.


sarvamukthiprasanga parihArArtham: If the sentient need not do anything and ISvaran will grant him mOksham, then this should be granted to everyone. In order to prevent this from happening, the sentient carries out the act of surrendering, though that is not the means.

budhdhi samAdhAnArtham: The sentient may want to know as to why he had been granted mOksham only today and not all along. In order to satisfy his intellect, he has to carry out an act.

chaithanya kAriyam: Since sentient has knowledge, there has to be an outlet for that knowledge; hence he surrenders.

rAga prAptham: rAga refers to desire / love. Since sentient develops affection towards ISvaran, he carries out the act of surrendering.

svarUpa nishtam: The svarUpam (basic nature) of sentient is that he is a servitor to ISvaran. As a servitor he has to carry out service to ISvaran and this act is one such.

apradhisEshadhyOthakam:  apradhisEsham is non-avoidance. When ISvaran comes to help the sentient, the sentient accepts that by not running away from ISvaran. dhyOthakam is making an announcement. Thus, the sentient informs ISvaran, through the act of surrendering that he will not prevent him anymore from coming to his help.

sUthram – 229

Introduction: Now he describes the acts of ISvara, as earlier said before mAm, here also.

kIzh thAnum piRarumAna nilaiyaik kulaiththAn; inguththAnum ivanumAna nilaiyaik kulaikkiRAn.

கீழ் தானும் பிறருமான நிலையைக் குலைத்தான்; இங்குத்தானும் இவனுமான நிலையைக் குலைக்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: Earlier he destroyed the thought of others (other upAyams) and himself being the means together; here, he destroys the thought of chEthana and himself being the means together.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in “sarva dharmAn parithyajya”, when he asked to give up all the other means (upAyas), he destroyed the situation of other upAyams and he himself (the giver) being together. In other words, he alone is the upAyam and the others are to be given up. In ”Ekam” now, since he removes the sense of being means from acceptance (svIkAram of upAya), he destroys the situation of himself (the upAya) and the sentient who surrenders (who perceives that his act of surrender, which is acceptance of means, as upAya) being the upAyam together. In other words, only he is the upAya  and the sentient’s act of surrendering is not the upAya. Calling other means as others is as stated in thiruvAimozhi 5-8-3 “unnAl allAl yavarAlum” (I will not ask for protection from anyone else other than you) [insentient entities such as karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgams are spoken of as others here] .

sUthram – 230

Introduction: Then he explains the fault in the sentient accepting ISvaran as the means through his (sentient’s) efforts.

avanai ivan paRRum paRRu ahankAra garbham; avadhyakaram.
அவனை இவன் பற்றும்பற்று அஹங்கார கர்ப்பம், அவத்யகரம்.

Simple meaning: The sentient’s seeking him is egoistic, deplorable.

vyAkhyAnam: The seeking of the protector (without any filial reason but intrinsic ownership) by the sentient who is protected by him as part of himself, is a self generated act and egoistic; it is also deplorable like a son asking his father to give in writing that the father will protect him.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 211-220

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full series


ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 211

Introduction: He now proceeds to delineate the third word, “mAm”:

mAm – sarva rakshakanAy, unakkuk kaiyALAy, unnisaivu pArththu, un dhOshangaLai bhOgyamAgak koNdu, unakkup pugalAy, nIr sudumA pOlE sErppArE pirikkum pOdhum vidamAttAdhE rakshikkiRa ennai.

மாம் – ஸர்வரக்ஷகனாய், உனக்குக் கையாளாய், உன்னிசைவு பார்த்து, உன் தோஷத்தை போக்யமாகக் கொண்டு, உனக்குப் புகலாய், நீர்சுடுமாபோலே சேர்ப்பாரே பிரிக்கும்போதும் விடமாட்டாதே ரக்ஷிக்கிற என்னை.

Simple meaning: mAm – me, who is your all-round protector;  your servant; expecting your acceptance;  taking your faults as pleasurable; your refuge; bearing even your heinous faults just like water, which is by nature cool, but  is absorbing heat.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, for everyone to trust without doubt whether he would save us or not, avowed to protect everybody; without anybody having to doubt if he would, in his exalted status, look down on us and ignore  to remain aloof; to be commanded, “sEnayOr ubhayOr madhyE ratham sthApaya” bhagavath gIthA 1-20 and 1-21 (last line and first line respectively)

hrishIkESam thadhA vAkhyam idhAmAha mahIpathE
sEnayOr ubhayOr madhyE ratham sthApaya mE achyutha

(Oh King! [narrated by sanjayan to dhritharAshrtran] arjunan, looking at krishNa, said the following: Oh achchyutha! Stop my chariot between the two armies”)

and used as a servant; eager to protect you, expecting your acceptance to be protected as mentioned in lakshmI thanthram 17-78

sarvagyOpi hi sarvESO sadhA kAruNikO’pisan
samsAra thanthra vAhithvAth rakshyApEkshAm prathIkshathE

(sarvESvaran, though omniscient and full of compassion, has to conduct samsAram without slipping from the path of righteousness. Thus, he expects only the desire from the sentient “Please protect me”); for you to remain without fear whether he would despise you for your faults, considering your faults of showing mercy on people who are not to be showered mercy upon and remaining confused about what is correct and what is incorrect; as the only refuge for you and all those who are around even when it is not the apt condition for you to take refuge; ignoring even the words of pirAtti, who recommends your protection, if she comes up with some negative injunctions, as he is unable to part with you and give up from protecting you, just as cold water sustains even when heated .

sUthram – 212

Introduction: Next lOkAchArya gives the meaning for ”mAm”, as he shows his form in the vibhava avathAra (form taken during incarnation), distinguishing  it from other forms.

iththAl para vyUhangaLaiyum dhEvathAntharyAmithvaththaiyum thavirkkiRadhu.
இத்தால் பரவ்யூஹங்களையும் தேவதாந்தர்யாமித்வத்தையும் தவிர்க்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this he excludes para, vyUha, dhEvathAntharyAmi forms.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by “mAm”, me, he refers to himself, who is born and standing close by  to be seen, as distinguished from the para and vyUha forms which are in the unseen realms which are not approachable or discernible, and the antharyAmi form of being the in-dwelling soul of other dhEvathas such as agni, indhra et al who are acceptable to those who seek other upAyams.

sUthram – 213

Introduction: Now he describes the meaning that arises out of his asking us to seek him, giving up all the dharmas.

dharma samsthApanam paNNap piRandhavan thAnE ‘sarva dharmangaLaiyum vittu ennaip paRRu’ engaiyAlE sAkshAth dharmam thAnE engiRadhu.

தர்ம ஸம்ஸ்தாபநம் பண்ணப் பிறந்தவன்தானேஸர்வதர்மங்களையும் விட்டு என்னைப் பற்றுஎன்கையாலே ஸாக்ஷாத் தர்மம் தானேயென்கிறது.

Simple meaning: Since he, who was born to establish the dharma himself, is asking to give up (other) dharmas and to seek refuge  in him, he states that he himself is the real dharma.

vyAkhyAnam: As stated in,SrI bhagavath gIthA 4.8:
parithrANAya sadhUnAm vinASAya cha dhushkruthAm

dharma samsthApanArthAya sambhavAmi yugE yugE

(To protect the pious, to annihilate the evil doers, as well as to establish the principles of righteousness which go in the path of vEdhas, I incarnate in yugams (eras) repeatedly) since he, who was born to facilitate our attaining him, himself says for mOksha (attaining me), give up all other dharmas shown in SAsthras as means, and seek me, it is clear that they are not dharmas, but he himself is, as indicated in “krishNam dharmam sanAthanam”, the established sanAthana dharma.

sUthram – 214

Introduction: What is stated by this?

iththAl, vitta sAdhanangaLil ERRam sollugiRadhu.
இத்தால், விட்ட ஸாதநங்களில் ஏற்றஞ் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: The superiority of the means (upAya), compared to the sAdhanas given up, is stated.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by saying so, he indicates the superiority of this means (himself) over all the means given up earlier.

sUthram – 215

Introduction: To the query “what is that?” lOkAchArya says:

adhAvadhu – sidhdhamAy, paramachEthanamAy, sarva SakthiyAy, nirapAyamAy, prApthamAy, sahAyAnthara nirapEkshamAy irukkai.

அதாவது, ஸித்தமாய், பரமசேதநமாய், ஸர்வஶக்தியாய், நிரபாயமாய், ப்ராப்தமாய், ஸஹாயாந்தர நிரபேக்ஷமாயிருக்கை.

Simple meaning: That is, he is ready to seek and get (sidhdha), supreme sentient being (parama chEthana), omnipotent (sarvaSakthi), inseparable (nirapAya), attainable (prAptha), not expecting assistance of any other agency (sahAyAnthara nirapEksha).

vyAkhyAnam: By this, the superiority of this means compared to the ones which were given up as aforesaid, is described:

sarvESvaran is

sidhdha – being readily available for the sentient to reach him since he is sanAthana dharma [existing from time immemorial) instead of the sentient having to take efforts on his own to reach him;

paramachEthana – supremely omniscient as stated in muNdakOpanishath 1-1-10 “yas sarvagyas sarvavith yasya gyAnamayam thapa:” (that supreme being who knows the basic nature and basic qualities of all entities and whose vow is full of knowledge)

sarvaSakthi – omnipotent as stated in SvEthASvathara upanishath “parA’sya Sakthi: vividhaiva SrUyathE svAbhAvikI gyAnabala kriyAcha” (it is known that for this supreme entity, superior and multifarious abilities, intinsic knowledge and strength (for creation etc) are present)

nirapAya – remaining away from possibilities of being separable by chEthana because it is sidhdha (established);

prAptha – instead of being unattainable by the sentient who is dependent (parathanthra), remaining attainable by him

nirapEksha – without the aid of any other means (sahAyAnthara nirapEksha) due to the reasons listed above such as parama chEthana etc.

sUthram – 216

Introduction: He now proceeds to establish the attainability without the aid of any other means (sahAyAnthara nirapEksha), through the next three sentences:

maRRai upAyangaL sAdhyangaL AgaiyAlE, svarUpa sidhdhiyil chEthananai apEkshiththirukkum; achEthanangaLumAy, aSakthangaLumAy irukkaiyAlE kArya sidhdhiyil ISvaranai apEkshiththirukkum. indha upAyam avaRRukku edhirththattAy irukkaiyAlE ithara nirapEkshamAy irukkum.

மற்றை உபாயங்கள் ஸாத்யங்களாகையாலே, ஸ்வரூபஸித்தியில் சேதநனை அபேக்ஷித்திருக்கும்; அசேதநங்களுமாய், அஶக்தங்களுமாயிருக்கையாலே கார்ய ஸித்தியில் ஈஶ்வரனை அபேக்ஷித்திருக்கும். இந்த உபாயம் அவற்றுக்கு எதிர்த்தட்டாயிருக்கையாலே, இதர நிரபேக்ஷமாயிருக்கும்.

Simple meaning: As all other means are to be attained with self-effort (sAdhya), in the attainment of their intrinsic value (svarUpa sidhdhi) they expect the (aid of the) sentient; as they are insentient (achEthana) and incapable (aSaktha) in fulfilment of the act, they will expect (the aid of) ISvara. As this upAya is opposite of them, it is not expecting anything else (ithara nirapEksha).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, means (upAyas) other than this are achievable by the sentient’s efforts and so in their intrinsic nature, they expect the chEthana (sentient being) for taking the efforts. As they are insentient and incapable to know what are all to be done for him, in the fulfilment of his desires and obviation of the undesirable, they expect ISvara, who is possessed of the ability to grant the attainments.  This upAya is opposed to them in ready availability (sidhdhathva), supreme knowledge (parama chEthanathva)  and omnipotence (sarva Sakthathva).

sUthram – 217

Introduction: Now on he describes how in this word the auspicious characteristics which facilitate the surrendering sentient shine.

idhilE, vAthsalya svAmithva sauSeelya saulabhyangaLAgiRa guNa viSEshangaL nErAga prakASikkiRadhu.

