Category Archives: mumukshuppadi

mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 271-278

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 271

Introduction: To the question, how is this possible, he says:

karmamkainkaryaththilEpugum; gyAnam-svarUpaprakASaththilEpugum; bakthiprApyaruchiyilEpugum; prapaththisvarUpayAthAthmyagyAnaththilEpugum.

கர்மம் கைங்கர்யத்திலேபுகும்; ஜ்ஞாநம்- ஸ்வரூபப்ரகாஶத்திலேபுகும்; பக்திப்ராப்யருசியிலேபுகும்; ப்ரபத்திஸ்வரூபயாதாத்ம்யஜ்ஞாநத்திலேபுகும்.

Simple meaning: karma enters service (kainkaryam); gyAna enters enlightenment of the self (svarUpa prakASam); bhakthi enters taste for the attainable (prApya ruchi); surrender (prapaththi) enters knowledge about the true status of the self (svarUpa yAthAthmya gyAnam).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, whatever mandated act he performs in accordance with his varNa and ASrama, as it is done not as an act expecting some results but as an offering to ISvaran in all humility, it is very much to his liking and so enters service (kainkaryam).  The subtle knowledge that visualizes ISvaran’s svarUpa, being intellectual in nature, enters the divine knowledge facilitating such vision once the consciousness of result oriented self-propulsion slips out. As stated in

SrI bhagavath gIthA  11-54:
bhakthyA thvananyA Sakya ahamEvam vidhOrjuna
gyAthum dhrashtum cha thaththvEna pravEshtum cha paranthapa

(Oh arjuna! Vanquisher of enemies! I, of such qualities, can be truly known, seen, and entered into only by devotion (bhakti) which does not expect anything in return)

Like hunger for food, this will enter the taste (ruchi) for service. prapaththi  (surrender) in the form of seeking the attainable with undivided servitude enters the absolute and true nature of the sentient (svarUpa yAthAthmya) which is total dependence on ISvaran and having only ISvaran as refuge.


sUthram – 272

Introduction: Of these, bhakthi and prapaththi, which is the instrument for him to attain his goal (pala), if both are removed?

Oru palaththukku ariyavazhiyaiyum, eLiya vazhiyaiyum upadhESikkaiyAlE, ivai iraNdum ozhiya bagavath prasAdhamE upAyamAgak kadavadhu.

ஒரு பலத்துக்கு அரிய வழியையும், எளிய வழியையும் உபதேஶிக்கையாலே, இவை இரண்டும் ஒழிய பகவத்ப்ரஸாதமே உபாயமாகக்கடவது.

Simple meaning: Since for the same result, both an easy route and a difficult route are taught, leaving these two aside, only his grace (bhagavath prasAdha) has to be the means (upAya).

vyAkhyAnam: For the single gain of bhagavath prApthi (attaining bhagavAn), as stated in the lag:hvathri smruthi -1:

“janmAnthara sahasrEshu thapO gyAna samAdhibhi:
narANam kshINa pApAnAm krishNE bhakthi: prajAyathE”,

being achieved in thousands of births by the integral parts of karma and gyAna is the difficult bhakthi mArga; by giving  up all the means as stated in “sarva dharmAn parithyajya” in a singular observance (sakruth anushtEyam) is prapaththi mArga. As his grace alone is the real desire, neither the difficult bhakthi nor the easy prapaththi, but may bhagavath prasAdha only be the means.


sUthram – 273

Introduction: Yet, should there not be something from sentient’s side for his attainment?  lOkAchArya replies to this query:

pERRukku vENduvadhu – vilakkAmaiyum irappum.
பேற்றுக்கு வேண்டுவது – விலக்காமையும் இரப்பும்.

Simple meaning: For attainment, avoidance and praying alone are required.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, for the fruition of attainment (phalasidhdhi), the sentient should have two qualifications:

  1. Not avoiding  ISvaran when he comes for protection through his own efforts and
  2. Praying to make it the end benefit

sUthram – 274

Introduction: Other than these, will it not be fine if he [sentient] also has some auspicious deeds to offer from his side? lOkAchArya says that is not to his [ISvaran’s] liking.

chakravarththith thirumagan, pApaththOdE varilum amaiyumenRAn; ivan puNyaththaip pogattu vara vENum enRAn.

சக்ரவர்த்தித் திருமகன், பாபத்தோடேவரிலும் அமையுமென்றான்; இவன், புண்யத்தைப் பொகட்டு வரவேணுமென்றான்.

Simple meaning: chakravarthi thirumagan (SrI rAma) said that it is acceptable if one comes with sins to surrender; krishNa said that one should discard the dhamas (virtuous acts) before coming to surrender.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, SrIrAma, who is described as in

SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 37-13:
rAmO vigrahavAn dharma: sAdhu: sathya parAkrama:
rAjA sarvasya lOkasya dhEvAnAm maghavAniva

(SrI rAma is the embodiment of dharma; he possesses good character; he is truly valiant; he is the king of all the worlds just as indhra is for celestial entities);

Such SrI rAma said in

SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-35:
Anayainam  hari SrEshta thaththamasyAbhayam mayA
vibhIshaNO vA sugrIva! yadhi vA rAvaNa svayam

(Oh sugrIva! The best among vAnaras! Bring him here! Whether it is vibhIshaNa or rAvaNa himself, he is granted refuge by me), even if the entity who surrenders is the sinner rAvaNa, please bring him. Thus, he did not consider sin a reason for rejection, but krishNa, who said “sarva dharmAn parithyajya”, said “for attainment, discard the auspicious acts which you feel are the way for attainment”, because:

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 86-26:
yEcha vEdhavidhOviprA: yEchAdhyAthmavidhO janA:
thE vadhanthi mahAthmAnam krishNam dharmam sanAthanam

(those who know the vEdhams as well as the scholars who are thorough in vEdhAntha, say krishNa is the most ancient form of dharma.)

is how krishNa is described as dharmA itself and as he is ‘sahAyAnthara samsarga asahan’ can’t tolerate another means to attain him, except himself, says so.


sUthram – 275

Introduction: For one who is immersed in this concept, he can either uplift himself or perish as a non-believer, says lOkAchArya quoting embAr, a preceptor.

“AsthiganAy ivvarthaththil ruchi viSvAsangaLai udaiyanAy ujjIviththal, nAsthiganAy naSiththal ozhiya naduvil nilai illai” – enRu bhattarukku embAr aruLichcheydha vArththai.

”ஆஸ்திகனாய் இவ்வர்த்தத்தில் ருசி விச்வாஸங்களுடையனாய் உஜ்ஜீவித்தல், நாஸ்திகனாய்நஶித்தல் ஒழிய நடுவில் நிலையில்லை” என்று பட்டர்க்கு எம்பார் அருளிச் செய்த வார்த்தை.

Simple meaning: embAr told bhattar: “One should either uplift oneself with taste and trust in this concept or perish without believing; there is no middle path”.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, to SrI parASarabhattar, the renowned SAsthragna, his AchArya SrI embAr said “One who is rooted in this concept believes that this is true by bhagavAn’s greatness and develops a taste in it; he gets uplifted due to the deep belief in it. One who feels that all SAsthras are on one side and this SlOka the opposite, perishes since he does not believe in this and does not approve of it; there is no midway”.


sUthram – 276

Introduction: lOkAchArya says that for one who does not have complete belief it this, engagement with it will be cause for his ruin, through an example.

vyavasAyam illAdhavanukku idhil anvayam, Amaththil bhOjanam pOlE.
வ்யவஸாயம் இல்லாதவனுக்கு இதில் அந்வயம், ஆமத்தில்போஜநம்போலே.

Simple meaning: For one with no faith in this, participation is like eating with indigestion.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, for one who does not have faith, engagement with this SlOka would be cause for his ruin, just like a person eating when suffering from indigestion, as it could lead to death.


sUthram – 277

Introduction: lOkAchArya mercifully explains as to who qualify for this through ANdAL’s pAsuram.

“vittuchiththarkEttiruppar” engiRapadiyE adhikArigaLniyathar.
“விட்டுசித்தர்கேட்டிருப்பர்” என்கிறபடியே அதிகாரிகள் நியதர்.

Simple meaning: Authorities who are like “vittu chiththar kEttiruppar” are destined for this.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as AndAl says in her nAchiyArthirumozhi pAsuram 11-10, about her father:

“semmai udaiya thiruvarangar thAmpaNiththa
meymaip peru vArththai vittuchiththar kEttiruppar”,

(periyAzhwAr would have heard the great words of SrI ranganAtha, who has eminent quality and who had mercifully spoken of the true words, the charama SlOkam, and would have conducted himself in line with that). That is, the one who is reclining in srirangam as the meaning of the words, and is perfect in all the three faculties (manO, vAk, kAyam; mind, speech and physical), came to the battlefield for the sake of arjuna and asserted on the chariot, the most apt, easy to adopt and altruistic aphorism “mAm Ekam SaraNam vraja”. periyAzhvAr would have heard this and would have been deeply engaged with that dictum. Those who live accordingly, hearing this SlOkam, would also be firmly engaged with it.


sUthram – 278

Introduction: lOkAchArya concludes this dhivya grantham by quoting from the SrIsUkthis of AzhwArs to elaborate on this:

“vArththaiaRibavar” engiRapAttum, “aththanAgi” engiRa pAttum idhukku arththamAga anusandhEyam.

”வார்த்தையறிபவர்” என்கிற பாட்டும், “அத்தனாகி” என்கிற பாட்டும் இதுக்கு அர்த்தமாக அநுஸந்தேயம்.

Simple meaning: The two pAsurams , “vArththai aRibavar”, and “aththanAgi” are to be remembered as meaning for this (SlOka).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, nammazhvAr’s pAsuram thiruvAimozhi 7-5-10

vArththai aRibavar mAyavaRku ALanRi AvarO
pOrththa piRappodu nOyodu mUppodu iRappavai
pErththup perundhunbam veraRa nIkkith than thALinaik kIzhch
chErththu avan seyyum sEmaththai eNNith theLivuRRE

Will those who know the great words “sarva papEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi” be surrendered to anyone other than to him, who destroys the several births this soul is cursed with, the diseases that plague the bodies in these countless births, suffering from old age which falls like thunder and the ultimate nemesis that overtakes them [death] and even if they escape these, removing the unbearable abyss of kaivalya where the AthmAs enjoy themselves, but takes them in under his own feet such that they do not have to take another birth, and who is the entity that they have to reach, thinking of his protection and his ability to remove their enemies?

In thirumazhisai AzhvAr’s pAsuram thiruchchandha viruththam 115, “aththanAgi“ this opinion is expressed as follows:

aththanAgi annaiyAgi ALum embirAnumAy
oththovvAdha pal piRappozhiththu nammai AtkoLvAn
muththanAr mugundhanAr pugundhu nammuL mEvinAr
eththinAl idarkkadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE

Making us, nithya samsAris equal to the nithya mukthas though we are steeped in the odour of earthly life, he uplifts us, as all souls are equal in the form of knowledge though differing in body as celestials, humans etc and accepts us with the love of a mother, concern of a father, and as the master to have us as his slaves; without looking at his greatness or our pettiness, he carries our entire burden on himself; yet he is with us as if we befit this status! Oh ignorant mind! Are we good to know what is ideal for us? Or is he unwise to know that? Are we capable to ensure our welfare or is he incapable? When he is ready to accept you in his service, without looking at his eminence, coming down to our level to help us, why are you immersed in the ocean of sorrows?

Thus, the dharmas to be given up as part of surrender (svIkArAngathayA thyAjyam), the giving up of these dharmas, his saulabhya etc., as part of his acceptance, his expecting no other means for this seeking (upAya nairapEkshya), his characteristics of being upAya, seeking him only, as means (upAya), the gyAna and Sakthi of the accepted upAya, the characteristics of the sentient thus surrendering to him, the clusters of inauspicious sins that plague as virOdhis, the way these sins are liquidated, the absolutely care free light heartedness of such a sentient soul have been summarised.