இதிலே, வாத்ஸல்ய ஸ்வாமித்வ ஸௌஶீல்ய ஸௌலப்யங்களாகிற குணவிஶேஷங்கள் நேராக ப்ரகாஶிக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: In this (word) auspicious qualities such as vAthsalya, svAmithva, sauSeelya and saulabhya shine directly.

vyAkhyAnam: vAthsalya shines because, he taught arjuna all the required sacred meanings without considering his faults though he has slipped from dharma; besides speaking of his supremacy (parathva), since he made arjuna to see it for himself, (ownership) svAmithva shines; since he mingled freely with arjuna such that arjuna could address him as ”hE krishNa, hE yAdhava” his sauSeelya (ability to mix freely) shines; as he showed his aprAkrutha thirumEni (divine, auspicious form) to arjuna his  saulabhya (easy accessibility) shines. These characteristics are the prerequisites for the sentient to seek him as refuge and so they are described as shining directly.

sUthram – 218

Introduction: Of all these, saulabhya (easy accessibility) is the most desired, and so apart from the saulabhya manifested through his incarnation itself, his simplicity in showing himself as the charioteer is highlighted by lOkAchArya.

kaiyum uzhavu kOlum, pidiththa siRuvAyk kayiRum, sEnA dhULi dhUsarithamAna thirukkuzhalum, thErukkuk kIzhE nARRina thiruvadigaLumAy niRkiRa sArathya vEshaththai ‘mAm’ enRu kAttugiRAn.

கையும் உழவுகோலும், பிடித்த சிறுவாய்க் கயிறும், ஸேநா தூளிதூஸரிதமான திருக்குழலும், தேருக்குக் கீழே நாற்றின திருவடிகளுமாய் நிற்கிற ஸாரத்ய வேஷத்தைமாம்என்று காட்டுகிறான்.

Simple meaning: He shows his form as the charioteer, with the small whip in one hand, the (horse) leash in the other, the divine hair with the dust of the battlefield, and the divine feet firmly planted on the ground.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, he shows by the word “me”, the form of the charioteer, the divine hand and the whip held therein to guide and drive the horses, the rein bound in their mouth to move them or halt or turn to the  left and right, the divine hair without any protection, with dust of the battle field on it, the divine ankle bearing the small silver anklet, and the divine feet firm on the battlefield, as stated in thiruvAimozhi 3-6-10 “thEr kadaviya perumAn kanai kazhal” (the lord who sat on the chariot with the divine feet decorated with anklet)

Thus lOkAchArya has described the third word “mAm”.

sUthram – 219

Introduction: Next, he describes the fourth word, “Ekam”.


Simple meaning: “Ekam” – One.

sUthram – 220

Introduction: He describes the meaning for this word:

indha Eka Sabdham sthAna pramANaththAlE avadhAraNa arththaththaik kAttugiRadhu.
இந்த ஏகசப்தம் ஸ்தாநப்ரமாணத்தாலே அவதாரணார்த்தத்தைக் காட்டுகிறது.

Simple meaning: This word “Ekam”, by the significance of its place, indicates emphasis.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, he says, as at many places where this upAya (ISvara) is mentioned, like in ukAra, this word “Ekam” also indicates the meaning of the emphasis.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 201-210

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full series


ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 201

Introduction: Next he describes the prefix, “pari”.

‘pari’ engiRa upasargaththAlE – pAthakAdhigaLai vidumA pOlE ruchi vAsanaigaLOdum lajjaiyOdum kUda maRuval idAdhapadi vidavENum engiRadhu.

‘பரி’ என்கிற உபஸர்க்கத்தாலே – பாதகாதிகளை விடுமா போலே ருசி வாஸனைகளோடும் லஜ்ஜையோடுங் கூட மறுவலிடாதபடி விடவேணுமென்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By the prefix “pari”, he says that these should be given up with a sense of shame and like giving up acts of heinous sins, without even the trace of their tastes or scent so that they do not recur.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, though the word as in “pari sAkalyE” could mean “everything”, as this sense has already been expressed in “sarva”, it is not applicable here in that meaning; ”pari” indicating emphasis, would mean, as said in manusmruthi 11-54:

brahma hathyA surApAnO sthEyam gurvanganAgama:
mahAnthi pAthakAnyAhu: samsargaSchApi thai: saha

(killing a brAhmaNa, drinking intoxicating materials, stealing gold, uniting with AchArya’s dharmapathni (wife) and being friendly  with those who indulge in these crimes are referred to as (five) heinous sins), giving up all the heinous sins with no scope for their recurrence, feeling ashamed of having indulged in them hitherto. While giving up the other means, as dharma dhEvathA said in vishNu  dharmam 66-71,

atha pAthaka bhIthasthvam sarvabhAvEna bhAratha
vimukthAnya samArambhO nArAyaNaparO bhava

(Oh one born in the clan of bharatha! Now, if you are fearful of carrying out the sin (of observing other upAyams), giving up such efforts with full consent of your mind, be involved with only SrIman nArAyaNa as the means) he shall feel a sense of shame for adopting other means, and give them up with the taste of having indulged in such means with his conscience and the scent of having indulged unconsciously, thinking “How can I indulge in such activities which are inimical to my basic nature of having only bhagavAn as the only means?”


sUthram – 202

Introduction: Now he describes the meaning of the word, “lyap”

lyappAlE “snAthvA bhunjItha” ennumA pOlE, upAyAntharangaLai vittE paRRa vENum engiRadhu.
ல்யப்பாலே “ஸ்நாத்வா புஞ்ஜீத” என்னுமாபோலே, உபாயாந்தரங்களைவிட்டே பற்ற வேணும் என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By (the usage of ) ‘lyap’, the mandate is to seek him, only after giving up [other means], as dictated in “snAthvA bhunjItha” (one should eat only after bathing).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by the ‘lyap’ mode of “parithyajya”, the meaning conveyed is that instead of doing as in uSa samhithai 5-50

SrAdhdha bhOjanakAlE thu dhIpO yadhi vinaSyathi
punarannan na bhOkthavyam bhukthva chAndhrAyaNam charEth

(while eating food during SrAdhdham (obsequies) if the lamp gets put out, one should stop eating. If the person continues to eat, he should perform chAndhrayaNa prAyaSchiththam (expiation)), one should follow the dictum “snAthvA bhunjItha” (eat only after bathing). Thus, when attaining bhagavAn through him as the means, this should be done only after  giving up the other means.

sUthram – 203

Introduction: He elaborates on this concept, further.

“chachAla chApancha mumOcha vIra:” engiRapadiyE ivai anupAyangaLAna mAthramanRikkE kAlkattu engiRadhu.
”சசால சாபஞ்ச முமோச வீர:” என்கிறபடியே இவை அநுபாயங்களான மாத்ரமன்றிக்கே கால் கட்டு என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: As told in “chachAla chApancha mumOcha vIra:” besides not being the means for the attainment, they are also (obstacles for movement) like shackles on the legs.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated in SrImadh rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 59-139  SlOka

yO vajra pAthASani sannipAthAn na chukshubhE nApi chachAla rAjA |
sa rAma bANAbhihathO bhruSArtha: chachAla chApancha mumOcha vIra: ||

(rAvaNa, who would not be shaken even if hit by vajrAyudha (famous weapon belonging to indhra) or struck by thunder, was shaken up when SrI rAma’s arrows hit him. Being a warrior (knowing that SrI rAma will not hit an unarmed warrior), he let go of his bow), SrI rAma did not stop hitting him until he dropped the bow in his hand. As soon as he dropped it, SrI rAma told him, as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam SlOkam  “gachchAnujAnAmi” (you are allowed to retreat to safety). Thus, other means not only do not facilitate attainment, but obstruct it.

sUthram – 204

Introduction: Further, he highlights that engagement with such means would lead to loss of attainment, with an example:

chakravarththiyaip pOlE izhakkaikku uRuppu.
சக்ரவர்த்தியைப்போலே இழக்கைக்கு உறுப்பு.

Simple meaning: This is (the cause for) loss as in the case of chakravarthi (dhaSaratha).

vyAkhyAnam: Remembering the earlier promise of boons (to kaikEyi)  which could not be negated now, by clinging to the filial dharma, chakravarthi dhaSaratha lost the bliss of living with perumAL who is mentioned as in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 37-13 “rAmO vigrahavAn dharma:” (SrI rAma is the epitome of dharmam). In the same way, engaging with means which appear to be inapt would lead to losing the opportunity of living with matters related to bhagavAn who is dharmam from time immemorial, just as it has been mentioned in “krishNam dharmam sanAthanam” (krishNan is the epitome of dharmam from yore)

sUthram – 205

Introduction: To counter the criticism of people who do not know the meaning of giving up all the other dharmams, lOkAchArya says:

sarva dharmangaLaiyum vittu enRu sollugaiyAlE silar ‘adharmangaL pugurum’, enRArgaL.
ஸர்வதர்மங்களையும் விட்டு என்று சொல்லுகையாலே, சிலர் ‘அதர்மங்கள் புகுரும்’, என்றார்கள்.

Simple meaning: Some people said, “giving up all dharma” would facilitate creeping of adharmic tendencies.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the dharmam which is to be given up, says “idham kuru, idham mAkArshI:” (do this, do not do that). Thus, when that which is to be given up is also negated along with that which is to be followed, it will become similar to opening the door for entities which had been shut out earlier.

sUthram – 206

Introduction: lOkAchArya dispels this doubt.

adhu kUdAdhu; ‘adharmangaLaichchey’ enRu sollAmaiyAlE.
அது கூடாது; ‘அதர்மங்களைச்செய்’ என்று சொல்லாமையாலே.

Simple meaning: That is not possible, because there is no mandate asking to “do adharma”.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by asking to give up all other means, entry of adharma is not possible because the mandate is for giving up activities that are incongruent to the sentient’s intrinsic nature of singular means, and not for doing acts of adharma.

sUthram – 207

Introduction: As avoidance of activities of adharma is also word-wise including dharma, asking to give up may also mean asking to perform them, say some.  He rejects this argument.

‘thannadaiyE solliRRu AgAdhO?’ ennil.
‘தன்னடையே சொல்லிற்றாகாதோ?’என்னில்.

Won’t it amount to saying so automatically?

sUthram – 208

Introduction: He says, it will not; as the word ”dharma” does not indicate removal of adharma.

AgAdhu; dharma Sabdham adharma nivruththiyaik kAttAmaiyAlE.
ஆகாது; தர்மஶப்தம் அதர்மநிவ்ருத்தியைக் காட்டாமையாலே.

Simple meaning: No, it will not; as the word “dharma” does not indicate removal of adharma.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, asking to give up dharma would not mean asking to do adharma by itself. This would only mean adoption of activities devoid of adharma but not asking to engage in acts of adharma per se. This is a guideline for vihitha anushtAnam, appropriate activity.

sUthram – 209

Introduction: The question arises, even if the word dharma is not vital in avoidance of adharma, will not the use of the word “sarva” by including all, indicate this also?

kAttinAlum, aththai ozhindhavaRRaich cholliRRAm iththanai.
காட்டினாலும், அத்தை ஒழிந்தவற்றைச் சொல்லிற்றாமித்தனை.

Simple meaning: Even if it indicates,  it would mean only those excluding it.

vyAkhyAnam: Even if it indicates so, as it talks of activities, we should take into account only activities which are mandated as to be done, as here it is not meant.

sUthram – 210

Introduction: How do we exclude these activities which may be adharmic?

thannaiyum, ISvaranaiyum, phalaththaiyum pArththAl avai pugura vazhi illai.
தன்னையும், ஈஶ்வரனையும், பலத்தையும் பார்த்தால் அவை புகுர வழியில்லை.

Simple meaning: If one looks at self, ISvara, and the pala (kainkaryam) such adharmic activities have no scope to creep in.

vyAkhyAnam: As adharmic activities are not up to the pleasure of ISvara, and as the sentient soul surrendered to him shall not do anything to displease him, looking at both ISvara and himself, there is little scope for such an event. The sentient is focussed on avoidance of any act that would end up as self attempt at attainment of goal; ISvara does not tolerate or countenance any conscious self-focussed act from the sentient in attainment; the pala (attainment) is also the result of his pleasure toward the sentient offering absolutely selfless service totally focussed on the pleasure of ISvara. Therefore in all these three possibilities such acts have no scope for entry as they are opposed to the svarUpa of the sentient, ISvara and the pala (kainkaryam). So, we should take this to mean the acts which are excluded herein.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 191-200

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full series


ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 191

Introduction:  He describes the meaning of the first word: “sarvadharmAn”.

“sarva dharmAn” – ellA dharmangaLaiyum.
ஸர்வதர்மாந்- எல்லா தர்மங்களையும்.

Simple meaning: “sarvadharmAn” – All the dharmas.

sUthram – 192

Introduction: That is, dharma (stated in singular), dharmAn (dharmas, stated in plural) and sarva dharmAn (all dharmas). So, he proceeds to explain these three factors.

dharmamAvadhu palasAdhanamAy irukkumadhu.
தர்மமாவது – பலஸாதநமாயிருக்குமது.

Simple meaning: dharma – that which is an instrument to attain goal.

sUthram – 193

Introduction: As the word dharma includes the means for attainment of visible benefits also, he differentiates from that meaning.

inguchchollugiRa dharma Sabdham dhrushta palasAdhanangaLaich chollugai anRikkE, mOksha, pala sAdhanangaLaich chollugiRadhu.

இங்குச் சொல்லுகிற தர்மஶப்தம் த்ருஷ்ட பலஸாதநங்களைச் சொல்லுகையன்றிக்கே, மோக்ஷ பலஸாதநங்களைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: The word “dharma” used here talks of means for attaining mOksha, excluding means for attaining visible, temporal benefits.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as the previously explained means were described for mOksham, temporal benefits were distinguished from this goal; also the context of this description is of means for mOksham (bhagavath prApthi) which is distinctly different from earthly gains such as children, cows, food etc. and also unearthly but lowly gains such as heaven (other worlds) etc.

sUthram – 194

Introduction: Now he gives the meaning for the plural.

avai thAn – Sruthi smruthi vihithangaLAyp palavAy irukkaiyAlE bahuvachana prayOgam paNNugiRadhu.

அவைதான் – ஶ்ருதிஸ்ம்ருதி விஹிதங்களாய்ப் பலவாயிருக்கையாலே பஹுவசநப்ரயோகம் பண்ணுகிறது.

Simple meaning: They are mentioned in plural as they are mandated by Sruthi and smruthi and many in number.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, these means for attainment of mOksha are mandated by Sruthi (vEdhams) and smruthi (codes of law handed through generations) and many in number. Hence the word in plural form, “dharmAn”.

sUthram – 195

Introduction: If they are so many, what are they?

avaiyAvana – karma gyAna bakthi yOgangaLum, avathAra rahasya gyAnam, purushOththama vidhyai, dhESavAsam, thirunAma sankIrthanam, thiruviLakkerikkai, thirumAlai edukkai thodakkamAna upAya budhdhyA seyyumavaiyum.

அவையாவன- கர்ம ஜ்ஞாந பக்தியோகங்களும், அவதார ரஹஸ்யஜ்ஞாநம், புருஷோத்தம வித்யை, தேஶவாஸம், திருநாமஸங்கீர்த்தநம், திருவிளக்கெரிக்கை, திருமாலையெடுக்கை தொடக்கமான உபாய புத்த்யா செய்யுமவையும்.

Simple meaning: They are (karma, gyAna  and bhakthi yOgas) – various paths to attain ISvaran through the paths of deeds, knowledge and devotion, respectively; (avathAra rahasya gyAnam) – knowledge about the secret of [bhagavAn’s] incarnations; (purushoththama vidhyai) – knowledge about bhagavAn; (dhESa vAsam) – living in divine places (where ISvaran has taken residence); (thirunAma sankIrthanam) – chanting his divine names; (thiruviLakku erikkai) – lighting divine lamps in his shrine; (thirumAlai edukkai) – stringing garlands of flowers for him and similar services rendered with a conscious feeling that they are the means for the attainment.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, what has been described as “many” are:

karma yOga which is described as the independent means:

bhagavath gIthA 3-19, 20:
“thasmAdhaSakthas sathatham kAryam karma samAchara |
asakthO hyA charan karma paramApnOthi purusha: ||”
“karmaNaiva hi samsidhdhim AsthithA janakAdhaya:|”

(Hence, carry out the deeds without attachment (in them); one who carries out deeds without attachment, attains AthmA.  Did not kings such as janaka attain AthmasAkShAthkAram (seeing AthmA) only through carrying out deeds!)

gyAna yOga which is possible through karma yoga:

bhagavath gIthA 4-33:
SrEyAn dhravyamayAdhyagyA gyAna yagya: paranthapa |

sarvAm karmAkhilam pArtha gyAnE parisamApyathE ||

(Oh one who destroys the enemy! The sacred rite performed with knowledge is better than the mere rites with material possessions. Oh son of prithA! All deeds of work and those associated with them culminate In knowledge).

bhagavath gIthA 4-37 and 38:
“na hi gyAnEna sadhruSam pavithramiha vidhyathe

gyAnAgnis sarva karmAni bhasmasAth kuruthE thathA”

(In this world, there is nothing so sublime and pure as knowledge. The fire of knowledge will burn to ashes all karmas).

bhakthi yOga which is complemented by karma and gyAna:

bhagavath gIthA 11-54:

bhakthyA thvananyayA Sakya: aham Eva vidhOrjuna
gyAthum dhrashtum cha thathvEna pravEshtum cha paranthapa

(Oh Arjuna! Oh one who destroys the enemy! Only through devotion which does not expect a benefit can I, who am like this, be known truly, seen and attained)

bhagavath gIthA 9-34: 

manmanA bhava math bhakthO madhyAjI mAm namaskuru |
mAm Evaishyasi yukthvaivam AthmAnam math parAyaNa: ||

(Engage your mind always with me; be my devotee, worship me and offer me salutations. Considering only me as the supreme entity, keep your mind in me and attain me.)

avathAra rahasya gyAna (knowledge of the secret of incarnations) which is stated to be a means of attainment, precluded from virOdhi .

bhagavath gIthA 4-9:
janma karma cha mE dhivyam Evam yO vEththi thaththvatha: |
thyAkvA dhEham punar janma naithi mAmEthi sOrjuna ||

(Oh arjuna! One who knows my divine births and activities truly, upon leaving the body, does not take birth again in this material world, but attains me)

purushOththama vidhyA that would enable the sentient surrendering soul by his grace as stated in:

bhagavath gIthA 15-20:
ithi guhyathamam SAsthramidhamuktham mayAnagha
Ethadh budhdhvAbudhdhimAn syAth krutha kruthyascha bhAratha

(Oh sinless one! This esoteric SAsthram (religious treatise) (that I am the supreme entity) has been pronounced by me. Oh arjuna! Knowing this, one becomes wise and is considered as having completed the ordained deeds)

dhEsa vAsam – Living in a blessed place (puNya kshEthra vAsam) that is praised to grant the desired fruits as said in gAruda purANam SrIranga mahAthmyam 11-5 “dhESOyam sarva kAmadhuk” (this place will grant all that has been desired)

thirunAma sankIrthanam, which is said to dispel all sins as a prelude to attainment of prApya (bhagavath prApthi) as stated in mahAbhAratham AnusA parvam 254-132 ”sarvapApa viSudhdhAthmA yAthi brahma sanAthanam” (gets relieved from all sins and attains the supreme entity)

Lighting lamps in his temples, as it is recommended as an activity that facilitates bhagavath prApthi, wiping out sins:

“ghruthEna vAtha thailEna dhIpam yO jvAlayEn nara:|
vishNavE vidhivath bhakthyA thasya puNya palam SruNu||”;

“vihAya sakalam pApam sahasrAdhithya sannibha|
jyOthishmathA vimAnEna vishNulOkE mahIyathE||”.

(Listen to the benefit of one who lights a lamp with love for vishNu, as mentioned in SAsthram, with either ghee or oil: he gets relieved from all his sins, becomes effulgent like a thousand sUryas and through a splendorous aerial vehicle, reaches vishNu lOkam and becomes famous)

In a similar way, stringing garlands of flowers in his temples will enable the person to attain bhagavAn, after overcoming hurdles.

sUthram – 196

Introduction: Now he gives the meaning for the word “sarva”.

sarva SabdhaththAlE avvava sAdhana viSEshangaLai anushtikkumidaththil avaRRukku yOgyathApAthakangaLAna nithya karmangaLaichchollugiRadhu.

ஸர்வ ஶப்தத்தாலே அவ்வவஸாதந விஶேஷங்களை அநுஷ்டிக்குமிடத்தில் அவற்றுக்கு யோக்யதாபாதகங்களான நித்ய கர்மங்களைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: By the word “sarva”, the daily rituals (prerequisites), prescribed for the relevant activities which are practiced, are referred to.

vyAkhyanam: That is, the qualifying word ‘sarva’, implying plural, for the main word  “dharma”, indicates the daily ritualistic activities like the panchamahA yagnas such as sandhya vandhana etc which make the performer eligible for these activities, preventing disqualifications as stated in dhaksha smruthi 1-12 “sandhyA hInO’Suchir nithyam anarha: sarva karmasu” (one who does not perform sandhyA vandhanam everyday is impure and unfit to perform any ritual).

sUthram – 197

Introduction: He concludes his statement in this sUthram.

Aga, Sruthi smruthi chOdhithangaLAy nithya naimiththikAdhi rUpangaLAna karma yOgAdhyupAyangaLai enRapadi.

ஆக, ஶ்ருதி ஸ்ம்ருதி சோதிதங்களாய் நித்ய நைமித்திகாதி ரூபங்களான கர்மயோகாத்யுபாயங்களை என்றபடி.

Simple meaning: Thus,  upAyas which are karma yOga in form, vetted by Sruthi and smruthi, mandated as daily rituals.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, all the aforementioned activities which are affirmed as in pUrvamImAsai 1-1-2 “chOdhanA lakshaNArthO dharma:” (dharma is that which follows rules which state “Do this; do not do this”) are mandated by Sruthi and smruthi, in the form of rituals for daily and special occasions and culminating in karma yOga, form one set of upAya.

sUthram – 198

Introduction: Why are they, though contradictory to the intrinsic nature of the sentient and are to be qualified as “adharma”, called “dharma”?

ivaRRai dharmam engiRadhu – bhramiththa arjunan karuththAlE.
இவற்றை தர்மம் என்கிறது- ப்ரமித்த அர்ஜுநன் கருத்தாலே.