                                charama SlOka prakaraNam sampUrNam.

emberumAnAr, lOkAchArya, jIyar thiruvadigalE SaraNam.

                        mumukshuppadi mAmunigaL vyAkhyAnam sampUrNam


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 261-270

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 261

Introduction: Announcing that he is ready to dispel his obstacles and keep off his sorrow, lOkAchArya quotes from another authority:

“eththinAl idark kadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE” engiRAn.
‘எத்தினாலிடர்க் கடற்கிடத்தியேழை நெஞ்சமே’ என்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: He says, “eththinAl idark kadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE”.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, thirumazhisai AzhvAr addresses his own heart, in thiruchchandha viruththam 115: “Since ISvara has entered you, taking upon himself the responsibility of removing the obstacle and accepting you in his servitude, why are you immersed in the ocean of sorrow?”  Here, he says the same thing to arjuna who is grieving.


sUthram – 262

Introduction: Now lOkAcharya conveys one distinguished opinion of bhagavAn’s to remove his sorrow without trace.

pApangaLai nAn poRuththup puNyam enRu ninaippidA niRka, nI sOgikkak kadavaiyO?
பாபங்களை நான் பொறுத்துப் புண்யமென்று நினைப்பிடா நிற்க, நீ ஶோகிக்கக்கடவையோ?

Simple meaning: Should you grieve when I bear your sins as auspicious?

vyAkhyAnam: That is, first I made your sins the subject of my forgiveness, and then out of my affection (vAthsalya) I took them as auspicious instead of sins, just as it has been said in thiruchchandha viruththam 111 “seydha kuRRam naRRamAgavE koL” (consider my faults as good) and periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-9-2 “seydhArEl nanRu seydhAr” (even if he had done (an evil act), it is good only) . And yet should you be grieving?

Thus by the five words in the second half of the SlOka,

  1. the characteristics of the comfort provider (nivarthaka svarUpa);
  2. surrender of the person comforted (nivarthya  ASraya);
  3. sins that are dispelled (nivarthya pApas);
  4. the way they are dispelled (nivarthya prakAra); and
  5. the resultant removal of grief (SOka nivruththi) have been described.

sUthram – 263

Introduction: Now lOkAchArya proceeds to bring this text to its end, highlighting  the following aspects in sequential order:

  1. the rarity of one getting interested (taste) in knowing the meaning of this SlOka;
  2. the focus (central theme) of the SlOka;
  3. the difficulty in developing faith in the SlOka;
  4. the reason for ISvara not teaching this in the beginning itself;
  5. the reason for the vEdhas mandating other means (upAyas);
  6. why it is not a fault if we give up these means as per our intrinsic characteristic (of SEshathva);
  7. since they are congruent for different reasons, they are not to be given up as per the sentient’s intrinsic characteristic;
  8. upAya for the attainment;
  9. the prerequisite needed on the part of the sentient for the attainment;
  10. the sentient’s auspicious deeds are not to the liking of ISvara;
  11. either survive with absolute faith etc., in this meaning or get destroyed;
  12. One who is not fully faithful in the principle, if engages in this, will be ruined and
  13. those who are eligible for this.

Of these, to highlight the importance of a sentient to develop a taste (interest, ruchi) in this, he cites a narrative of the times of SrI rAmAnuja.

uyyakkoNdAr vishayamAga udaiyavar aruLich cheydha vArththaiyai smarippadhu.
உய்யக்கொண்டார் விஷயமாக உடையவர் அருளிச்செய்த வார்த்தையை ஸ்மரிப்பது.

Simple meaning: Here, one should remember the words spoken by udaiyavar (rAmAnuja) to  (his disciple) uyyakkoNdAr.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, SrI uyyakkoNdAr, who had established truthfulness [about ISvaran] was oriented in bhakthi (as a means). SrI rAmAnuja, his AchArya was interested in making him realise the meaning of this SlOka, and so explained it in detail. SrI uyyakkoNdAr said, “swAmy! The meaning of this SlOka is very beautiful. Yet, I am not having the taste and keenness to abide by this, giving up bhakthi nishtA“.   SrI rAmAnuja told him: “Since you are a scholar, you agreed to the meaning of the SlOka; but since you do not have the grace of the lord, you do not have the taste for this”.


sUthram – 264

Introduction: Now, he goes on to explain the focus of this SlOka.

idhukku ISvara svAthanthryaththilE nOkku.
இதுக்கு ஈஶ்வர ஸ்வாதந்த்ர்யத்திலே நோக்கு.

Simple meaning: It has the independence of  ISvara as its focus.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, this SlOka, which is an authority on its own and is juxtaposed with all SAsthras,  has as its focus the independence (svAthantrya) of the lord, which can facilitate all the dharmas [here, this would refer to all the other upAyas] to be completely let go of, making him [ISvaran] as the sAdhanam [readily available upAyam] for the sentient, without expecting any assistance and providing the means for the sentient to reach him.


sUthram – 265

Introduction: Now he describes the difficulty in gaining faith in this.

‘idhu thAn anuvAdha kOtiyilE’ enRu vangippuraththu nambi vArththai.
“இதுதான் அநுவாதகோடியிலே” என்று வங்கிப்புரத்து நம்பி வார்த்தை.

Simple meaning: “This is part of repeating what is already known”, says, vangipurathu nambi.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the meaning of this SlOka is a repetition of what is already known, says vangipurathu nambi (who was rAmAnujar’s disciple and confidante). 


sUthram – 266

Introduction: What is the reason for this?

arjunan, krishNanudaiya AnaiththozhilgaLAlum, rishigaL vAkyangaLAlum, krishNan than kAryaththilE adhikariththuk koNdu pOrugaiyAlum, ivanE namakkuth thanjzam enRu thuNindha pinbu thannaip paRRach chollugaiyAlE.

அர்ஜுநன், க்ருஷ்ணனுடைய ஆனைத் தொழில்களாலும், ருஷிகள் வாக்யங்களாலும், க்ருஷ்ணன் தன் காரியத்திலே அதிகரித்துக் கொண்டு போருகையாலும், இவனே நமக்குத் தஞ்சமென்று துணிந்த பின்பு தன்னைப்பற்றச் சொல்லுகையாலே.

Simple meaning: This is so (repetition of previously known information), because (a) he asks us to seek him as refuge, (b) arjuna has now decided to do so due to krishNa’s magnificent deeds, (c) of the words of rishis and (d) krishNa is engaged in his (arjuna’s) acts.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, arjuna, the ideal person for this SlOka, has known krishNa right from his childhood for his humanly impossible activities, helping him in his life in the city as well as forests; and also the statements of sages who are experts in the philosophy of the supreme and ordinary, such as:

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 86-24; harivamSam 133-62:

Esha nArAyaNa: SrImAn kshIrArNava nikEthana:
nAga paryankam uthsrujya hyAgathO mathurAm purIm

(This very Sriman NArAyana who is reclining in the kshIrasAgara has left his bed of AdhiSEshan and come down to mathurApuri.)

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 86-25:

“puNyA dhwAravathI yathra thathrAsthehE madhusUdhana:
sAkshAth dhEva: purANOsau sahi  dharma: sanAthana:”

(madhusUdhana is there where the most auspicious and sacred dhwArakA is situated; he is the natural and most ancient entity; also he is the most ancient dharma.)

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 88-27:

“yathra nArAyaNO dhEva: paramAthmA sanAthana:
thathra  krithsnam jagath pArtha thIrthAn yAyatha nAni cha”

(Oh pArtha! Wherever the most ancient and divine nArAyaNa is, there all the worlds, all sacred thIrthas [divine water bodies], and temples exist.)

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 86-26:

“yE cha vEdha vidhO viprA: yE chAdhyAthma vidhO janA:
thE vadhanthi mahAthmAnam krishNam dharmam sanAthanam”

(brahmaNas who know the vEdhas, and scholars who know the vEdhAntha say that only krishNa is the oldest form of dharma, that is, sanAthana dharma.)

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 86-27:

“pavithrAnAm hi gOvindha: pavithram paramuchyathE
puNyAnAmapi puNyOsau mangaLAnAncha mangaLam”

(gOvindha is praised as the most auspicious among sacred entities which render us sacred; he alone makes the sacred things such, and he is the auspicious among all auspicious entities)

mAhAbhAratham sabhA parvam 41-23:

“krishNa Evahi lOkAnAm uthpaththirapi chApyaya:
krishNasya hi kruthE bhUtham idham viSvam charAcharam“

(Is it not krishNa who alone creates and destroys all the worlds? Do not all the immovable and mobile entities, making all this world, belong to him?)

It is after knowing all this that arjuna knew that it is not these means (upAyas) which were his refuge but he [ISvaran], and hence his statement, “seek me as refuge”.


sUthram – 267

Introduction: Now he gives the reason for ISvaran not teaching this in the beginning itself.

puRambu piRandhadhellAm, ivan nenjai SOdhikkaikkAga.
புறம்பு பிறந்தது எல்லாம், இவன் நெஞ்சை ஶோதிக்கைக்காக.

Simple meaning: What were also stated besides, was to test his thinking.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, when krishNa starts teaching arjuna at his request:

SrI bhagavath gIthA 2-7:

kArpaNya dhOshopahathasvabhAva: pruchchAmi thvAm dharma sammUda chethA:
yaS SrEyasyAn nischitham brUhi thanmE sishyasthEham SAdhi mAm thvAm prapannam

(Spoilt by the fault of narrow mindedness because of which I had lost my well-being without knowing the righteous thing, I seek your help. Please tell me that which shall definitely yield me the best result. I am your disciple. Please grant me the right sense as I have surrendered to you)

He taught in very great details about other means (upAyAntharam), to test arjuna’s mind  whether things would stop with those [for arjuna] and whether by seeing the faults in those means he would become qualified for this upAyam.


sUthram – 268

Introduction: But was it he who taught these other means by way of testing his mind?  Then why did the vEdhas prescribe them?

vEdha purushan upAyAntharangaLai vidhiththadhu, koNdip pasuvukkuth thadi katti viduvAraip pOlE, ahankAra mamakArangaLAl vandha kaLippaRRu svarUpa gyAnam piRakkaikAga.

வேதபுருஷன் உபாயந்தரங்களை விதித்தது, கொண்டிப் பசுவுக்குத் தடிகட்டி விடுவாரைப்போலே, அஹங்கார மமகாரங்களால் வந்த களிப்பு அற்று ஸ்வரூபஜ்ஞாநம் பிறக்கைக்காக.

Simple meaning: vEdhas prescribed them to control him [sentient] from his own sense of self,  to enable the enlightenment of self, devoid of such mental obstacles and belonging (ahankAra mamakAra), like binding a fat unruly cow.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, vEdhas, which are very dear, impartial and totally reliable to the sentient beings for mOksha, had given these mandates:

bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 6-4-21:

“thamEva dhIrO vigyAya pragyAm kurvItha brAhmaNa:
nAnudhyAyAth bahUn SabdhAn vAchO viklAbanam hi thath”

(one who is well versed in the vEdham because of the knowledge thus gained should meditate only on that supreme entity by hearing and memorising. He should not even think of those words which do not talk about him, since  thinking about  such words would tantamount to just scorching those words)

muNdaka upanishath 2-2-6:
OmithyEva dhyAyathAthmAnam swasthi va: pArAya thamasa: parasthAth”

(To attain the supreme being beyond prakruthi (primordial matter), meditate on the supreme being as “Om”; this will bring you benefits)

bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 3-4-15:
“AthmAnameEva lOkamupAsItha”

(meditate on the supreme paramAthmA who is apt to be seen)

bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 6-5-6:
AthmA vA arE dhrashtavya: SrOthavyO manthavyO nidhidhyAsithavya:”

(the supreme being who is apt to be heard about and thought of, is apt to be meditated upon and seen). 