Simple meaning: They are called “dharma” in the perception of bewildered arjuna.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, since these are opposed to the very noble dharma of absolute loyalty and servitude to ISvaran, they are called against the tenets by meaning of the word dharma. Also, as arjuna was against performing his own duty of fighting the battle, his misconception of dharma is described. Thus he has completed explaining the first word.

sUthram – 199

Introduction: Now he describes the second word “parithyajya”.


Simple meaning: Giving up completely

vyAkhyAnam: This also has three parts of (thyAga) sacrifice, “lyap”, and the prefix “pari”. First he describes the sacrifice part (thyAga) .

sUthram – 200

thyAgamAvadhu – ukthOpAyangaLai anusandhiththu ‘SukthikaiyilE rajatha budhdhi paNNuvAraip pOlEyum, viparIthadhiSA gamanam paNNuvAraip pOlEyum anupAyangaLilE upAya budhdhi paNNinOm’ engiRa budhdhi viSEshaththOdE thyajikkai.

த்யாகமாவது – உக்தோபாயங்களை அநுஸந்தித்துஶுக்திகையிலே ரஜதபுத்தி பண்ணுவாரைப் போலேயும், விபரீததிஶா கமநம் பண்ணுவாரைப் போலேயும் அநுபாயங்களிலே உபாயபுத்தி பண்ணினோம்என்கிற புத்தி விசேஷத்தோடே த்யஜிக்கை.

Simple meaning: “thyAga” (sacrifice) is not merely giving up; it is giving up the stated means (upAyas) with the mindset of people who realise their error in perceiving silver in a piece of shell or, who retrace their path after traveling in the wrong direction for a destination, with full consciousness of such giving up.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, what is mentioned here is not merely giving up, but, realising the futility of the means described earlier in view of their faults as they are unsuitable for persons interested in bhagavath prApthi, and giving up with full realisation such as throwing away a shell mistaken for silver or retracing the route after realising that such a path would not take to the desired destination. It is giving up with the conscious thought that one has adopted a means which will not enable that person to attain bhagavAn and giving up the means completely.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 185-190

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

SrI piLLai lOkAchAryar aruLichcheydha mumukshuppadi –
charama SlOka prakaraNam
mAmunigal Introduction to charama SlOkam

After detailing the meaning of dhvaya mahAmanthram, the middle esoteric secret (madhyama rahasya of rahasya thraya), lOkAchArya describes the meaning of the charama SlOka (the ultimate SlOka of bhagavath gIthA) which is the explanation for dhvaya, essence of bhagavath gIthA known as the gist of mahAbhAratha that is the fifth vEdha, as this SlOka :

  1. states in its first sentence the choice of means (upAya varaNam) in the words of the lord himself, that is acceptable for all, as he himself pronounces it;
  2. describes giving up of other means as the choice as part of means (upAya);
  3. emphasises giving up of perceiving the choice as a means and
  4. lists out release from all the sins that prohibit attainment of the goal (prApthi) in the second half of the SlOka.

Only to hear the meaning of this SlOka, emperumAnAr (rAmAnuja) trekked eighteen times to the abode of thirukkOshtiyUr nambi.

nambi also, considering the greatness of its meaning and also the rarity of appropriate personages to learn it, tested his interest in learning it by making him walk several times, putting him on fast for a month, and extracting a promise of secrecy, imparted its meaning to rAmAnuja.

Since only a person of extreme internal discipline, of intense feeling for the ISvara, of distaste for anything not related to him, and of extreme delight in listening to the lore of the lord, is qualified to learn the meaning of this SlOka, AchAryas before SrI rAmAnuja were not revealing it due to the rarity of authorities who can know and due to the value of the meaning of it. However, out of immense compassion, emperumAnAr revealed it to all, without looking at the value of its meaning, but at the incalculable damage samsAra was causing to the chEthanas.

Besides such teaching of this, lOkAchArya made it a point to describe its meaning in brief and in great detail in different granthas. Yet, he also made it so easy to learn for even women and children in this text only.

sUthram – 185

Introduction: In this, to  enlighten everyone about the greatness of the meaning of this SlOka, he states the reason for the SlOka to be called charama SlOka:

kIzhE sila upAya viSEshangaLai upadhESikka, avai dhuSSakangaL enRum svarUpa virOdhigaL enRum ninaiththu SOkAvishtanAna arjunanaik kuRiththu avanudaiya SOka nivruththi arththamAga ‘ini idhukku avvarugillai’ ennum padiyAna charamOpAyaththai aruLichcheygaiyAlE, charama SlOkam enRu idhukkup pErAy irukkiRadhu.

கீழே சில உபாய விஶேஷங்களை உபதேஶிக்க, அவை துஶ்ஶகங்களென்றும், ஸ்வரூப விரோதிகளென்றும் நினைத்து ஶோகாவிஷ்டனான அர்ஜூநனைக் குறித்து அவனுடைய ஶோக நிவ்ருத்த்யர்த்தமாக ‘இனி இதுக்கு அவ்வருகில்லை’என்னும்படியான சரமோபாயத்தை அருளிச்செய்கையாலே, சரமஶ்லோகமென்று இதுக்குப் பேராயிருக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: This is called charama SlOka, because, earlier to this he [krishNa] preached (arjuna) a few means (upAya) which arjuna thought  were difficult to practice and also violative of one’s intrinsic nature. Therefore krishNa taught this to quell his sorrow, as the ultimate instruction (charama upadhESa) beyond which nothing exists.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, before this SlOka, even though  in several chapters, some upAyas such as karma yOga, gyAna yOga, bhakthi yOga etc had been taught in detail, as they demand severe physical austerities, as control of sensory organs is difficult, as these require to be practiced for prolonged duration with difficulties, as these means have been found to be objectionable because  they amount to be self propelled and tainted by independence of the sentient, when arjuna was distressed about his grievous loss, for his comfort and dispelling his concern, krishNa taught this as an easy means suitable for his intrinsic nature as the ultimate means. Hence its name, charama SlOka.

sUthram – 186

Introduction: Now lOkAchArya proceeds to give the meaning for the two sentences which form this SlOka.

idhil pUrvArdhaththAlE adhikAri kruthyaththai aruLichcheygiRAn; uththarArdhaththAlE upAya kruthyaththai aruLichcheygiRAn.

இதில் பூர்வார்த்தத்தாலே அதிகாரி க்ருத்யத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறான்; உத்தரார்த்தத்தாலே உபாயக்ருத்யத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: By the first half of this SlOkam, he describes what is done by the (surrendering) sentient and by the second half, what is done by the upAya (the one who is surrendered to).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in the SlOka of two halves, in the first half, he describes what is to be done by the sentient who qualifies for this upAya and in the second half what is to be done by the upAya, the chosen identity.

sUthram – 187

Introduction: What is to be done by the qualifying sentient?  He describes:

adhikArikku kruthyamAvadhu upAya parigraham.
அதிகாரிக்கு க்ருத்யமாவது – உபாய பரிக்ரஹம்.

Simple meaning: The activity to be done by the qualified sentient is acceptance of the means (upAya parigraham).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, what the qualified sentient has to do is to accept the means.

sUthram – 188

Introduction: If so, why prescribe sacrificing other means, instead of mandating this?

aththai sAngamAga vidhikkiRAn.
அத்தை ஸாங்கமாக விதிக்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: He prescribes it (the rule) with its auxiliaries.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, ISvaran prescribes acceptance of means along with its auxiliary viz sacrificing other means. Just like washing of feet etc are preliminaries to Achamana cannot be discounted though they are only part of Achamana, acceptance of the means without giving up (sacrificing) other means, is incompatible as stated in SAsthra:

prakshALya pAdhA vAchAmEth snAthvA vidhivadharchayEth |
sthithvArghyam bhAnavE dhadhyAth dhyAthvA dhEvam japEn manum ||

(Achamanam can be performed only after washing the feet; worshipping as ordained can be done only after taking bath; arghyam can be given to sUrya only in standing posture; manthram can be recited only while meditating on the celestial entity)

Just as Achamanam cannot be performed without following its auxiliary of washing the feet, here too, accepting upAya without giving up the other means is incompatible. Therefore, the argument that “sarva dharmAn parithyajya” allows/supports  the other means along with the extant upAya (him) is not sustainable.

sUthram – 189

Introduction: But since this is easy to accept and pleasurable to  adopt,   does it still need some stipulations?

rAgaprApthamAna upAyam thAnE vaidhamAnAl kadugap parigrahikkaikku udalAy irukkumiRE.

ராகப்ராப்தமான உபாயந்தானே வைதமானால் கடுகப்பரிக்ரஹிக்கைக்கு உடலாயிருக்குமிறே.

Simple meaning: When an easy to adopt and pleasurable means is mandated, it hastens the process of acceptance.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, milk is liked for its enjoyment. When it is offered as medicine for intestinal issues, it hastens its acceptance. Similarly, this upAyam is preferred by the sentient because of its distinction. When he is ordained to accept it, it hastens the process of acceptance.

sUthram – 190

Introduction: Now, in order to give the meaning for each word of this SlOkam, he starts by giving the number of words in the first half.

idhil pUrvArdham ARu padham.
இதில் பூர்வார்த்தம் ஆறு பதம்.

Simple meaning: In this, the first half has six words.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 178-184

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 178

Introduction: lOkAchArya then explains the final word “nama:” and gives its  meaning.

“nama:” – kainkaryaththil kaLai aRukkiRadhu.
நம: கைங்கர்யத்தில் களையறுக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: “nama:” removes the weed in service.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, though the word “weed”  normally means the removal of ahankAra and mamakAra, just as it would refer to the obstacles (virOdhi) of svarUpa virOdhi (not being devoted exclusively to him), upAya virOdhi (adopting something / someone other than himself as the means to attain him), and purushArtha virOdhi (seeking something other than eternal service unto him), here the removal of weed is about removal of obstacle in purushArtham (kainkaryam) since here the reference to obstacles comes after the reference to prayer for service.

sUthram – 179

Introduction: What is the weed for service?

kaLaiyAvadhu thanakkennap paNNumadhu.
களையாவது தனக்கென்னப் பண்ணுமது.

Simple meaning: ”weed” is what is done for oneself (self-enjoyment).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, doing for oneself, for self-enjoyment is similar to 

“bhOkthAham mama bhOgOyam “ (I am the enjoyer, the enjoyment is mine)  engaging in the activity (of service) with the thought of making it an instrument for one’s own happiness; when devoid of the belief that this is for ISvaran’s bliss, and possessed of a sense of enjoyment and consciousness of the self as the enjoyer, it turns out to be not desirable (as purushArtham).

sUthram – 180

Introduction: Further, he says that in this (word- nama:), the obstacles to the attainment of service (kainkarya prApthi virOdhi) also shall get removed.

idhilE avidhyAdhigaLum kazhiyuNNum.
இதிலே அவித்யாதிகளும் கழியுண்ணும்.

Simple meaning: In this (all types of) ignorance shall also be removed. 

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in this “nama:” which prays for the removal of ego (ahankAra) and delusion of ownership (mamakAra), ignorance (avidhya) which is the root cause for karma (deeds) and which treats what is not self as self (in other words, body as AthmA), consequential deeds which are performed and the resultant relationship with nature (prakruthi) are all removed. This is the reason that SrI bhAshyakAra [rAmAnuja] also prayed in his gadhya, which is an explanation for dhvaya, while recounting the meaning  of the word “nama:”, in the chUraNai (aphorism) “manO vAk kAyai:”  included removal of karmas born out of deeds which are performed, though not ordained; in the chUraNai “anAdhi kAla pravruththa” he included the removal of ignorance and in the chUraNai, “madhIyAnAdhi” he included removal of relationship with nature (prakruthi).

(vishNu purANam 6-7-11)
anAthmanyAthma buddhiryA chAsvE svamithi yA mathi:

samsAra tharU sambhUthi bIjamEthath dvidhA sthitham

(the misconception of the body as the soul, and sense of belonging/ownership in things which do not belong to oneself are the two types of seeds for the manipulation of the tree of samsAra.)

SaraNAgAthi gadhyam:
manO vAk kAyai: anAdhi kAla pravruththa anantha akruthya karaNa kruthyAkaraNa bhagavadhapachAra bhAgavadhApachAra asahyApachAra rUpa nAnA vidha ananthApachArAn Arabdha kAryAn anArabdha kAryAn kruthAn kriyamANAn karishyamAnAmScha sarvAm aSEshatha: kshamasva

(You should pardon all my errors and sins continuing in countless births, by all the three faculties of mine, namely by speech, by body, and by mind, carrying out activities which are not ordained, not carrying out deeds which are ordained, that would include my misdemeanor unto you, your devotees, and unbearable offences of mine,  the sins committed by me which have started yielding their fruits, which have not yet started to yield, and those which would start, and the sins I had committed, now committing and shall be committing)

SaraNAgAthi gadhyam:
anAdhikAla pravruththa viparItha gyAnam Athma vishayam

kruthsna jagath vishayamcha viparItha vruththamcha aSEsha vishayam
adhyApi varthamAnam varththishyamAnamcha sarvAn kshamasva

(You should pardon my contrarious knowledge regarding self as well as the world (of mistaking one for another) which has been continuing since time immemorial, my improper conduct, and similar indiscretions in all the matters, both at the present and the future time)

SaraNAgAthi gadhyam:

madhIyAnAdhi karmapravAha pravruththAm bhagavathsvarUpa thirOdhAnakarIm
viparIdhagyAna jananIm svavishyAyAScha bhOgyabhudhdhEr jananIm 
dhEhEndhriyathvEna bhOgyathvEna sUkshmarUpEna chAvasthithAm
dhaivIm guNamayIm mAyAm dhAsabhUtham SaraNAgathOsmi
   thavAsmi dhAsa: ithi vakthAram mAm thAraya

(You should make me, who tells you “I am your servitor, I have taken refuge under you and belong to you”, to cross this prakruthi (primordial matter) which has come about because of multiplicity of my past deeds, which hides the svarUpam (true nature) of bhagavAn (such that I do not know it), which creates contrarious knowledge in me (to mistake one entity for another), which creates an impression in me that it is sweet, which makes entities such as physical form, sensory organs to appear as sweet for enjoying, which is an implement for your playful pastime and which is full of three qualities of sathva (purely good), rajas (passion) and thamas (laziness))

sUthram – 181

Introduction: Yet, the essential meaning for this is freedom from the trace of self-enjoyment and satisfaction (while carrying out service to him) and therefore lOkAchArya expounds it further by describing as to how we should be, while rendering service (kainkaryam)

unakkE nAmAtcheyvOm” ennumpadiyE Aga vENum.
“உனக்கே நாமாட்செய்வோம்என்னும்படியே ஆகவேணும்.

Simple meaning: We should become as described in “unakkE nAmAtcheyvOm”.

vyAkhyanam: That is, while rendering service, we should remove the thought of doing service for you as well as for us but serve you entirely for your pleasure as stated in thiruppAvai pAsuram 20 “unakkE nAmAtcheyvOm” (we will carry out kainkaryam only for your pleasure). AzhwAr also stated in thiruvAimozhi 2-9-4 “thanakkE Aga enaik koLLum IdhE” (You should take me for only yourself).

sUthram – 182

Introduction: Now he lists out the possible obstacles for this kainkaryam in the next two sentences:

saundharyam antharAyam; kIzhch chonna kainkaryamum appadiyE.
ஸௌந்தர்யம் அந்தராயம்; கீழ்ச் சொன்ன கைங்கர்யமும் அப்படியே.

Simple meaning: Beauty is an obstacle; the service described earlier is also similar to that.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, his bodily beauty is also an obstacle to the service (kainkaryam) as it would distract our mind. The kainkaryam meant in the chathurthi [(Aya) in the word “nArAyaNAya” which just preceded this word], is also an obstacle since it has scope for self-enjoyment and hence it will be an impediment for the blossoming of ISvaran’s countenance.

sUthram – 183

Introduction: Therefore, he describes the necessity for constant prayer to him to keep off this obstacle.

kainkarya prArththanai pOlE, ippadhaththil prArththanaiyum enRumuNdu.
கைங்கர்ய ப்ரார்த்தனைபோலே, இப்பதத்தில் ப்ரார்த்தனையும் என்றுமுண்டு.

Simple meaning: Similar to the prayer for service (kainkaryam), the prayer for removal of obstacles for such service is also to be there at all times.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, like the service which is prayed for in the chathurthi (Aya), is not seasonal but goes on forever, this prayer for removal of obstacles for such service (kainkarya virOdhi nivruththi) is also bound to continue for all times, both during the time here in this world and the time to come after reaching his SrIvaikuNtam which is the attainable land.

sUthram – 184

Introduction: Is there scope for such selfish thoughts about the  soul’s selfish enjoyment there, where none of the (human) faults exists?

“marundhE nangaL bhOga magizhchchikku”, ennA ninRadhiRE.
மருந்தே நாங்கள் போக மகிழ்ச்சிக்கு”, என்னாநின்றதிறே.

Simple meaning: AzhwAr said, “marundhE nangaL bhOga magizhchchikku”.

vyAkhyAnam: The celestial personalities praise him: “Oh our lord! You have yourself become an antidote for our excessive happiness that leads to self-conscious desire for taking that enjoyment as ours”. These are the words of the nithyasUris who are always with him, in his service, and so there is scope for self-indulgence in this happiness which necessitates this prayer for them. Thus it is established that this prayer is for all times. That is why while defining mukthas, it is said: “nama ithyEva vAdhina:” (they always say not for us, nama:) denying this self indulgence.

Thus, purushakAra (agency of recommendation), nithya yOga (its inseparable togetherness), vAthsalya (the characteristics arising out of it, like vAthsalya etc.,), dhivya mangaLa vigraha (his resplendent divine form) which highlights these qualities, upAyathva (the nature of his being the means to attain it), upAya svIkAra (accepting that as the means), the recipient for that service is the divine couple, sarvasSEshithva (the absolute supremacy of that divine couple), and kainkarya virOdhi nivruththi (nature of service to them, and removal of obstacles to this) have been described.

Thus mAmunigal vyAkhyAnam for dhvaya prakaraNam.

emperumAnAr, lOkAchArya, jIyar thiruvadigalE SaraNam.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 171-177

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 171

Introduction: As service (kainkaryam) is related to experiencing love, and that love is governed by the entity which is loved, he goes on to explain the entity which is to be loved.

idhilE thirumEniyaiyum guNangaLaiyum sollum.
இதிலே திருமேனியையும் குணங்களையும் சொல்லும்.

Simple meaning: In this, the divine form (thirumEni) and auspicious qualities (kalyANa guNas) are described.

vyAkhyanam: That is, this word which talks about the recipient of service, talks of the divine form and auspicious qualities of the recipient [ISvaran] which are the prerequisites for kainkaryam and are the matters for experience. Just as it has been mentioned in yajur vEdham, kAndam 4-2-29:

“sadhA paSyanthi sUraya:”;

“thath vishNO: paramam padham
sadhA paSyanthi sUraya:”

(nithyasUris always see that parama padham (SrI vaikuNtam) of vishNu)

thaiththirIya upanishath 2-2

“sOSnuthE sarvAn kAmAn”

“yO vEdha nihitham guhAyAm paramE vyOman
sO aSnuthE sarvAn kAmAn saha brahmanA vipaSchithEthi“

(The one who meditates, realises the endless brahmam [ISvaran] as the dweller of the paramapadham as well as the recesses of the heart, he enjoys all his auspicious qualities with him) etc which speak of divine form and auspicious qualities. Besides his form, his nature is also as mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath. Anandhavalli 7

“rasam hyEvAyam labhdhvAnandhI bhavathi”  (this living being becomes blissful attaining the supreme being, who is an embodiment of love) that is endearing, and enjoyable as well as capable of multiplying the services rendered. As such, The term auspicious qualities includes  gyAna Sakthi etc., vAthsalya, Saurya and other qualities detailed in the first sentence, as needed for the sentient to seek him as his refuge; these should also be recounted here, for carrying out kainkaryam. Just as ISvaran’s basic nature has two essential attributes (AkAra dhvayam) [namely, being the means and being the end goal for the sentient entities], his divine qualities also have the two essential attributes (AkAra dhvayam), which lOkAchAryar has detailed in “paranthapadi”

sUthram – 172

Introduction: Now he says that the meaning of this word is related to his quality of being the lord, by saying….

SEshithvaththilE nOkku.
ஶேஷித்வத்திலே நோக்கு.

Simple meaning: The focus is on ownership.

vyAkhyAnam: Even though all the qualities of the entity being experienced (ISvaran) are inseparable, and all these qualities are referred to when the term nArAyaNa is recited, since the fourth case [Aya in nArAyaNAya] denotes the entity to whom kainkaryam is being carried out, among the qualities, only the quality of being lord [SEshithvam] is firmly related to the activity of carrying out kainkaryam. Thus the word nArAyaNAya denotes his quality of being the lord, here.

sUthram – 173

Introduction: He proceeds to describe the utility of such relationship of ownership.

prAptha vishayaththil kainkaryamiRE rasippadhu
ப்ராப்தவிஷயத்தில் கைங்கர்யமிறே ரஸிப்பது.

Simple meaning: Only servitude to the appropriate entity, is enjoyable.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, unlike servitude to the others which is sorrowful as mentioned in  manusmruthi 4-160:

“sarvam paravaSam dhu:kham” (being under others’ control is sorrowful) and also manusmruthi 4-6:

sEvA Svavruththi” (service to others is like a dog’s life), which is prohibited,

service to the appropriate, which is also ordained, as mentioned in paramasamhithai:

yEna yEna dhAthA gachchathi thEna thEna saha gachchathi
thath yathA tharuNa vathsA vathsam vathsO vA mAtharam
chchAyA vA sathya anugachchEth thathA prakAram” (parama samhithai)

(the liberated soul (muktha jIva) follows the supreme lord just like the cow its calf and the calf its mother and the shadow following the creatures)

and also in (vihagEndhra samhithai 24-14; gAruda purAnam pUrva kaNdam 222-25):

vAsudhEva tharuchchAyA nAthi SIthA na karmachA
narakAngAra samanI sA kimartham na sEvyathE

(Why is not the shade of the divine tree vAsudhEva not attained  though it is neither very cold nor very hot but reduces the blazing heat of the hell?)

only enjoyable for the sentient being, since it is ordained .

sUthram – 174

Introduction: Now lOkAchArya gives the meaning for the case Aya in nArAyaNAya.

indhach chathurththi kainkaryaththai prakASippikkiRadhu.
இந்தச் சதுர்த்தி கைங்கர்யத்தை ப்ரகாஶிப்பிக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: This fourth case, “chathurthi” enlightens service (kainkaryam).

vyakhyAnam: That is, as this is obtainable after seeking the upAya which is an activity of the consciousness (awareness) of the servitude (SEshathva), besides giving the meaning for that, this chathurthi enlightens the service which is the reward for the upAya. Enlightening the service indicates enlightening the prayer for service. Service (kainkaryam) is any activity that brings a blossom of happiness to ISvaran’s face. This service takes the oral or physical activity form as stated in:

thaithirIya upanishath -bhruguvalli 10-5:

Ethath sAma gAyan nAsthE

(the released soul, muktha, is singing this sAmagAna) or

mahAbhAratham-SAnthi parvam 344-45:

nama ithyEva vAdhina:

sahithAschAbhyathAvantha thathasthE mAnavAdhrutham
kruthAnjaliputA hrushtA nama ithyEva vAdhina:”

(then those noble souls, SvEthadhvIpa vAsis, with folded hands, with happiness, ran along together chanting ‘nama:’)

and in paramasamhithai

yEna yEna dhAthA gachchathi |
thEna thEna saha gachchathi ||” (the mukthAthmA will keep following the lord wherever he goes).

sUthram – 175

Introduction: If this service is obtained by prayer, then is it not occasional? He answers this query:

kainkaryam thAn nithyam
கைங்கர்யந்தான் நித்யம்.