Though these are other means (upAyAnthara), to regulate this sentient entity whose sensory organs drag him along, like controlling a fat cow which roams all over the fields eating at random without any control, to rein in his ahankAra and mamakAra which are major hurdles in his seeking the refuge, and make him realise that:

laghvathri smruthi 1:
janmAnthara sahasrEshu thapO gyAna samAdhibhi:
narANAm kshINa pApAnAm krishnE bhakthi prajAyathE

(after observing karma gyAna bhakthi yoga in several thousands of births, men get devotion unto Krishna, their sins being wiped out) such pride-giving observances of meditation, chanting, performance of acts for control of sensory organs etc shoud lead to the attainment of servitude to him with total dependence on him and not to  happiness in such mere acquisitions.


sUthram – 269

Introduction: But is giving up these aspects which pave the way for enlightenment about svarUpa gyAna, not a fault on the part of the sentient?

sanyAsi munbuLLavaRRai vidumA pOlE ivvaLavu piRandhavan ivaRRai vittAl kuRRam vArAdhu.
ஸந்யாஸி முன்புள்ளவற்றை விடுமாபோலே இவ்வளவு பிறந்தவன் இவற்றைவிட்டால் குற்றம் வாராது.

Simple meaning: Just as an ascetic (sanyAsi) giving up all that he already had is not wrong, (for the sentient) giving up these will not be fault.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, like a person entering the vow of sanyAsa ASrama giving up the acts relevant to his earlier status will not be at fault, a sentient who attained the wisdom about his intrinsic characteristics and left the acts that were opposed to the sidhdhOpAya, will not be at fault.


sUthram – 270

Introduction: lOkAchArya says that since these get merged with other forms later, there is no harm to his svarUpam (basic nature)

ivan thAn ivai thannai nErAga vittilan.
இவன்தான் இவை தன்னை நேராக விட்டிலன்.

Simple meaning: Even so, he did not give up these just for the sake of giving up.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, this sentient has not given up karma gyAna etc., in their nature, but only as a prelude to seeking and obtaining the attainable sidhdha sAdhana.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 251-260

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 251

Introduction: Now he describes the word “sarva”.

thruNachchEdha kaNdUyanAdhigaLaippOlE prakruthi vAsanaiyAlE anuvarthikkumavai enna, lOkApavAdha bhIthiyAlum,karuNaiyAlum, kalakkaththAlum seyyumavai enna,  ellAvaRRaiyum ninaikkiRadhu.

த்ருணச்சேத கண்டூயநாதிகளைப்போலே ப்ரக்ருதி வாஸனையாலே அநுவர்த்திக்குமவையென்ன, லோகாபவாதபீதியாலும், கருணையாலும், கலக்கத்தாலும் செய்யுமவையென்ன, எல்லாவற்றையும் நினைக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: All acts like splitting a blade of grass or scratching the skin, which are practiced due to the scent of nature, or acts performed due to fear for the criticism of the society or compassion, or confusion of the mind, are considered here.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, post surrender sins, practiced unconsciously out of natural instinct like breaking splinters or scratching the skin, daily and periodical rituals performed out of fear for societal chiding, or performing them for pity that ordinary folks may emulate us and get degraded by non-observance of these, or entering into acts already given up with renewed faith in them due to confusion out of rajas/thamas or carrying out the act of surrendering again – all these are considered here.


sUthram – 252

Introduction: Such acts, even when performed without considering them to be the means (sAdhanabudhdhi), will be counted so, says lOkAchArya:

‘unmaththa pravruththikku grAmaprApthipOlE thyajiththa upAyangaLilE ivai anvithangaLAmO?’ enRu ninaikka vENdA

‘உந்மத்தப்ரவ்ருத்திக்கு  க்ராம ப்ராப்திபோலே த்யஜித்த உபாயங்களிலே இவை அந்விதங்களாமோ?’ என்று நினைக்கவேண்டா.

Simple meaning: One need not think, like a confused mad man also reaching his desired destination, whether these also be part of the means (upAyas) he gave up.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, sometimes even a bewildered man with confused memory reaches the village by reaching some place where from he reaches the correct destination. “So, what was given up consciously for fear of their being the means, can become the consciously adopted means. Just like a pebble thrown up necessarily falls on the earth (due to gravitation), even if they are practiced with great sense of humility, they do become genesis for sin”, lOkAchArya has himself said in “thani charamam”.


sUthram – 253

Introduction: Be that as it may, what is the fault in re-surrendering?

kalangi upAya budhdhyA paNNum prapaththiyum pAthagaththOduokkum.
கலங்கி உபாயபுத்த்யா பண்ணும் ப்ரபத்தியும் பாதகத்தோடு ஒக்கும்.

Simple meaning: Surrender (prapaththi) performed consciously as a means, again, out of confusion, also equals sin.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, without knowing the real disposition of surrender (prapaththi), which does not countenance a repetition of itself and remains content with one time observance, if we do it out of mental turbulence or confusion, as a  means for our end, or fulfilment of non-attained desire, such act is also a sin, as stated in vishNu dharmam 66-71: “atha pAthaka bhIthasthvam” – if you are afraid of carrying out sins (such as carrying out other upAyas…).


sUthram – 254

Introduction: Next he moves to the fourth word, giving the meaning for the word, “mokshayishyAmi”.

mOkshaishyAmi – mukthanAmpadi paNNakkadavEn
மோக்ஷயிஷ்யாமி- முக்தனாம்படி பண்ணக்கடவேன்.

Simple meaning: ‘mOkshayishyAmi’ – I will make you eligible for mOksha (liberation).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, I will make you relieved from all these.


sUthram – 255

Introduction: Now he gives the meaning for the “Nich”.

NichchAlE – nAnum vENdA, nIyum vENdA, avai thannadaiyE vittuppOngAN engiRAn.
ணிச்சாலே- நானும் வேண்டா, நீயும் வேண்டா, அவை தன்னடையே விட்டுப்போங்காணென்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: He says that by the term “Nich”, they will run off on their own, they do not need either you or me.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by the usage of “Nich” in the term “ishyAmi”, he indicates that not only will he be the reliever, he will also relieve as the user for such relief. He indicates:”For this neither need you make any prayer nor need I make any effort. They will run off on their own because of the very fact that you have surrendered unto me, even without leaving a trace” just as it has been said in periyathiruvandhAdhi pAsuram 54 “kAnO orungiRRu kaNdilamAl” (we do not know as to where they disappeared, perhaps in the forest)


sUthram – 256

Introduction: Now lOkAchArya describes the reason for his statement as afore:

ennudaiya nigraha palamAy vandhavai nAniranginAl kidakkumO? engai.
என்னுடைய நிக்ரஹ பலமாய்வந்தவை நானிரங்கினால் கிடக்குமோ? என்கை.

Simple meaning: Can that which came as the result of my anger on you, continue when I am compassionate toward you?

vyAkhyAnam: That is, sins multiplying like the mushrooms in the waste, are, though suffocating, being momentary, die quickly and the sentient also forgets as he is ignorant; but, as omniscient, I witness each and every act of these and make him suffer for his acts; yet, will they sustain when I shower my grace on him as antidote?


sUthram – 257

Introduction: He explains how these sins dissolve on their own:

anAdhikAlam pApangaLaik kaNdu nI patta pAttai avaithAm padumpadi paNNugiREn.
அநாதி காலம் பாபங்களைக் கண்டு நீ பட்ட பாட்டை அவைதாம் படும்படி பண்ணுகிறேன்.

Simple meaning: The strife you had gone through for ages seeing these sins, will now be experienced by them.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, for ages you have been shuddering with the sins clouding you. But since you have now surrendered to me and have gained a regal status, I will make them shudder at your status.  This has been explained by lOkAchArya in his “thani charamam” thus: “Making them run away on their own would mean, removing them as if they never existed; even if they are remembered, looking at self’s intrinsic nature, they will go as if they were in a dream; thought of those aspects would not cause any sorrow” which is apt to be remembered here.


sUthram – 258

Introduction: In “mOkshayishyAmi” he describes a special meaning.

ini un kaiyilum unnaik kAttith thArEn; enudambil azhukkai nAnE pOkkikkoLLEnO?
இனி உன் கையிலும் உன்னைக்காட்டித்தாரேன். என்னுடம்பிலழுக்கை நானே போக்கிக்கொள்ளேனோ?

Simple meaning: Now on I would not expose you to your own care also; can’t I clean the dirt on my body?

vyAkhyAnam: That is, because all these days you have been engaged in your own protection, I felt, ‘ He is on his own’; but once you sought my refuge and became dependent on me, as you are part of my body, I shall not leave you to make your own efforts to get rid of the sins; but I shall cleanse the dirt which is in the form of ignorance (avidhyA) to make it known that both the effort and the results are mine.

What lOkAchArya stated briefly in Sriya:pathipadi, and in detail in paranthapadi and thanicharamam are to be remembered here:

“Quelling the obstacles (virOdhi nivruththi) and granting the desired are two separate aspects and yet stating one includes the other also and therefore it was not stated. In the bhagavath gIthA SlOkam 9-34 ‘mAmEvaishyasi’ (you will attain only me), this was stated and so, was left out here. Also for the means suggested earlier there is no other gain and so it is left. But why talk of resolving the obstacle (virOdhi nivruththi)? That is because, if the obstacle is resolved, gain is sure to follow”.


sUthram – 259

Introduction: Next he describes the final word, “mASucha:”.

mA Sucha:”- ‘nI un kAryaththilE adhikariyAmaiyAlum, nAn un kAryaththilE adhikariththukkoNdu pOrugaiyAlum, unakku SOka nimiththam illaikAN’ enRu avanudaiya SOka nivruththiyaip paNNikkodukkiRAn.

மாஶுச:- ‘நீ உன் கார்யத்திலே அதிகரியாமையாலும், நான் உன்கார்யத்திலே அதிகரித்துக் கொண்டு போருகையாலும், உனக்கு ஶோக நிமித்தம் இல்லை காண்’என்று அவனுடைய ஶோகநிவ்ருத்தியை பண்ணிக் கொடுக்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: mASucha:  ISvaran gives him (arjuna) relief from grief: “as you are not engaged in your act, and since I am engaged in your act, you have no scope for sorrow”.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, if you are engaged in your act on your own, you are bound to worry, wondering “what can I do?” If I am not engaged in your act, you are bound to worry that I am inattentive to you and so you are at disadvantage; but now for both the effort and result, you have realised that your responsibility does not exist due to your subjucation to me, and my svAmithva over you; and in your protection, both the effort and result are mine. Since I am engaged in removing your obstacles and providing you protection, you have no scope for grieving.

Thus he provides the antidote to arjuna’s sorrow.

Thus, he described how the nature of both the saviour and saved have been shown through the terms “aham” and “thvA” and how sorrow was dispelled.


sUthram – 260

Introduction: Now on, he describes how he dispelled the sorrow by detailing the nature of himself, the remover, and the pApas which are removed.

nivarthaka svarUpaththaich cholli, nivarthyangaL unnaivandhu mElidAdhenRu solli, unakku SOka nimiththam illaikAN engiRAn.

நிவர்த்தக ஸ்வரூபத்தைச் சொல்லி, நிவர்த்யங்கள் உன்னை வந்துமேலிடாதென்று சொல்லி, உனக்கு ஶோக நிமித்தம் இல்லை காண் என்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: He assures, “you have no reason for grief”, detailing the nature of the expeller (of the obstacles), and saying obstacles shall now not hinder you.

vyAkhyAnam:  That is, he says, showing his qualities such as omniscience found in “aham”, by which he is the dispeller of all the sins (indicated by the “Nich” in “mOkshayishyAmi”) which run away on their own, because the sentient has sought only him as his refuge, “mASucha:” as you have no reason for  grief.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 241-250

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 241

Introduction: Now, he summarises the meaning of first half by recapitulation:

Aga, thyAjyaththaichcholli, thyAga prakAraththaich cholli, paRRappadum upAyaththaich cholli, upAya nairapEkshyam solli, upAyathvam solli, upAya svIkAram sollugiRadhu.