Simple meaning: Service is eternal (kainkaryam nithyam).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, service is the intrinsic nature of the sentient soul and as mentioned in mImAmsaka saying “akinchith karasya SEshathva anupapaththi:” (servitude is incongruent with one one who does not carry out service), service is eternal for the sentient soul. That is why our AchAryas observed:”nithya kinkara: praharshayishyAmi”,

sthOthra rathnam 46 : 

“bhavanthamEvAnucharaN nirantharam
praSAntha niSSEsha manOrathAnthara:
kadhAhamaikAntika nithya kinkara:
praharshayishyAmi sanAtha jIvitha:” 

(when am I going to please you, always following you, giving up all other desires totally, with a focussed sense of service to you as the supreme goal of life?)

and ”nithya kinkarO bhavAni” (SaraNAgathi gadhyam) (may i be of permanent service unto you).

sUthram – 176

Introduction: If it is eternal, should it be prayed for? He replies:

nithyamAga prArththiththE peRa vENum.
நித்யமாக ப்ரார்த்தித்தே பெறவேணும்.

Simple meaning: It has to be attained by praying eternally.

vyAkhyAnam: As the matter is of supreme value, as the surrendering sentient soul is absolutely under the control of his Lord, and as service is not possible in the absence of prayer, constant prayer has to be there to obtain it.

sUthram – 177

Introduction: For this to be attained by constant prayers, he gives the reasons:

SEshikku adhiSayaththai viLaikkai SEshabhUthanukku svarUpa lAbhamum prApyamum.
ஶேஷிக்கு அதிஶயத்தை விளைக்கை  ஶேஷபூதனுக்கு ஸ்வரூபலாபமும் ப்ராப்யமும்.

Simple meaning: Creating pleasure out of novelty with service to ISvara (SEshi), is the intrinsic benefit  and prApya for the serving sentient.

vyAkhyanam: That is, as shown by “nA kinchith kurvatha: SEshathvam” (mImAmsaka adage) (there is no SEshathva, for him who does not render service) as anything which is not pleasurable unto him is not possessed of servitude, for the serving sentient it is mandatory that his service is appropriate for his intrinsic nature and also generates a smile of pleasure on his countenance. Therefore, this has to be attained by constant prayer.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 161-170

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 161

prApyAntharaththukku anRu engai.
ப்ராப்யாந்தரத்துக்கு அன்றென்கை.

Simple meaning: Not for prApyam other than this. 

vyAkhyAnam: The measures postulated in the previous sentence (first part of the manthra) are common for the four mundane attainments (dharma, artha etc) and therefore the earlier choice of prApaka is not for  prApya other than this. This is to explain the utility for this, which talks of prApya.    

sUthram – 162

Introduction: In the doubt, why opt for this prApya, leaving aside other prApya, he explains:

upAyAntharangaLai vittuch charamOpAyaththaip paRRinAp pOlE upEyAntharamAna aiSvarya kaivalyangaLai vittu ellaiyAna prApyaththai arththikkiRadhu.

உபாயாந்தரங்களைவிட்டுச் சரமோபாயத்தைப் பற்றினாப்போலே, உபேயாந்தரமான ஐஶ்வர்ய கைவல்யங்களை விட்டு எல்லையான ப்ராப்யத்தை அர்த்திக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: Just like giving up other upAyas to hold on to the ultimate (charama upAya), seeking the pinnacle of upEya [service to ISvaran] giving up the others (of lesser value) like wealth (aiSvarya)  self enjoyment (kaivalya).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, while seeking upAya, in consonance with the intrinsic value of not seeking upAya other than that, karma, gyAna, bhakthi were given up and the final means (charama upAya) sidhdhOpAya [ISvaran’s divine feet] was taken. Similarly in seeking upEya also, aiSvarya, kaivalya etc are given a go by as they are not congruent with the intrinsic value of not being the subject of enjoyment, other than ISvara (ananya bhOgathva).

sUthram – 163

Introduction: Here lOkAchArya repeats the question of those who think it is superfluous to pray unto him: should the sentient seek at all? Doesn’t the all knowing sarvajgyan know his mind?

ivan arththikka vENumO? sarvajgyan ivan ninaivu aRiyAnO ennil.
இவன் அர்த்திக்கவேணுமோ? ஸர்வஜ்ஞன் இவன் நினைவறியானோ? என்னில்.

Simple meaning: Should the sentient seek? Doesn’t the all knowing ISvara know what is in the sentient’s mind?

sUthram – 164

Introduction: For this he says that ISvaran will be pleased to hear his prayers.

ivan pAsuram kEttavARE thiruvuLLam ugakkum.
இவன் பாசுரங்கேட்டாவாறே திருவுள்ளம் உகக்கும்.

Simple meaning: He will be delighted to hear his prayers.

vyAkhyAnam:  Like a mother is pleased to hear the child asking for food after a spell of sickness, ISvaran, being the only real congenital relative, is delighted to see the sentient, who had been from time immemorial plagued by the desire for undesirable prApya, coming to him and praying for this.

sUthram – 165

Introduction: Now, to give the meaning for each word of this (second) sentence, he starts with the word, “SrImathE”:

“SrImathE” – periya pirAttiyArOdE kUdi irundhuLLavanukku.
ஸ்ரீமதே – பெரியபிராட்டியாரோடே கூடியிருந்துள்ளவனுக்கு.

Simple meaning: Unto him, who is with SrI  mahAlakshmi (periya pirAtti).

vyAkhyAnam: Here also, this word gives the same meaning as in the first sentence – both the aspects (she is the lord of all and she is subservient to him), and carries the import of togetherness as in. “mathup”.

sUthram – 166

Introduction: Though in both the places their togetherness is similar, he explains the meaning as per her status.

avan upAyamAmidaththil thAn purushakAramAy irukkum; avan prApyanAmidaththil thAn prApyaiyumAy kainkarya vardhakaiyumAy irukkum.

அவன் உபாயமாமிடத்தில் தான் புருஷகாரமாயிருக்கும்; அவன் ப்ராப்யனாமிடத்தில் தான் ப்ராப்யையுமாய்க் கைங்கர்ய வர்த்தகையுமாயிருக்கும்.

Simple meaning: Where he is the upAya (means), she becomes the recommending authority; where he is prApya (goal), she becomes the prApyai (goal) and enhances the service of the sentient.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, where he is the upAya for the sentient’s obviation of the undesirable and attainment of desirable, she becomes just the recommending authority, facilitating him in not rejecting the sentient for his faults as his upAyathva does not countenance any other parallel. Where he is the prApya in accepting the servitude of the sentient, she also joins him in such acceptance of service, multiplying the impact of such service to his delight.

lOkAchArya has given detailed explanation for this aspect in his grantha “parandhapadi”: “In the first sentence, the word “SrImath” explains how she stays with him for ever, seeing his independence and their [sentient entities’] faults because of which she is concerned that the sentient entities should not be punished but flourish in his proximity; here,  in the second sentence, the word “SrImath” stands to depict her as receiving the service (along with him) and making him feel even the little services are immense, and remains indivisible from him as such separation would be very debilitating to her own existence.”

(Hence her inseparable togetherness with him in the time of the sentient entities seeking their surrender and also rendering service in their exclusive servitude.)

sUthram – 167

Introduction: This latter sentence [in dhvayam] is the explanation for the latter part of thirumanthram.

idhilE thirumanthraththil sonna prApyaththai viSadhamAga anusandhikkiRadhu.
இதிலே திருமந்திரத்தில் சொன்ன ப்ராப்யத்தை விஶதமாக அநுஸந்திக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: In this, the prApya (goal) stated in thirumanthra is repeated, in word and meaning, in great detail.

vyAkhyAnAm: That is, in this word which delivers the meaning “the recipients of the sentient’s services are a couple” etymologically, in thirumanthram, the meaning of  “nArAyanAya”, where the status of the couple is understood by its meaning but not stated clearly, is clearly spelt out. There, while servitude to him exclusively is stated, here such servitude is stated in their togetherness, with emphasis on the lord as SrImAn with his divine consort, and the servant as devoid of his self orientation.   That is why and how this (second) sentence has become explanation for that word.

sUthram – 168

Introduction: But what is the compulsion that service should be offered to  the couple? lOkAchArya says that it is only proper to serve in their togetherness, as was done by iLaiyaperumAL (lakshmaNa).

iLaiya perumALaip pOlE iruvarumAna sErththiyilE adimai seygai muRai.
இளையபெருமாளைப்போலே இருவருமான சேர்த்தியிலே அடிமை செய்கை முறை.

Simple meaning: Like iLaiyaperumAL, service in the togetherness is only appropriate.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated (in SrI rAmAyaNam):

SrI rAmAyaNam-ayOdhyA kANdam 31-25:
“bhavAmsthu saha vaidhEhyA girisAnushu ramsyathE

aham sarvam karishyAmi jAgratha: svapathaScha thE”

(swAmy, you will be playing in the hillside with vaidhEhi. adiyEn willl be at your service whether you are awake or asleep)

Like lakshmaNa rendering service in the togetherness of perumAL and pirAtti, for this sentient also this is appropriate and suitable to his intrinsic nature. As servility to the couple is appropriate, service also is appropriate to the couple.   

sUthram – 169

Introduction: Further, lokAchArya states the difference in service in such togetherness.

adimai thAn sidhdhippadhum rasippadhum achchErththiyilE.   
அடிமைதான் ஸித்திப்பதும் ரஸிப்பதும் அச்சேர்த்தியிலே.

Simple meaning: Attainment of servitude and also bliss out of it are in that togetherness.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, it is she who makes the ISvara to accept and approve the servitude, by her recommendation, without rejecting it, like lakshmaNa got his appeal for service approved and granted just as it has been mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 34-2

sa bhrAthuS charaNau gAdam nibItya raghunandhana:
sIthAmm uvAchAtiyasA: rAghavam cha mahAvratham

(lakshmaNa, who has great fame, firmly held on to the divine feet of his elder brother and appealed to pirAtti; (then) he appealed to SrI rAma too, who has protection of those who surrender to him as a great vow).

SrI rAmAyaNam ayO 15-6:
Evamukthasthu rAmENa lakshmaNa: samyathAnjali:

sIthA samaksham kAkuthstham idham vachanam abravIth

(lakshmaNa told like this by rAma with folded hands; he started telling kAkuthstha the following words in the presence of sIthA)

iLaiyaperumAL with her presence and approval got the service to perumAL suitable to his intrinsic characteristics. And such service to the divine couple in their togetherness is similar to the service rendered by a son to his father and mother.

The sentient’s prayer for service also remains enjoyable, like that of lakshmaNa for SrI rAma and sItha, in their togetherness.

sUthram – 170

Introduction: Now, he goes on to explain the second word, “nArAyanAya”. He gives the meaning for that word.

“nArAyaNAya” – sarva sEshiyAy uLLavanukku.
நாராயணாய – ஸர்வஶேஷியாயுள்ளவனுக்கு.

Simple meaning: nArAyaNAya-for one who is the absolute owner, proprietor.

vyAkhyAnam: As nArAyaNathva indicates ownership of both the worlds, he says that this word means, “for one who is the absolute owner of all”. He is the entitled recipient of service from the sentient. So, he is the “SEshi”, owner, proprietor.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 151-160

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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sUthram – 151

Introduction: But was there a reference to the prApya? He says, all the three mentioned earlier are prApya.

kIzh chonna mUnRum prApyamiRE.
கீழ்ச் சொன்ன மூன்றும் ப்ராப்யமிறே.

Simple meaning: All the three described earlier are prApya.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, all these three namely, the togetherness with SrI mahAlakshmi, the shining auspicious characteristics,  and the resplendent, endearing physical form are prApya as stated in:

“SriyA sArdhdham AsthE” (He is with SrI mahAlakshmi),

SivapurANam SlOkam:

vaikuntEthu parElokE SriyAsArdham jagathpathi:
AsthE vishnurachinthyAthmA bhakthair bhAgavathais saha (Siva purANam)

(vishNu, who is difficult to know,  is gracefully seated in SrI vaikuNtam, the supreme place, with SrIdhEvi, and devotees who are immersed in his divine qualities and deeply rooted in service unto him)

sarvAn kAmAn aSnuthE” (enjoys all the bliss),

thaiththirIya-Anandhavalli 2-2

yO vEdha nihitham guhAyAm paramE vyOman
sO aSnuthe sarvAn kAmAn saha brahmaNA vipaschithEthi

(one who knows the limitless  brahmam as dwelling in paramapadham and also the deep recess of his own heart, enjoys all the auspicious qualities of the omniscient supreme being, with him)

and, yajur-kANdam 4-2-29; rig vEdha vishnu sUktham:

“sadhA paSyanthi” (they see him for ever).

thath vishnO: parama padham sadhA paSyanthi sUraya:

(nithyasUris always see that supreme paramapadham of vishNu.)

These statements confirm that all the three are for his experience and so are prApya (attainable end).

sUthram – 152

Introduction: Then, why does he (AthmA) make these the upAya? For this lOkAchArya says that this is because of his inability (for any more action).

ivan ‘seyalaRudhiyAlE upAyam AkkugiRAn iththanai’.
இவன் செயலறுதியாலே உபாயமாக்குகிறானித்தனை’.

Simple meaning: Because of his inability, he has rendered them as the upAya.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the sentient entity, with nothing to offer and with no other refuge, just like an incapacitated person gives milk, which is food, as medicine, is making bhagavAn, the goal, as the means for attaining him.

sUthram – 153

Introduction: By this he is pointing out the uniqueness of this upAya:

“charaNau SaraNam” engaiyAlE upAyAnthara vyAvruththamAna upAyam engiRadhu.
சரணௌ ஶரணம்என்கையாலே உபாயாந்தர வ்யாவ்ருத்தமான உபாயம் என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By saying, “charaNau SaraNam”, he distinguishes this upAya from all others.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as the prApya itself is referred to as prApaka, this is clearly distinguished from all other upAyas where the prApyams are different from the prApakas.

(In all other instances, the means is different from the end to be attained. But here, the end itself is the means for attaining it, and there lies its uniqueness.)

sUthram – 154

Introduction: Next he gives the meaning for the activity part in the manthra viz “prapadhyE”.

“prapadhyE” – paRRugiREn.
ப்ரபத்யே- பற்றுகிறேன்.

Simple meaning: “prapadhyE”.(I seek).

vyAkhyAnam: As this word is derived from the root “padhagathau”  meaning, “movement”, and as the other entity is supreme, he gives the meaning “I seek” for this word, “prapadhyE”.

sUthram – 155

Introduction: As this can indicate all the three faculties of mind, speech and action, which one does he indicate?

vAchikamAgavum kAyikamAgavum paRRinAlum pERRukku azhivillai (izhavillai); “gyAnAn mOksham” AgaiyAlE mAnasamAgak kadavadhu.

வாசிகமாகவும் காயிகமாகவும் பற்றினாலும் பேற்றுக்கு அழிவில்லை (இழவில்லை); ”ஜ்ஞாநாந் மோக்ஷம்ஆகையாலே, மாநஸமாகக்கடவது.

Simple meaning: Seeking through speech or action does not  obviate the attainment (no loss of the attainment);  as it has been declared, “gyAnAn mOksham” (moksham by gyAnam, knowledge) the seeking is through the mind.

vyAkhyanam: That is, it can be just oral as in the case of the prayer “bhava SaraNam” (be my refuge),

SrIvishNu purANam 3-7-33:
kamalanayana vAsudhEva vishNO dharaNidharAchyutha Sankha chakrapAnE

bhava SaraNamithIriyanthi yE vai thyaja bhata dhUradharENa dhAnapApAn

(Oh, messenger! You should remain far away from those who pray  “Oh lotus eyed lord! Oh vAsudhEva! Oh vishNu! Oh one who sustains the earth! Oh one who does not let go of the followers! and who are without any sins)

or like guhA the hunter or kAkA the demon by folding of hands, as said in

gAruda purANam pUrvakhaNdam 11-26:
anjali: paramA mudhrA kshipram dhEva prasAdhinI

(anjali , the act of folding the hands together, the supreme symbol, pleases the ISvara  very fast)

was staying put at one’s own place.  In both the cases there is no fear for loss or non-attainment of the desired gain. Since the dictum is: “gyAnAn mOksham”

mahAbhAratha-SAnthi 323 mOksha 3-87:
gyAnAn mOkshO jAyathE rAjasimha nAsthyagyA dhEvamAhur narEndhra

thasmAth gyAnam thaththvathO nvEshanIm yEnAthmAnam mOkshayEj janmamruthyO:

(Oh chief among the kings! Salvation is attained only by wisdom (gyAna); never by ignorance (agyAna). Thus spake the wise. So one should seek and gain that wisdom which shall release him from the cycle of births), seeking should be a mental activity. This intellectual aspect has been detailed in his grantham “parandhapadi”: In his grantham SrIya:padhippadi too, lOkAchAryar says that “This intellectual aspect is:

  1. An intellectual activity showing devotion exclusively unto him only, excluding all others.
  2. Absolutely distinct from all other means.
  3. In the form of allowing him to protect us.
  4. Performed once and once only.
  5. An antidote for the delay possible by wavering loyalty.
  6. Available for all by itself.
  7. Without any stipulations/conditions.
  8. Without expecting to be remembered by the sentient during his last moment of this life
  9. Very easy (for chanting, remembering, understanding, and internalizing)
  10. Including in it, the form of begging.
  11. Unshakable trust”

So, this is also to be remembered here

sUthram – 156

Introduction: Is such mental activity alone enough? Should not the surrender be undertaken by all the three faculties, as stated in thiruvAimozhi 6-5-11“sindhaiyAlum”? For these queries lOkAchArya replies:

upAyam avan AgaiyAlum ivai nErE upAyam allAmaiyAlum immUnRum vENum engiRa nirbandham illai.

உபாயம் அவனாகையாலும், இவை நேரே உபாயம் அல்லாமையாலும், இம்மூன்றும் வேணும் என்கிற நிர்ப்பந்தம் இல்லை.

Simple meaning: Since he is the upAya (means), and these others are not directly the upAya, there is no compulsion for all these three.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, upAya for the attainment is ISvara;  since seeking by the three faculties may appear to be upAyams but they are not. For fruition, only acceptance with firm belief is required.

Alternatively – Why is piLLai lOkAchArya specifically speaking about each faculty [in previous sUthram? Why could not he have rejected all three together? For this query he replies starting with “upAyam” [in this sUthram] where the emphasis lies. By this, it appears that seeking by all the three faculties, while not mandatory, such seeking would appear superficially to be the means; however, for attaining the end result, only firm faith through mind is required. In his grantha “parandhapadi” he has himself stated:

“This surrender can be by all the three faculties. They can be by a single faculty also. There will be no harm in attainment of the desired. For the perfection of the performer of the surrender, all the three faculties are required; for the attainment of the desired, single faculty is sufficient, like for perfection of upAya (bhagavAn) togetherness with SrI mahAlakshmi, presence of vAthsalya and other characteristics, and the auspicious form, all these are required.”

sUthram – 157

Introduction: As prapaththi (surrender) is advocated as a one time observance in:

lakshmI thanthram 17-90:

sakrudhEvahi sAsthrArtha: kruthOyam dhArayEnnaram
upAyAbhAsam yOgE nishtayA hIyathEnayA

(This surrender (prapaththi), when done even only once, carries the person across the ocean of births. This great penance slips away by adopting other means or by resorting to prohibited actions) and as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-34

“sakrudhEva prapannAya” (one who surrenders once alone) etc., why is it stated here in present tense?  For this doubt, lOkAchArya says:

varththamAna nirdhEsam sathvam thalai eduththu anjina pOdhu anusandhikkaikkAga.
வர்த்தமான நிர்த்தேஶம்- ஸத்வம் தலையெடுத்து அஞ்சினபோது அநுஸந்திக்கைக்காக.

Simple meaning: It is stated here in present tense, to facilitate the sentient to remember and recount it, when he fears when he is with noble thoughts.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, when he is troubled and confused by rAjasic or thAmasic thoughts and resorts to some upAya but later realises his error, instead of uttering:

lOka vikrAntha charaNau SaraNam thE vrajam vibhO” or

nin adiyiNai adaindhEn“ or

adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEn”,

saying “prapadhyE” in present tense is similar to seeking his pardon, just as it has been said in

lakshmi thanthram 17-91:

“prAyaSchiththiriyam sAthra yath punas SaraNam vrajEth”

ApAya samplavE sadhya: prAyaschiththam samAcharEth
prAyaSchiththiriyam SAsthra yath puna:saraNam vrajEth
upAyAnAmupAyathva svIkArEbhyEvamEva hi

(One should immediately go for propitiation if wrong and proscribed practices occur. Carrying out the act of surrender is propitiation. Even when other means are sought as means for salvation, this is propitiation) and would not amount to repetition of surrender, but remembering the earlier surrender

sUthram – 158

Introduction: He gives a few advantages in this present tense, in surrendering:

upAyAndharangaLil nenju sellAmaikkum, kAlakshEpaththukkum, inimaiyAlE vida oNNAmaiyAlum nadakkum.

உபாயாந்தரங்களில் நெஞ்சு செல்லாமைக்கும், காலக்ஷேபத்துக்கும், இனிமையாலே விடவொண்ணாமையாலும் நடக்கும்.