ஆக, த்யாஜ்யத்தைச் சொல்லி, த்யாகப்ரகாரத்தைச் சொல்லி, பற்றப்படும்உபாயத்தைச் சொல்லி, உபாயநைரபேக்ஷ்யஞ்சொல்லி, உபாயத்வஞ்சொல்லி, உபாய ஸ்வீகாரம் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: Thus, stating what is to be given up, the manner of such giving up, stating the means (upAya) accepted, detailing how this means does not expect any prerequisite, stating the object of means (upAyathva), and acceptance of means (upAya svIkAram), lOkAchAryar  ends the first half of the SlOka.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in the first half, ‘sarvadharmAn’ states what is to be given up, ‘parithyajya’ states the manner of giving up, ‘mAm’ states the means accepted, ‘Ekam’ states the means does not require any prerequisite, ‘Saranam’ states the object of upAya, and ‘vraja’ states acceptance of means.


sUthram – 242

Introduction: Then he proceeds to give the meaning for the second half and starts with the first word ‘aham’.

“aham”.
அஹம்.

Simple meaning: aham – I [first person].


sUthram – 243

Introduction: In this second half, he details ISvaran’s own acts (in protection).

svakruthyaththai aruLichcheygiRAn.
ஸ்வக்ருத்யத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: He describes his own act.

vyAkhyAnam: The first half mentioned the act of the entity who surrenders. It is here that he details ISvaran’s acts as he is the personage of means (upAyabhUtha).


sUthram – 244

Introduction: Now he proceeds to give the meaning for this word.

sarvagyanAy, sarvaSakthiyAy prApthanAna nAn.
ஸர்வஜ்ஞனாய், ஸர்வசக்தியாய், ப்ராப்தனான நான்.

Simple meaning: I, who am omniscient (sarvagyan), omnipotent (sarvaSakthan), the ultimate owner (prApthA)

vyAkhyAnam: That is, I, who am stated in the muNdakOpanishath 1-1-10 as;

yassarvagyas sarvavith” – one who knows the basic nature and characteristics of everything

in svEthAsvathara upanishath 6-8 as

parAsyaSakthi: vividhaiva SrUyathE” – about whom it is said that he has multi-fold powers.

Thus, one with all the capabilities, and being the SEshi (owner), he is the entity to be attained (prAptha).


sUthram – 245

Introduction: Leaving other qualities [for the term “aham”] lOkAchAryar shows the purpose of these qualities [sarvagyan and sarvaSakthan] for this word “aham”

ivan kIzh ninRa nilaiyum mEl pOkkadiyum aRigaikkum, aRindhapadiyE seydhu thalaikkattugaikkum EkAnthamAna guNa viSEshangaLaiyum, than pERAgach cheydhu thalaikkattugaikkudalAna bandha viSEshaththaiyum kAttugiRadhu.

இவன் கீழ்நின்ற நிலையும், மேல் போக்கடியும் அறிகைக்கும், அறிந்தபடியே செய்து தலைக்கட்டுகைக்கும் ஏகாந்தமான குணவிசேஷங்களையும், தன் பேறாகச் செய்து தலைக்கட்டுகைக்கு ஈடான பந்த விஶேஷத்தையும் காட்டுகிறது.

Simple meaning: By this he shows what was the earlier status of this sentient, to know what will be his future, to favour him as he knows, to display his special characteristics for this end and then to do all these as his gain because of the special relationship he has with the sentient.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, when ISvaran removes the hurdles and grants the desired for this sentient, to know his earlier status and the path he shall tread now on, and to grant him all the things as known, the qualities of  sarvagyan (omniscient) and sarvaSakthan (omnipotent) are required. When ISvaran fulfils the desires of the sentient, he does not do this as sentient’s desires but his own [ISvaran’s]. The distinguished connection between the owner (ISvaran) and the owned (sentient) is brought out by this term.

Just like in the case of ‘mAm’ [seen earlier], where characteristics suitable for surrendering were shining brightly, in the case of ‘aham’, characteristics exclusive for accomplishing the act shine brightly [gyAnam and Sakthi]. Just as surrender shall not be possible without vAthsalya etc, act of protection  also does not take place without gyAna and Sakthi. Mentioning gyAna, Sakthi and prApthi includes pUrthi (completeness in qualities) also [If ISvaran does not have pUrthi, it would mean that he has some desires left unfulfilled and that he would expect the sentient to fulfil those in return for granting him his benefit’ But this runs counter to his quality of nairapEkshyam. Hence, ISvaran has pUrthi, in all h is qualities].


sUthram – 246

Introduction: In the case of “mAm” ISvaran showed his pArathanthriyam (dependence) since he was a charioteer there. Here, he shows the exact opposite of that, viz. svAthanthriyam (independence), which shines well in this term aham’.”

thanakkAgak koNda sArathya vEshaththai avanaiyittup pArAdhE thannaiyittup pArththu anjina achchamthIra, thAnAna thanmaiyai ‘aham’enRu kAttugiRAn.

தனக்காகக் கொண்ட ஸாரத்ய வேஷத்தை அவனையிட்டுப்பாராதே தன்னையிட்டுப்பார்த்து, அஞ்சின அச்சந்தீரத்தானான தன்மையை ‘அஹம்’ என்று காட்டுகிறான்.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, when ISvaran asked arjuna to seek him standing in his form as a charioteer, arjuna, instead of looking at him as ‘the omnipotent one has assumed this form for me, lowering himself because of his great characteristics’, looking at himself was worried thinking ‘for me he lowered himself so lowly,  and asked me to give up all dharmas and surrender unto him. Now what will happen?’ To dispel his fear, he discloses to arjuna by ‘aham’ his real (yathAvasthitha) form that includes ‘svAdhIna thrividha chEthanAchEthana svarUpa sthithi pravruththi’ [this has been taken from rAmAnujar’s SaraNAgathi gadhyam to show ISvaran being the controller of all, which includes the three types of sentients (bhadhdha, muktha and nithya AthmAs, viz those who are still bound to samsAram, those who have got liberated from samsAram, and those who are always living in SrIvaikuNtam and do not have any .connection with samsAram), the three types of insentients (sudhdhva sathva, miSra thathva and kAlathathva, viz. purely good, mix of sathva, rajas and thamas entities, and the entity of time, respectively), controlling their existence, their status and their activities]


sUthram – 247

Introduction: He then describes that such  a person becoming a dependent [being a charioteer] for him [arjuna], at his command, was also not because of his [ISvaran’s] intrinsic value.

kIzhil pArathanthryamum indha svAthanthryaththinudaiya ellai nilamiRE.
கீழில்பாரதந்த்ர்யமும் இந்த ஸ்வாதந்த்ர்யத்தினுடைய எல்லை நிலமிறே.

Simple meaning: This act of remaining at his command is also the pinnacle of his independence.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, his standing as a charioteer at his [arjuna’s] command, is also a display of his capacity to act independently, uncontrolled by any one.


sUthram – 248

Introduction: Next he describes the second word, ‘thvA’. He gives the meaning for it:

“thvA”– agyanAy, aSakthanAy, aprApthanAy, ennaiyE upAyamAgap paRRi irukkiRa unnai.
த்வா – அஜ்ஞனாய், அஶக்தனாய், அப்ராப்தனாய், என்னையே உபாயமாகப்பற்றியிருக்கிற உன்னை.

Simple meaning: thvA – you who have accepted me as your refuge, remaining ignorant (agyana), weak (aSaktha), not having right on yourself (aprAptha).

vyAkhyAnAm: That is, without the necessary knowledge to know your activities, even if they are known, not having the necessary strength to get them done, even if having the strength not having the power in protecting self. Since you are like this, you have foregone all dharmas and taken me, who has no expectation from you, as your upAyam.


sUthram – 249

Introduction: Then lOkAchAryA goes on to describe the third word, ‘sarvapApEbhya:’ As this is also composed of three parts, pApa, its plural (pApEbhya) and  ‘sarva’, he gives meaning for all the three,

“sarva pApEbhya:”: – math prApthi prathibandhagangaL enRu yAvai yAvai sila pApangaLaik kuRiththu anjugiRAy, avvO pApangaL ellAvaRRil ninRum.

ஸர்வ பாபேப்ய: – மத்ப்ராப்தி ப்ரதிபந்தகங்கள் என்று யாவை யாவை சில பாபங்களைக் குறித்து அஞ்சுகிறாய், அவ்வோ பாபங்கள் எல்லாவற்றில்நின்றும்.

Simple meaning: “sarvapApEbhya:” – from whatever sins you are frightened of as obstructions for obtaining my grace, from all those sins.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, pApam – (sin) is that which is opposed to the desired things, and reason for obtaining the undesired. Since the context is mOksham, the undesired entities are those which are hurdles in attaining bhagavAn. Of these hurdles, those which oppose knowledge, taste and means (gyAna virOdhi, ruchi virOdhi and upAya virOdhi) have already been removed. The only opposing element now left is prApthivirOdhi(hurdles which prevent you from attaining me). Thus, all the sins which are hurdles in attaining bhagavAn, due to which you are fearful.


sUthram – 250

Introduction: He highlights the usage of plural here (sarva pApEbhya:).

“poyninRa gyAnamum pollA ozhukkum azhukkudambum” engiRapadiyE avidhyA karma vAsanA ruchi prakruthi sambanthangaLaich chollugiRadhu.

“பொய்ந்நின்ற ஞானமும்பொல்லாவொழுக்கும் அழுக்குடம்பும்” என்கிறபடியே அவித்யா கர்ம வாஸநா ருசி ப்ரக்ருதி ஸம்பந்தங்களைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: Just as AzhwAr stated in thiruviruththam 1 “poy ninRa gyAnamum, pollA ozhukkum azhukkudambum” here he talks of  connections of ignorance (avidhyA), sins (karma), scent (vAsana), taste (ruchi), nature (prakruthi).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated by AzhwAr, “poy ninRa gyAnamum pollA ozhukkum azhukkudambum”:

  1. Because of the combination of creation and destruction (uthpaththi and vinASa), false idea about the insentient  as the sentient,
  2. Manipulation of worldly acts from such mistaken notion of the body and soul,
  3. The connection with the body infested with flesh, blood, bones and faeces
  4. avidhyA is threefold: gyAna anudhaya (knowledge has not blossomed at all), anyathA gyAna (understanding one object for another), viparItha gyAna (mistaking the characteristics of an entity).
  5. karma (deeds), composed of both virtues and vices (puNya and pApa). For mOksha, puNya is equally to be forsaken like pApa just as it has been mentioned in muNdaka upanishath 3-1-3 “puNya pApa vidhUya” (casting aside both puNya and pApa)
  6. vAsanA: the scent of agyAna, karma, and prakruthi. All the three are multifarious by differences in contents.
  7. prakruthi sambandham is the connection with the insentient (achith) in gross (sthUla) and subtle (sUkshma) forms.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

archived in https://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com/

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 231-240

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 231

Introduction: Then what is protection?

avanudaiya svIkAramE rakShagam.
அவனுடைய ஸ்வீகாரமே ரக்ஷகம்.

Simple meaning: His acceptance only is protection.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, he being vested with the responsibility of the sentient, undertakes and accepts to protect him; this acceptance is protection.


sUthram – 232

Introduction:

To clarify that this upAya (ISvara) does not tolerate any of the human efforts, he points out the difference between this and the other upAyas (means).

maRRai upAyangaLukku nivruththi dhOsham, idhukku pravruththi dhOsham.
மற்றை உபாயங்களுக்கு நிவ்ருத்தி தோஷம், இதுக்கு ப்ரவ்ருத்தி தோஷம்.

Simple meaning: For the other upAyas (being related to mental) inaction is the fault; for this, putting self efforts is the fault.

vyAkhyAnam: For other upAyams, which look up to the sentient’s efforts for fruition of their svarUpam (basic nature), inaction on the part of sentient will be a fault. However, being readily available means (sidhdha upAya) where ISvaran is concerned, the human efforts are the debilitating factor since svayathna in svarakshana (self-effort in self-protection) is deprecated.


sUthram – 233

Introduction: He cites text to prove human effort is not needed.

“siRRa vENdA”.
சிற்றவேண்டா”.

Simple meaning: “siRRa vENdA” (Don’t waver).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in the thiruvAimozhi pAsuram 9-1-7, “maRRonRu illai” (there is nothing else) while singing of  sidhdhOpAya [ISvaran is the readily available means], AzhvAr says “siRRa vENdA” (do not waver or worry your mind); there is no need  to carry out any activity in detail.


sUthram – 234

Introduction: This has been detailed in this SlOka.

nivruththi kIzhE solliRRu.
நிவ்ருத்தி கீழே சொல்லிற்று.

Simple meaning: nivruththi was detailed earlier.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in “sarva dharmAn parithyajya”,  it was shown that the chEthana needs to withdraw from all efforts.


sUthram – 235

Introduction: But is gratitude needed? Will it amount to be an upAya?

upakAra smruthiyum chaithanyAththAlE vandhadhu; upAyaththil antharbaviyAdhu.
உபகார ஸ்ம்ருதியும் சைதந்யத்தாலே வந்தது; உபாயத்தில் அந்தர்பவியாது.

Simple meaning: Sense of gratitude (upakAra smruthi) came out of intellect; it shall not enter into becoming an upAya.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated by AzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 2-7-8 “ennaith thImanam keduththAy” (you rid me of evils from my mind) and thiruvAimozhi 2-7-7 “maruvith thozhum manamE thandhAy” (you mercifully gave me the mind which will carry out acts of service to you fittingly), the expression of gratitude by this sentient to his protector is an act of the intellect and it shall not lead to the thought that ISvara rendered the help only because of this. Thus, he has completed describing the fourth word (Ekam).


sUthram – 236

Introduction: Now he starts describing the fifth word, “SaraNam”, first by giving the meaning.

“SaraNam” – upAyamAga.
ஶரணம் – உபாயமாக.

Simple meaning: SaraNam – as a means (upAya).


sUthram – 237

Introduction: Though this word can give other meanings, he proves that it refers only to the “upAyam” here, with reasons.

indha SaraNa Sabdham – rakshithAvaiyum gruhaththaiyum upAyaththaiyum kAttak kadavadhE Agilum, ivvidaththil upAyaththaiyE kAttugiRadhu; kIzhOdE sEra vENdugaiyAlE.

இந்த ஶரணஶப்தம்ரக்ஷிதாவையும் க்ருஹத்தையும் உபாயத்தையும் காட்டக்கடவதேயாகிலும், இவ்விடத்தில் உபாயத்தையே காட்டுகிறது; கீழோடே சேர வேண்டுகையாலே.

Simple meaning: Though this word “SaraNam” can indicate the protected, residence and upAya, here it indicates only upAya, (as it has to be read) in conjunction with previous texts.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated in ahibhudhdhnya samhithai 36-36

upAyE gruha rakshithrO: Sabdha: SaraNam ithyayam
varthathE sAmpratham chaisha upAyArthaika vAchaka:

(the word SaraNam refers to means, residence and protection; now this word refers only to upAyam), though the word SaraNam is capable of indicating the protected, house, and upAya, in this context it refers to upAya only. Since the context is “Seek me, giving up all dharmas”, to be congruent to that part, only the meaning upAyam will be apt here.

But is the use of the word “SaraNam” required here, as giving up of the other means itself  indicates the utility of the (object of) upAyam? It is indeed needed at the time of its being the means (prApaka) and the end (prApyam) just as when one uses a boat to cross a river, he gives up the boat after crossing it; he does not need it any more,when he has to go on the land surface. The act of giving up is common to both upAyam and upEyam. At the time of taking ISvaran as the upAyam, other means are given up; at the time of enjoying the benefit, other benefits (such as aiSvaryam and kaivalyam) are given up. After giving up, what is the sentient hoping to do? Is he going to surrender to ISvaran or is he going to enjoy carrying out kainkaryam to him? Hence, to clarify this, the word SaraNam (that he is going to surrender to ISvaran, considering ISvaran himself as the upAyam) has to be clearly differentiated here.

Can it be said so? This giving up of the other means is mandated as part of accepting (svIkAram). So, as it is capable of showing the ability of the means [that ISvaran will grant upAyam to the sentient once he gives up all the other means], where is the need for the word “SaraNam”? It can not be said so, as more than the implied meaning, the phonetic is required.  Sri bhashyakArar [rAmAnujar] also said at the beginning of SrI bhAshyam “AkshEpatha: prApthAdh AbhidhAnikasyaiva grAhyathvAth” (More than the implied meaning, the meaning brought out by the words directly is to be considered).

Thus, as this word “SaraNam” is meaning upAyam here, and ISvaran has the ability to take the sentient as both prApyam (the end) and prApakam (the means), here he has described the acceptance as prApakam.


sUthram – 238

Introduction: Now he starts describing the sixth word, by giving the meaning of it.

“vraja – budhdhi paNNu.
வ்ரஜ- புத்தி பண்ணு.

Simple meaning: vraja  – approach

He describes it further.


sUthram – 239

Introduction: From the dhAthu (root) “vraja gathau” the meaning derived is: gathi (way, walk). “gathyarthA: budhyarthA:” persevere.

gathyarthamAvadhu budhyarthamAy, athyavasi enRapadi.
கத்யர்த்தமாவது புத்த்யர்த்தமாய், அத்யவஸியென்றபடி.

Simple meaning: Persevere in it, as the path to walk, to believe firmly.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, it is stated that the meaning of ‘gathi’ is the meaning of ‘budhdhi’ (knowledge, gyAna) and that one should persevere. In his grantha “parandhapadi”, lOkAchArya observed: “This budhdhi (knowledge) is an intellectual trait that is distinguished among those to be given up as upAyams, not admissible among those to be sought as upAyams, being firm when it comes to casting aside other upAyams, allowing emperumAn when he comes for protection, affirmation of the knowledge in the sentient entity, complete with prayer to emperumAn [to be the upAyam], being a reason for the pleasure and bliss of the lord, congruent to the intrinsic nature of the sentient, and not putting up with other means or delay in result”. This is applicable in this situation too.


sUthram – 240

Introduction: As ordinarily this indicates the movement of mental,verbral and physical  activities, why talk of mental effort only?  He answers this query:

vAchika kAyikangaLum idhukku apEkshithangaLAy irukkach cheydhEyum, “gyAnAn mOksham” AgaiyAlE mAnasamAna anushtAnaththaich chollugiRadhu.

வாசிக காயிகங்களும் இதுக்கு அபேக்ஷிதங்களாயிருக்கச் செய்தேயும், ஜ்ஞாநாந்மோக்ஷமாகையாலே மாநஸமான அநுஷ்டாநத்தைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: Though verbal and physical acts are also expected of this, as ‘gyAnAn mOksha:’ (mOksham is through gyAna) is the dictum, he talks of the mental observance (mAnasa anushtAnam).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, just as AzhvAr stated in  thiruvAimozhi 6-5-11 “sindhaiyAlum sollAlum seigaiyinAlum” (by thought, word, and deed), this acceptance is to be done by all the three faculties. However, as a person thinks through his mind to take refuge under emperumAn, the verbal as well as physical acts will come together in the act. Thus, even though verbal and physical faculties will follow in this, since mental faculty is primary, as seen in the dictum ‘gyAnAn mOksha:’, it is indicative of the mental faculty.

Thus, he has given the word by word meaning for the first half of the SlOka.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

archived in https://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com/

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 221-230

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 221

Introduction: After defining this upAya, he quotes several texts wherein such emphasis has been made, as example for this, starting with ”mAmEva”:

mAmEva yE prapathyanthE”, “thamEva chAdhyam”, “thvamEva upAya bhUthO mE bhava”, “ARenakku nin pAdhamE SaraNAgath thanthozindhAy” enRum sollugiRapadiyE.

”மாமேவ யே ப்ரபத்யந்தே”, “தமேவ சாத்யம்”, “த்வமேவோபாய பூதோ மே பவ”, “ஆறெனக்கு நின்பாதமே சரணாகத் தந்தொழிந்தாய்” என்றுஞ்சொல்லுகிறபடியே.

Simple meaning: As has been stated in: “mAmEva yE prapadhyanthE”, “thamEva chAdhyam”, “thvamEva upAya bhUthO mE bhava”, “ARenakku nin pAdhamE saraNAgath thandhozhindhAy”

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in the texts bhagavath gIthA 7-14 “mAmEva ye prapadhyanthE” (those who seek only me as the refuge), bhagavath gIthA 15-5 ”thamEva chAdhyam purusham prapadhyE” (You should surrender only unto him who is the primeval lord), ahirbhudhdhnya samhithai 36-38 ”thvamEva  upAya bhUthO mE bhava” (only you should be the means for me),  thiruvAimozhi 5-7-10”ARu enakku nin pAdhamE SaraNAgath thanthozhindhAy” (you gave me your divine feet only, as the means), wherever the reference occurs to the divine feet which are the means, there is this emphasis, such as ”mAmEva”,  “thamEva” ”thvamEva”, ”nin pAdhamE”.


sUthram – 222

Introduction: What is the distinguishing factor? lOkAchArya says:

iththAl “vraja” engiRa svIkAraththil upAya bhAvaththaith thavirkkiRadhu.
இத்தால், ‘வ்ரஜ’என்கிற ஸ்வீகாரத்தில் உபாய பாவத்தைத் தவிர்க்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this, in the word “vraja”, seeking refuge, the sense of upAya bhAva (the act of seeking refuge being considered as upAyam) is averted.

vyAkhyAnam: That is,  if the word Ekam (only) has to be distinguished from other means. it would amount to repetition [since he has already rejected other means in the verse sarva dharmAn parithyajya]; if it has to be distinguished from other dhEvathas [such as indhran, kubEran et al], by saying “mAm” as an exclusive form as the charioteer, he has already excluded them; thus, this Ekam word indicates exclusion of upAyam from the word vraja which is spoken of next [in other words, our act of surrendering to ISvaran too is not the upAyam].


sUthram – 223

Introduction: As obtaining of the goal is impossible until after  acceptance of  upAya, this is vital. Yet, how do we get rid of making this as the means for obtaining the goal? lOkAchArya explains this through the next sUthram:

svIkAram thAnum avanAlE vandhadhu.
ஸ்வீகாரந்தானும் அவனாலே வந்தது.

Simple meaning: Acceptance (of means) also came because of him.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, just as this process of obtaining the desired and obviating the undesirable happened due to him, acceptance of the means, which comes earlier itself, also resulted because of him. Thus, this act of surrendering can be considered as upAyakAryathvam (that which makes bhagavAn to become happy with the sentient for accepting him) and not as upAyam (means to attain him) [in rAmAnuja sampradhAyam, this is a very important part: emperumAn alone is the upAyam; it is not the act of surrender carried out by the chEthana (sentient entity). At best, the act of surrendering will make emperumAn to be happy with the chEthana and make emperumAn to grant mOksham to the chEthana]


sUthram – 224

Introduction: What is meant by “resulted because of him”?

srushtyavathArAdhi mukaththAlE paNNina krushipalam.
ஸ்ருஷ்ட்யவதாராதி முகத்தாலே பண்ணின க்ருஷிபலம்.