Simple meaning: This remembrance is done to avoid the mind in getting diverted to other upAya (means), for gainful pastime and because of its  very pleasurable nature.

vyAkhyAnAm: That is, to avoid the mind from reverting to other means due to the earlier practice and habit, to expend the time gainfully as it would be difficult to use time otherwise, and the inability to give it up because of  its enjoyability, this remembrance is bound to be going on uninterruptedly.

sUthram – 159

Introduction: But, otherwise, for attaining the goal (phala) is it necessary to carry it out several times? For this doubt, lOkAchArya says:

pERRukkup palakAlum vENum enRu ninaikkil upAyam nazhuvum.
பேற்றுக்குப் பலகாலும் வேணுமென்று நினைக்கில் உபாயம் நழுவும்.

Simple meaning: If we think that we should be recounting several times, upAya will slip.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, instead of for the advantages cited in the previous SlOkas, if it is carried out several times as part of upAya, it will slip on its own, similar to brahmAsthra which slips on its own once a rope of jute is tied to the person on whom the asthram had been targeted. This is because, sidhdhOpAyam (readily available upAyam) will not tolerate any assistance from other upAyams.

Thus, he has described the meaning for the first sentence (of dhvaya mahAmanthra) of two sentences).

sUthram – 160

Introduction: Now, he starts describing the second sentence, stating that it describes prApyam (goal):

uththara vAkyaththAlE prApyam sollugiRadhu.
உத்தர வாக்யத்தாலே ப்ராப்யம் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: prApyam is stated by the latter sentence.

vyAkhyAnam: prApyam is the service rendered to the divine feet of the lord who is supreme to all (swAmy), god of all gods (sarvEsvara), divine consort of SrI mahAlakshmi (Sriya:pathi).

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 141-150

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full series


sUthram – 141

Introduction: Can we see these characteristics in archAvathAra?
lOkAchArya says: we can see all of them in namperumAL.

ivai ellAm namakku namperumAL pakkalilE kANalAm.
இவையெல்லாம் நமக்கு நம்பெருமாள் பக்கலிலே காணலாம்.

Simple meaning: We can see all these for ourselves  in namperumAL.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, these auspicious characteristics, displayed for (sentient’s) convenience [to attain him] and (his) acts of fulfilling their desires, can be seen in our namperumAL, us  who are desirous to see.

sUthram – 142

Introduction: Next, lOkAchArya cites the characteristics which highlight these qualities in the divine form of namperumAL,  and says that namperumAL who is standing with these is our refuge.

thirukkaiyilE pidiththa dhivyAyuthangaLum, vaiththu anjal enRa kaiyum, kaviththa mudiyum, mugamum muRuvalum, AsanapadhmaththilE azhuththina thiruvadigaLumAy niRkiRa nilaiyE namakkuth thanjam.

திருக்கையிலே பிடித்த திவ்யாயுதங்களும், வைத்து அஞ்சல் என்ற கையும், கவித்த முடியும், முகமும் முறுவலும், ஆஸநபத்மத்திலே அழுத்தின திருவடிகளுமாய் நிற்கிற நிலையே நமக்குத் தஞ்சம்.

Simple meaning: The divine weapons he holds in his divine hands, the hand that comforts the devout not to fear, the crown sitting majestically on his head, the alluring face and the enchanting smile, the benevolent feet struck firmly on the seat of lotus, all combining into his poise, is our only refuge.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the divine conch and the divine disc (Sankha and chakra) held in his hands symbolising the gyAna and Sakthi deployed in the activities for protection, the divine held to assure the sentient not to fear, symbolising vAthsalyam,  the long divine crown on his divine head highlighting his svAmithvam, the face and smile depicting his sauSeelya, his divine feet firmly fixed on the seat of lotus to be seen by all and at once taken as refuge indicating his saulabhya – all these go to give protection to us who have no other refuge.

sUthram – 143

Introduction: For those who are rooted in the upEya (the goal, the lord) as the upAya (means to attain), both these  are available in his divine form as signs of his attribute of rakshakathva (being the protector) and bhOgyathva (being the source of bliss, enjoyableness).

rakShakathva bhOgyathvangaL iraNdum thirumEniyilE thORRum.
ரஷகத்வ போக்யத்வங்கள் இரண்டும் திருமேனியிலே தோற்றும்.

Simple meaning: Both his rakshakathva and bhOgyathva appear in his divine form.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, his rakshakathvam is displayed in the divine weapons held by the divine hands and the glorious crown on his head as stated in thiruvAimozhi 8-3-6 ”aniyAr  Azhiyum Sankhamum Endhum“ (holding the beautiful disc and conch) and thiruvAimozhi 3-1-1 “mudich chOdhiyAi unadhu mugach chOdhi malarndhadhuvO “(did the luster of your face grow up to blossom as your crown?”) as aids for protection; the comforting hand asking not to fear, the face and the smile and the feet pressed to the lotus of seat indicate the bhOgyathva (enjoyability) as each of these is the boundary for his deivine beauty. Thus, lOkAchArya described the meaning of the word “nArAyaNa”.

sUthram – 144

Introduction: Now, he proceeds to describe the word, “charaNau“.

“charaNau” – thiruvadigaLai.
சரணௌ – திருவடிகளை.

Simple meaning: “charaNau”…the feet.

He describes the meaning obtained by this word of dual plurality [reference to the two divine feet].

sUthram – 145

iththAl sErththi azhagaiyum upAya pUrththiyaiyum sollugiRadhu.
இத்தால் சேர்த்தியழகையும், உபாய பூர்த்தியையும் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: By this the beauty of their togetherness and completion of upAya (being the means) are stated.

vyAkhyAnam: By referring to the two feet, as in “iNaith thAmarai adi”, they look beautiful and captivating like two lotus flowers in their full bloom. Also this pair rejects the possibility of another as a helping agency as it won’t countenance such upAyAnthara which is another means other than itself. Hence its perfection as the means: upAya pUrthi.

sUthram – 146

Introduction: Now he proceeds to describe its exclusive characteristic of being the singular means (upAya) [for the attainment (upEya).]

pirAttiyum avanum vidilum thiruvadigaL vidAdhu; thiN kazhalAy irukkum.
பிராட்டியும் அவனும் விடிலும் திருவடிகள் விடாது; திண்கழலாயிருக்கும்.

Simple meaning: Even if pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) and he give up the sentient entity, the feet would not; they would be firm (thiN kazhal).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, even if pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) who is described in Srimadh bhAgavatham as the who recommends for the sentient beings complains to ISvara about them as in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-9-2 “thannadiyAr thiRaththagaththuth thAmaiyALAgilum sidhaiguraikkumEL” (even if SrI mahAlakshmi who sits on the lotus flower complaints about the followers of ISvara), or he, who is with all the auspicious qualities and who tells her in response “ennadiyAr adhu seyyAr seydhArEl nanRu seydhAr” (my follower will not do that; even if he did, it was only for a good cause) lets go of the sentient being, the divine feet [of ISvaran] would not betray the devout. They are “thiN kazhal”, strong feet.

sUthram – 147

Introduction: Besides this overwhelming influence of the auspicious characteristics, by his very intrinsic nature the sentient being is to be devout to his feet. lOkAchArya explains this with an example:

SEshi pakkal SEshabhUthan izhiyum thuRai; prajai mulaiyilE vAy vaikkumA pOlE.
ஶேஷிபக்கல் ஶேஷபூதன் இழியும் துறை; ப்ரஜை முலையிலே வாய் வைக்குமாபோலே.

Simple meaning: The attitude of the sentient surrendering unto the feet of the lord is similar to a nursing child seeking the mother’s bosom.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the sentient entity who is aware of his position as the servant of ISvaran, out of intrinsic nature always reaches for his feet, just as the infant which is still suckling always reaches only for the mother’s bosom for sustenance, though other limbs too are available..

sUthram – 148

Introduction: What is said of the feet is applicable to the entire divine body of ISvaran.

iththAl, pirAttikku iruppidamAy guNaprakASagamumAy SiSubAlanaiyum agappadath thiruththich chErththuk koLLum thirumEniyai ninaikkiRadhu.

இத்தால், பிராட்டிக்கு இருப்பிடமாய், குணப்ரகாஶகமுமாய், ஶிஶுபாலனையும் அகப்படத் திருத்திச் சேர்த்துக்கொள்ளுந் திருமேனியை நினைக்கிறது

Simple meaning: By this, we are reminded of the effulgent and divine thirumEni (physical form) of ISvaran’s which is the residence for SrI mahAlakshmi, the generating source for all auspicious characteristics, that attracted even SiSubAla and granted him remedy.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by referring to the feet the word “charaNau” it does not just stop with referring to a small part of the divine form, the divine eet alone, but to the divine auspicious form SrIman nArAyaNa, as said in mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 57 “thiru irundha mArvan”(the one with SrI mahAlakshmi, who has the recommendatory role, dwelling on his divine chest).  He is the repository for SrI mahAlakshmi, and also all the characteristics stated in the word “nArAyaNa” [as seen in sUthram 136]. It includes SiSupAlan who is mentioned of in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-3-5 “alavalamai thIrtha azhagan” (one who has the beauty and who mercifully forgave SiSupAlan for all his silly rants) who was forgiven by krishNa and given refuge by manifesting his physical beauty, just as it has been mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 7-5-3 “thiruvadi thAtpAladaindha” ((SiSupAlan who) took refuge under the divine feet). Such is the compassionate nature of ISvaran that he includes even the bitterest enemy in his grace.

sUthram – 149

Introduction: Next lOkAchArya gives the meaning of the word “SaraNam”

“SaraNam” – ishta prApthikkum anishta nivAraNaththukkum thappAdha upAyamAga.
ஶரணம் – இஷ்டப்ராப்திக்கும் அநிஷ்ட நிவாரணத்துக்கு தப்பாத உபாயமாக.

Simple meaning: SaraNam, as an unfailing means (upAya) for attaining the desired and obviating the undesired.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated in ahirbudhnya samhithai 36-36:

“upAyE gruha rakshithrO: Sabdha: SaraNam ithyayam
varthathE sAmpratham chaisha upAya arthaika vAchaka:”

(The word Saranam has three meanings:’ means’, ‘house’ and ‘protector’; here, the4 word SaraNam refers only to ‘means’)

though the word “SaraNam” would also mean the protected, house and means (upAya), here it refers only to ‘means’ (upAya) as the purpose of upAya is fulfilling the desires and obviating the obstacles. Hence he refers to it here as the unfailing means for attaining the desired and obviating undesired.  To the query as to what are the desirables and what are the undesirables, lOkAchArya states very elaborately in his grantham “paranthapadi”. Also, in his Sriya:pathippadi, he states:”undesirables are: ignorance (avidhya), attachment and enmity (rAga, dhvEsha) out of such avidhya, activities (karma) which are virtues or vices (puNya, pApa), the four classification of sentient entities (of celestials, humans, animals, and  plants), the trails of sufferings (like AdhyAthmika, Adhidhaivika and Adhibaudhika, suffering caused by self, caused by deities and caused by nature, respectively). The desirables are: travelling in the archirAdhi mArga (after the sentient is freed from the earthly body), attainment of the eternal supreme abode, namely SrIvaikuNtam, dharSan (vision) of the supreme lord (SrIman nArAyaNa), and servitude towards enjoyment of his characteristics” briefly.  These are to be taken as stated here also.

sUthram – 150

Introduction: Now he explains the meaning behind terming the indicated entity as upAyam.

iththAl prApyam thAnE prApagam, engiRadhu.
இத்தால், ப்ராப்யந் தானே ப்ராபகம், என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this, the prApyam itself is shown to be the prApakam.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, what was earlier stated to be the prApya (attainable goal) itself is the prApaka (means for attaining it).

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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