Simple meaning: Result of his labour in creation (srushti), incarnation (avathAra) etc.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, when the chEthana, in the absence of sensory organs, totally ignorant of the desire for mOksha, was lying without any distinction from insentient, ISvaran gave the chEthana sensory organs and also blossoming of wisdom, he came on his own in incarnations to approve and accept him, just as it has been sung by nammAzhwAr in thiruvAImozhi 2-7-6 “edhir sUzhal pukku” (going opposite to the chEthana, surrounding him in all ways), and also established his archA form to create taste in the chEthana for attaining him and to have firm faith in him through his auspicious qualities and deeds. Thus his labour bore fruit.


sUthram – 225

Introduction: He quotes authentic text to prove this:

“adhuvum avanadhu innaruLE”.
“அதுவும் அவனது இன்னருளே”.

Simple meaning: “adhuvum avanadhu innaruLE” – It is also by his grace.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, just as it has been said in thiruvAimozhi 8-8-3 “uNarvil umbar oruvanai avanadhu aruLAl uRaR poruttu en uNarvin uLLE iruththinEn” (to attain him (through his grace) , who is the controller of nithyasUris and who is beyond even their comprehension, I retained him in my mind). As soon as he completed saying that he retained emperumAn in his knowledge which is in the form of desire [to be with emperumAn] AzhWAr said, ”adhuvum avanadhu innaruLE” (that acceptance is also because of his grace). Therefore, acceptance of our seeking by him is also a result of his labour for us.


sUthram – 226

Introduction: Therefore, one should have absolute trust in him when he could grant us mOksham even without our surrendering.

iththai ozhiyavum thAnE kAryancheyyum enRu ninaikkak kadavan.
இத்தை ஒழியவும் தானே கார்யஞ்செய்யும் என்று நினைக்கக்கடவன்.

Simple meaning: Even without this, he will do our work on his own.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, since it is he who works for our acceptance, he does not do our work for this [our act of surrendering]; even without this [act of surrender on our part] the chEthana should firmly believe that ISvaran will carry out the activities for uplifting the chEthana, fulfilling the desires and obviating the undesired.


sUthram – 227

Introduction: Why should he (the sentient, soul) think so?

allAdha pOdhu upAya nairapEkshyam jIviyAdhu.
அல்லாதபோது உபாய நைரபேக்ஷ்யம் ஜீவியாது.

Simple meaning: Otherwise, (ISvaran’s) quality of not expecting upAya nairapEkshyam (assistance in means), would not sustain.

vyAkhyAnam: If we do not think that he would protect us even without our seeking his help, the quality of his being the protector without any expectations would not survive. We should not think that this seeking is also required for him to act.


sUthram – 228

Introduction: Then what happens to this acceptance (svIkAram)?

idhu sarvamukthi prasanga parihArArtham, budhdhi samAdhAnArtham, chaithanya kAryam, rAga prAptham, svarUpa nishtam, aprathishEdhadhyOthakam.

இது ஸர்வமுக்தி ப்ரஸங்க பரிஹாரார்த்தம், புத்தி ஸமாதாநார்த்தம், சைதந்ய கார்யம், ராக ப்ராப்தம், ஸ்வரூப நிஷ்டம், அப்ரதிஷேத த்யோதகம்

Simple meaning: This gives  a solution to the possible doubt of mOksha for all; doubt of the divine intervention to save as he has not done until now; work of the intellectual faculty of the sentient; obtainable through his love; the discipline of the intrinsic self (svarUpa nishtam); enlightening ISvaran that he [chEthana] is no more preventing ISvaran when he comes to protect him.

vyAkhyAnam:

sarvamukthiprasanga parihArArtham: If the sentient need not do anything and ISvaran will grant him mOksham, then this should be granted to everyone. In order to prevent this from happening, the sentient carries out the act of surrendering, though that is not the means.

budhdhi samAdhAnArtham: The sentient may want to know as to why he had been granted mOksham only today and not all along. In order to satisfy his intellect, he has to carry out an act.

chaithanya kAriyam: Since sentient has knowledge, there has to be an outlet for that knowledge; hence he surrenders.

rAga prAptham: rAga refers to desire / love. Since sentient develops affection towards ISvaran, he carries out the act of surrendering.

svarUpa nishtam: The svarUpam (basic nature) of sentient is that he is a servitor to ISvaran. As a servitor he has to carry out service to ISvaran and this act is one such.

apradhisEshadhyOthakam:  apradhisEsham is non-avoidance. When ISvaran comes to help the sentient, the sentient accepts that by not running away from ISvaran. dhyOthakam is making an announcement. Thus, the sentient informs ISvaran, through the act of surrendering that he will not prevent him anymore from coming to his help.


sUthram – 229

Introduction: Now he describes the acts of ISvara, as earlier said before mAm, here also.

kIzh thAnum piRarumAna nilaiyaik kulaiththAn; inguththAnum ivanumAna nilaiyaik kulaikkiRAn.

கீழ் தானும் பிறருமான நிலையைக் குலைத்தான்; இங்குத்தானும் இவனுமான நிலையைக் குலைக்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: Earlier he destroyed the thought of others (other upAyams) and himself being the means together; here, he destroys the thought of chEthana and himself being the means together.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in “sarva dharmAn parithyajya”, when he asked to give up all the other means (upAyas), he destroyed the situation of other upAyams and he himself (the giver) being together. In other words, he alone is the upAyam and the others are to be given up. In ”Ekam” now, since he removes the sense of being means from acceptance (svIkAram of upAya), he destroys the situation of himself (the upAya) and the sentient who surrenders (who perceives that his act of surrender, which is acceptance of means, as upAya) being the upAyam together. In other words, only he is the upAya  and the sentient’s act of surrendering is not the upAya. Calling other means as others is as stated in thiruvAimozhi 5-8-3 “unnAl allAl yavarAlum” (I will not ask for protection from anyone else other than you) [insentient entities such as karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgams are spoken of as others here] .


sUthram – 230

Introduction: Then he explains the fault in the sentient accepting ISvaran as the means through his (sentient’s) efforts.

avanai ivan paRRum paRRu ahankAra garbham; avadhyakaram.
அவனை இவன் பற்றும்பற்று அஹங்கார கர்ப்பம், அவத்யகரம்.

Simple meaning: The sentient’s seeking him is egoistic, deplorable.

vyAkhyAnam: The seeking of the protector (without any filial reason but intrinsic ownership) by the sentient who is protected by him as part of himself, is a self generated act and egoistic; it is also deplorable like a son asking his father to give in writing that the father will protect him.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 211-220

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 211

Introduction: He now proceeds to delineate the third word, “mAm”:

mAm – sarva rakshakanAy, unakkuk kaiyALAy, unnisaivu pArththu, un dhOshangaLai bhOgyamAgak koNdu, unakkup pugalAy, nIr sudumA pOlE sErppArE pirikkum pOdhum vidamAttAdhE rakshikkiRa ennai.

மாம் – ஸர்வரக்ஷகனாய், உனக்குக் கையாளாய், உன்னிசைவு பார்த்து, உன் தோஷத்தை போக்யமாகக் கொண்டு, உனக்குப் புகலாய், நீர்சுடுமாபோலே சேர்ப்பாரே பிரிக்கும்போதும் விடமாட்டாதே ரக்ஷிக்கிற என்னை.

Simple meaning: mAm – me, who is your all-round protector;  your servant; expecting your acceptance;  taking your faults as pleasurable; your refuge; bearing even your heinous faults just like water, which is by nature cool, but  is absorbing heat.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, for everyone to trust without doubt whether he would save us or not, avowed to protect everybody; without anybody having to doubt if he would, in his exalted status, look down on us and ignore  to remain aloof; to be commanded, “sEnayOr ubhayOr madhyE ratham sthApaya” bhagavath gIthA 1-20 and 1-21 (last line and first line respectively)

hrishIkESam thadhA vAkhyam idhAmAha mahIpathE
sEnayOr ubhayOr madhyE ratham sthApaya mE achyutha

(Oh King! [narrated by sanjayan to dhritharAshrtran] arjunan, looking at krishNa, said the following: Oh achchyutha! Stop my chariot between the two armies”)

and used as a servant; eager to protect you, expecting your acceptance to be protected as mentioned in lakshmI thanthram 17-78

sarvagyOpi hi sarvESO sadhA kAruNikO’pisan
samsAra thanthra vAhithvAth rakshyApEkshAm prathIkshathE

(sarvESvaran, though omniscient and full of compassion, has to conduct samsAram without slipping from the path of righteousness. Thus, he expects only the desire from the sentient “Please protect me”); for you to remain without fear whether he would despise you for your faults, considering your faults of showing mercy on people who are not to be showered mercy upon and remaining confused about what is correct and what is incorrect; as the only refuge for you and all those who are around even when it is not the apt condition for you to take refuge; ignoring even the words of pirAtti, who recommends your protection, if she comes up with some negative injunctions, as he is unable to part with you and give up from protecting you, just as cold water sustains even when heated .


sUthram – 212

Introduction: Next lOkAchArya gives the meaning for ”mAm”, as he shows his form in the vibhava avathAra (form taken during incarnation), distinguishing  it from other forms.

iththAl para vyUhangaLaiyum dhEvathAntharyAmithvaththaiyum thavirkkiRadhu.
இத்தால் பரவ்யூஹங்களையும் தேவதாந்தர்யாமித்வத்தையும் தவிர்க்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this he excludes para, vyUha, dhEvathAntharyAmi forms.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by “mAm”, me, he refers to himself, who is born and standing close by  to be seen, as distinguished from the para and vyUha forms which are in the unseen realms which are not approachable or discernible, and the antharyAmi form of being the in-dwelling soul of other dhEvathas such as agni, indhra et al who are acceptable to those who seek other upAyams.


sUthram – 213

Introduction: Now he describes the meaning that arises out of his asking us to seek him, giving up all the dharmas.

dharma samsthApanam paNNap piRandhavan thAnE ‘sarva dharmangaLaiyum vittu ennaip paRRu’ engaiyAlE sAkshAth dharmam thAnE engiRadhu.

தர்ம ஸம்ஸ்தாபநம் பண்ணப் பிறந்தவன்தானேஸர்வதர்மங்களையும் விட்டு என்னைப் பற்றுஎன்கையாலே ஸாக்ஷாத் தர்மம் தானேயென்கிறது.

Simple meaning: Since he, who was born to establish the dharma himself, is asking to give up (other) dharmas and to seek refuge  in him, he states that he himself is the real dharma.

vyAkhyAnam: As stated in,SrI bhagavath gIthA 4.8:
parithrANAya sadhUnAm vinASAya cha dhushkruthAm

dharma samsthApanArthAya sambhavAmi yugE yugE

(To protect the pious, to annihilate the evil doers, as well as to establish the principles of righteousness which go in the path of vEdhas, I incarnate in yugams (eras) repeatedly) since he, who was born to facilitate our attaining him, himself says for mOksha (attaining me), give up all other dharmas shown in SAsthras as means, and seek me, it is clear that they are not dharmas, but he himself is, as indicated in “krishNam dharmam sanAthanam”, the established sanAthana dharma.


sUthram – 214

Introduction: What is stated by this?

iththAl, vitta sAdhanangaLil ERRam sollugiRadhu.
இத்தால், விட்ட ஸாதநங்களில் ஏற்றஞ் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: The superiority of the means (upAya), compared to the sAdhanas given up, is stated.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by saying so, he indicates the superiority of this means (himself) over all the means given up earlier.


sUthram – 215

Introduction: To the query “what is that?” lOkAchArya says:

adhAvadhu – sidhdhamAy, paramachEthanamAy, sarva SakthiyAy, nirapAyamAy, prApthamAy, sahAyAnthara nirapEkshamAy irukkai.

அதாவது, ஸித்தமாய், பரமசேதநமாய், ஸர்வஶக்தியாய், நிரபாயமாய், ப்ராப்தமாய், ஸஹாயாந்தர நிரபேக்ஷமாயிருக்கை.

Simple meaning: That is, he is ready to seek and get (sidhdha), supreme sentient being (parama chEthana), omnipotent (sarvaSakthi), inseparable (nirapAya), attainable (prAptha), not expecting assistance of any other agency (sahAyAnthara nirapEksha).

vyAkhyAnam: By this, the superiority of this means compared to the ones which were given up as aforesaid, is described:

sarvESvaran is

sidhdha – being readily available for the sentient to reach him since he is sanAthana dharma [existing from time immemorial) instead of the sentient having to take efforts on his own to reach him;

paramachEthana – supremely omniscient as stated in muNdakOpanishath 1-1-10 “yas sarvagyas sarvavith yasya gyAnamayam thapa:” (that supreme being who knows the basic nature and basic qualities of all entities and whose vow is full of knowledge)

sarvaSakthi – omnipotent as stated in SvEthASvathara upanishath “parA’sya Sakthi: vividhaiva SrUyathE svAbhAvikI gyAnabala kriyAcha” (it is known that for this supreme entity, superior and multifarious abilities, intinsic knowledge and strength (for creation etc) are present)

nirapAya – remaining away from possibilities of being separable by chEthana because it is sidhdha (established);

prAptha – instead of being unattainable by the sentient who is dependent (parathanthra), remaining attainable by him

nirapEksha – without the aid of any other means (sahAyAnthara nirapEksha) due to the reasons listed above such as parama chEthana etc.


sUthram – 216

Introduction: He now proceeds to establish the attainability without the aid of any other means (sahAyAnthara nirapEksha), through the next three sentences:

maRRai upAyangaL sAdhyangaL AgaiyAlE, svarUpa sidhdhiyil chEthananai apEkshiththirukkum; achEthanangaLumAy, aSakthangaLumAy irukkaiyAlE kArya sidhdhiyil ISvaranai apEkshiththirukkum. indha upAyam avaRRukku edhirththattAy irukkaiyAlE ithara nirapEkshamAy irukkum.

மற்றை உபாயங்கள் ஸாத்யங்களாகையாலே, ஸ்வரூபஸித்தியில் சேதநனை அபேக்ஷித்திருக்கும்; அசேதநங்களுமாய், அஶக்தங்களுமாயிருக்கையாலே கார்ய ஸித்தியில் ஈஶ்வரனை அபேக்ஷித்திருக்கும். இந்த உபாயம் அவற்றுக்கு எதிர்த்தட்டாயிருக்கையாலே, இதர நிரபேக்ஷமாயிருக்கும்.

Simple meaning: As all other means are to be attained with self-effort (sAdhya), in the attainment of their intrinsic value (svarUpa sidhdhi) they expect the (aid of the) sentient; as they are insentient (achEthana) and incapable (aSaktha) in fulfilment of the act, they will expect (the aid of) ISvara. As this upAya is opposite of them, it is not expecting anything else (ithara nirapEksha).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, means (upAyas) other than this are achievable by the sentient’s efforts and so in their intrinsic nature, they expect the chEthana (sentient being) for taking the efforts. As they are insentient and incapable to know what are all to be done for him, in the fulfilment of his desires and obviation of the undesirable, they expect ISvara, who is possessed of the ability to grant the attainments.  This upAya is opposed to them in ready availability (sidhdhathva), supreme knowledge (parama chEthanathva)  and omnipotence (sarva Sakthathva).


sUthram – 217

Introduction: Now on he describes how in this word the auspicious characteristics which facilitate the surrendering sentient shine.

idhilE, vAthsalya svAmithva sauSeelya saulabhyangaLAgiRa guNa viSEshangaL nErAga prakASikkiRadhu.

இதிலே, வாத்ஸல்ய ஸ்வாமித்வ ஸௌஶீல்ய ஸௌலப்யங்களாகிற குணவிஶேஷங்கள் நேராக ப்ரகாஶிக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: In this (word) auspicious qualities such as vAthsalya, svAmithva, sauSeelya and saulabhya shine directly.

vyAkhyAnam: vAthsalya shines because, he taught arjuna all the required sacred meanings without considering his faults though he has slipped from dharma; besides speaking of his supremacy (parathva), since he made arjuna to see it for himself, (ownership) svAmithva shines; since he mingled freely with arjuna such that arjuna could address him as ”hE krishNa, hE yAdhava” his sauSeelya (ability to mix freely) shines; as he showed his aprAkrutha thirumEni (divine, auspicious form) to arjuna his  saulabhya (easy accessibility) shines. These characteristics are the prerequisites for the sentient to seek him as refuge and so they are described as shining directly.


sUthram – 218

Introduction: Of all these, saulabhya (easy accessibility) is the most desired, and so apart from the saulabhya manifested through his incarnation itself, his simplicity in showing himself as the charioteer is highlighted by lOkAchArya.

kaiyum uzhavu kOlum, pidiththa siRuvAyk kayiRum, sEnA dhULi dhUsarithamAna thirukkuzhalum, thErukkuk kIzhE nARRina thiruvadigaLumAy niRkiRa sArathya vEshaththai ‘mAm’ enRu kAttugiRAn.

கையும் உழவுகோலும், பிடித்த சிறுவாய்க் கயிறும், ஸேநா தூளிதூஸரிதமான திருக்குழலும், தேருக்குக் கீழே நாற்றின திருவடிகளுமாய் நிற்கிற ஸாரத்ய வேஷத்தைமாம்என்று காட்டுகிறான்.

Simple meaning: He shows his form as the charioteer, with the small whip in one hand, the (horse) leash in the other, the divine hair with the dust of the battlefield, and the divine feet firmly planted on the ground.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, he shows by the word “me”, the form of the charioteer, the divine hand and the whip held therein to guide and drive the horses, the rein bound in their mouth to move them or halt or turn to the  left and right, the divine hair without any protection, with dust of the battle field on it, the divine ankle bearing the small silver anklet, and the divine feet firm on the battlefield, as stated in thiruvAimozhi 3-6-10 “thEr kadaviya perumAn kanai kazhal” (the lord who sat on the chariot with the divine feet decorated with anklet)

Thus lOkAchArya has described the third word “mAm”.


sUthram – 219

Introduction: Next, he describes the fourth word, “Ekam”.

“Ekam”.
ஏகம்.

Simple meaning: “Ekam” – One.


sUthram – 220

Introduction: He describes the meaning for this word:

indha Eka Sabdham sthAna pramANaththAlE avadhAraNa arththaththaik kAttugiRadhu.
இந்த ஏகசப்தம் ஸ்தாநப்ரமாணத்தாலே அவதாரணார்த்தத்தைக் காட்டுகிறது.

Simple meaning: This word “Ekam”, by the significance of its place, indicates emphasis.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, he says, as at many places where this upAya (ISvara) is mentioned, like in ukAra, this word “Ekam” also indicates the meaning of the emphasis.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 201-210

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 201

Introduction: Next he describes the prefix, “pari”.

‘pari’ engiRa upasargaththAlE – pAthakAdhigaLai vidumA pOlE ruchi vAsanaigaLOdum lajjaiyOdum kUda maRuval idAdhapadi vidavENum engiRadhu.

‘பரி’ என்கிற உபஸர்க்கத்தாலே – பாதகாதிகளை விடுமா போலே ருசி வாஸனைகளோடும் லஜ்ஜையோடுங் கூட மறுவலிடாதபடி விடவேணுமென்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By the prefix “pari”, he says that these should be given up with a sense of shame and like giving up acts of heinous sins, without even the trace of their tastes or scent so that they do not recur.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, though the word as in “pari sAkalyE” could mean “everything”, as this sense has already been expressed in “sarva”, it is not applicable here in that meaning; ”pari” indicating emphasis, would mean, as said in manusmruthi 11-54:

brahma hathyA surApAnO sthEyam gurvanganAgama:
mahAnthi pAthakAnyAhu: samsargaSchApi thai: saha

(killing a brAhmaNa, drinking intoxicating materials, stealing gold, uniting with AchArya’s dharmapathni (wife) and being friendly  with those who indulge in these crimes are referred to as (five) heinous sins), giving up all the heinous sins with no scope for their recurrence, feeling ashamed of having indulged in them hitherto. While giving up the other means, as dharma dhEvathA said in vishNu  dharmam 66-71,

atha pAthaka bhIthasthvam sarvabhAvEna bhAratha
vimukthAnya samArambhO nArAyaNaparO bhava

(Oh one born in the clan of bharatha! Now, if you are fearful of carrying out the sin (of observing other upAyams), giving up such efforts with full consent of your mind, be involved with only SrIman nArAyaNa as the means) he shall feel a sense of shame for adopting other means, and give them up with the taste of having indulged in such means with his conscience and the scent of having indulged unconsciously, thinking “How can I indulge in such activities which are inimical to my basic nature of having only bhagavAn as the only means?”

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

sUthram – 202

Introduction: Now he describes the meaning of the word, “lyap”

lyappAlE “snAthvA bhunjItha” ennumA pOlE, upAyAntharangaLai vittE paRRa vENum engiRadhu.
ல்யப்பாலே “ஸ்நாத்வா புஞ்ஜீத” என்னுமாபோலே, உபாயாந்தரங்களைவிட்டே பற்ற வேணும் என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By (the usage of ) ‘lyap’, the mandate is to seek him, only after giving up [other means], as dictated in “snAthvA bhunjItha” (one should eat only after bathing).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by the ‘lyap’ mode of “parithyajya”, the meaning conveyed is that instead of doing as in uSa samhithai 5-50

SrAdhdha bhOjanakAlE thu dhIpO yadhi vinaSyathi
punarannan na bhOkthavyam bhukthva chAndhrAyaNam charEth

(while eating food during SrAdhdham (obsequies) if the lamp gets put out, one should stop eating. If the person continues to eat, he should perform chAndhrayaNa prAyaSchiththam (expiation)), one should follow the dictum “snAthvA bhunjItha” (eat only after bathing). Thus, when attaining bhagavAn through him as the means, this should be done only after  giving up the other means.


sUthram – 203

Introduction: He elaborates on this concept, further.

“chachAla chApancha mumOcha vIra:” engiRapadiyE ivai anupAyangaLAna mAthramanRikkE kAlkattu engiRadhu.
”சசால சாபஞ்ச முமோச வீர:” என்கிறபடியே இவை அநுபாயங்களான மாத்ரமன்றிக்கே கால் கட்டு என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: As told in “chachAla chApancha mumOcha vIra:” besides not being the means for the attainment, they are also (obstacles for movement) like shackles on the legs.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated in SrImadh rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 59-139  SlOka

yO vajra pAthASani sannipAthAn na chukshubhE nApi chachAla rAjA |
sa rAma bANAbhihathO bhruSArtha: chachAla chApancha mumOcha vIra: ||

(rAvaNa, who would not be shaken even if hit by vajrAyudha (famous weapon belonging to indhra) or struck by thunder, was shaken up when SrI rAma’s arrows hit him. Being a warrior (knowing that SrI rAma will not hit an unarmed warrior), he let go of his bow), SrI rAma did not stop hitting him until he dropped the bow in his hand. As soon as he dropped it, SrI rAma told him, as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam SlOkam  “gachchAnujAnAmi” (you are allowed to retreat to safety). Thus, other means not only do not facilitate attainment, but obstruct it.


sUthram – 204

Introduction: Further, he highlights that engagement with such means would lead to loss of attainment, with an example:

chakravarththiyaip pOlE izhakkaikku uRuppu.
சக்ரவர்த்தியைப்போலே இழக்கைக்கு உறுப்பு.

Simple meaning: This is (the cause for) loss as in the case of chakravarthi (dhaSaratha).

vyAkhyAnam: Remembering the earlier promise of boons (to kaikEyi)  which could not be negated now, by clinging to the filial dharma, chakravarthi dhaSaratha lost the bliss of living with perumAL who is mentioned as in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 37-13 “rAmO vigrahavAn dharma:” (SrI rAma is the epitome of dharmam). In the same way, engaging with means which appear to be inapt would lead to losing the opportunity of living with matters related to bhagavAn who is dharmam from time immemorial, just as it has been mentioned in “krishNam dharmam sanAthanam” (krishNan is the epitome of dharmam from yore)


sUthram – 205

Introduction: To counter the criticism of people who do not know the meaning of giving up all the other dharmams, lOkAchArya says:

sarva dharmangaLaiyum vittu enRu sollugaiyAlE silar ‘adharmangaL pugurum’, enRArgaL.
ஸர்வதர்மங்களையும் விட்டு என்று சொல்லுகையாலே, சிலர் ‘அதர்மங்கள் புகுரும்’, என்றார்கள்.

Simple meaning: Some people said, “giving up all dharma” would facilitate creeping of adharmic tendencies.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the dharmam which is to be given up, says “idham kuru, idham mAkArshI:” (do this, do not do that). Thus, when that which is to be given up is also negated along with that which is to be followed, it will become similar to opening the door for entities which had been shut out earlier.


sUthram – 206

Introduction: lOkAchArya dispels this doubt.

adhu kUdAdhu; ‘adharmangaLaichchey’ enRu sollAmaiyAlE.
அது கூடாது; ‘அதர்மங்களைச்செய்’ என்று சொல்லாமையாலே.

Simple meaning: That is not possible, because there is no mandate asking to “do adharma”.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by asking to give up all other means, entry of adharma is not possible because the mandate is for giving up activities that are incongruent to the sentient’s intrinsic nature of singular means, and not for doing acts of adharma.


sUthram – 207

Introduction: As avoidance of activities of adharma is also word-wise including dharma, asking to give up may also mean asking to perform them, say some.  He rejects this argument.

‘thannadaiyE solliRRu AgAdhO?’ ennil.
‘தன்னடையே சொல்லிற்றாகாதோ?’என்னில்.

Won’t it amount to saying so automatically?


sUthram – 208

Introduction: He says, it will not; as the word ”dharma” does not indicate removal of adharma.

AgAdhu; dharma Sabdham adharma nivruththiyaik kAttAmaiyAlE.
ஆகாது; தர்மஶப்தம் அதர்மநிவ்ருத்தியைக் காட்டாமையாலே.

Simple meaning: No, it will not; as the word “dharma” does not indicate removal of adharma.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, asking to give up dharma would not mean asking to do adharma by itself. This would only mean adoption of activities devoid of adharma but not asking to engage in acts of adharma per se. This is a guideline for vihitha anushtAnam, appropriate activity.


sUthram – 209

Introduction: The question arises, even if the word dharma is not vital in avoidance of adharma, will not the use of the word “sarva” by including all, indicate this also?

kAttinAlum, aththai ozhindhavaRRaich cholliRRAm iththanai.
காட்டினாலும், அத்தை ஒழிந்தவற்றைச் சொல்லிற்றாமித்தனை.

Simple meaning: Even if it indicates,  it would mean only those excluding it.

vyAkhyAnam: Even if it indicates so, as it talks of activities, we should take into account only activities which are mandated as to be done, as here it is not meant.


sUthram – 210

Introduction: How do we exclude these activities which may be adharmic?

thannaiyum, ISvaranaiyum, phalaththaiyum pArththAl avai pugura vazhi illai.
தன்னையும், ஈஶ்வரனையும், பலத்தையும் பார்த்தால் அவை புகுர வழியில்லை.

Simple meaning: If one looks at self, ISvara, and the pala (kainkaryam) such adharmic activities have no scope to creep in.

vyAkhyAnam: As adharmic activities are not up to the pleasure of ISvara, and as the sentient soul surrendered to him shall not do anything to displease him, looking at both ISvara and himself, there is little scope for such an event. The sentient is focussed on avoidance of any act that would end up as self attempt at attainment of goal; ISvara does not tolerate or countenance any conscious self-focussed act from the sentient in attainment; the pala (attainment) is also the result of his pleasure toward the sentient offering absolutely selfless service totally focussed on the pleasure of ISvara. Therefore in all these three possibilities such acts have no scope for entry as they are opposed to the svarUpa of the sentient, ISvara and the pala (kainkaryam). So, we should take this to mean the acts which are excluded herein.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 191-200

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 191

Introduction:  He describes the meaning of the first word: “sarvadharmAn”.

“sarva dharmAn” – ellA dharmangaLaiyum.
ஸர்வதர்மாந்- எல்லா தர்மங்களையும்.

Simple meaning: “sarvadharmAn” – All the dharmas.


sUthram – 192

Introduction: That is, dharma (stated in singular), dharmAn (dharmas, stated in plural) and sarva dharmAn (all dharmas). So, he proceeds to explain these three factors.

dharmamAvadhu palasAdhanamAy irukkumadhu.
தர்மமாவது – பலஸாதநமாயிருக்குமது.

Simple meaning: dharma – that which is an instrument to attain goal.


sUthram – 193

Introduction: As the word dharma includes the means for attainment of visible benefits also, he differentiates from that meaning.

inguchchollugiRa dharma Sabdham dhrushta palasAdhanangaLaich chollugai anRikkE, mOksha, pala sAdhanangaLaich chollugiRadhu.

இங்குச் சொல்லுகிற தர்மஶப்தம் த்ருஷ்ட பலஸாதநங்களைச் சொல்லுகையன்றிக்கே, மோக்ஷ பலஸாதநங்களைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: The word “dharma” used here talks of means for attaining mOksha, excluding means for attaining visible, temporal benefits.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as the previously explained means were described for mOksham, temporal benefits were distinguished from this goal; also the context of this description is of means for mOksham (bhagavath prApthi) which is distinctly different from earthly gains such as children, cows, food etc. and also unearthly but lowly gains such as heaven (other worlds) etc.


sUthram – 194

Introduction: Now he gives the meaning for the plural.

avai thAn – Sruthi smruthi vihithangaLAyp palavAy irukkaiyAlE bahuvachana prayOgam paNNugiRadhu.

அவைதான் – ஶ்ருதிஸ்ம்ருதி விஹிதங்களாய்ப் பலவாயிருக்கையாலே பஹுவசநப்ரயோகம் பண்ணுகிறது.

Simple meaning: They are mentioned in plural as they are mandated by Sruthi and smruthi and many in number.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, these means for attainment of mOksha are mandated by Sruthi (vEdhams) and smruthi (codes of law handed through generations) and many in number. Hence the word in plural form, “dharmAn”.


sUthram – 195

Introduction: If they are so many, what are they?

avaiyAvana – karma gyAna bakthi yOgangaLum, avathAra rahasya gyAnam, purushOththama vidhyai, dhESavAsam, thirunAma sankIrthanam, thiruviLakkerikkai, thirumAlai edukkai thodakkamAna upAya budhdhyA seyyumavaiyum.

அவையாவன- கர்ம ஜ்ஞாந பக்தியோகங்களும், அவதார ரஹஸ்யஜ்ஞாநம், புருஷோத்தம வித்யை, தேஶவாஸம், திருநாமஸங்கீர்த்தநம், திருவிளக்கெரிக்கை, திருமாலையெடுக்கை தொடக்கமான உபாய புத்த்யா செய்யுமவையும்.

Simple meaning: They are (karma, gyAna  and bhakthi yOgas) – various paths to attain ISvaran through the paths of deeds, knowledge and devotion, respectively; (avathAra rahasya gyAnam) – knowledge about the secret of [bhagavAn’s] incarnations; (purushoththama vidhyai) – knowledge about bhagavAn; (dhESa vAsam) – living in divine places (where ISvaran has taken residence); (thirunAma sankIrthanam) – chanting his divine names; (thiruviLakku erikkai) – lighting divine lamps in his shrine; (thirumAlai edukkai) – stringing garlands of flowers for him and similar services rendered with a conscious feeling that they are the means for the attainment.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, what has been described as “many” are:

karma yOga which is described as the independent means:

bhagavath gIthA 3-19, 20:
“thasmAdhaSakthas sathatham kAryam karma samAchara |
asakthO hyA charan karma paramApnOthi purusha: ||”
“karmaNaiva hi samsidhdhim AsthithA janakAdhaya:|”

(Hence, carry out the deeds without attachment (in them); one who carries out deeds without attachment, attains AthmA.  Did not kings such as janaka attain AthmasAkShAthkAram (seeing AthmA) only through carrying out deeds!)

gyAna yOga which is possible through karma yoga:

bhagavath gIthA 4-33:
SrEyAn dhravyamayAdhyagyA gyAna yagya: paranthapa |

sarvAm karmAkhilam pArtha gyAnE parisamApyathE ||

(Oh one who destroys the enemy! The sacred rite performed with knowledge is better than the mere rites with material possessions. Oh son of prithA! All deeds of work and those associated with them culminate In knowledge).

bhagavath gIthA 4-37 and 38:
“na hi gyAnEna sadhruSam pavithramiha vidhyathe

gyAnAgnis sarva karmAni bhasmasAth kuruthE thathA”

(In this world, there is nothing so sublime and pure as knowledge. The fire of knowledge will burn to ashes all karmas).

bhakthi yOga which is complemented by karma and gyAna:

bhagavath gIthA 11-54:

bhakthyA thvananyayA Sakya: aham Eva vidhOrjuna
gyAthum dhrashtum cha thathvEna pravEshtum cha paranthapa

(Oh Arjuna! Oh one who destroys the enemy! Only through devotion which does not expect a benefit can I, who am like this, be known truly, seen and attained)

bhagavath gIthA 9-34: 

manmanA bhava math bhakthO madhyAjI mAm namaskuru |
mAm Evaishyasi yukthvaivam AthmAnam math parAyaNa: ||

(Engage your mind always with me; be my devotee, worship me and offer me salutations. Considering only me as the supreme entity, keep your mind in me and attain me.)

avathAra rahasya gyAna (knowledge of the secret of incarnations) which is stated to be a means of attainment, precluded from virOdhi .

bhagavath gIthA 4-9:
janma karma cha mE dhivyam Evam yO vEththi thaththvatha: |
thyAkvA dhEham punar janma naithi mAmEthi sOrjuna ||

(Oh arjuna! One who knows my divine births and activities truly, upon leaving the body, does not take birth again in this material world, but attains me)

purushOththama vidhyA that would enable the sentient surrendering soul by his grace as stated in:

bhagavath gIthA 15-20:
ithi guhyathamam SAsthramidhamuktham mayAnagha
Ethadh budhdhvAbudhdhimAn syAth krutha kruthyascha bhAratha

(Oh sinless one! This esoteric SAsthram (religious treatise) (that I am the supreme entity) has been pronounced by me. Oh arjuna! Knowing this, one becomes wise and is considered as having completed the ordained deeds)

dhEsa vAsam – Living in a blessed place (puNya kshEthra vAsam) that is praised to grant the desired fruits as said in gAruda purANam SrIranga mahAthmyam 11-5 “dhESOyam sarva kAmadhuk” (this place will grant all that has been desired)

thirunAma sankIrthanam, which is said to dispel all sins as a prelude to attainment of prApya (bhagavath prApthi) as stated in mahAbhAratham AnusA parvam 254-132 ”sarvapApa viSudhdhAthmA yAthi brahma sanAthanam” (gets relieved from all sins and attains the supreme entity)

Lighting lamps in his temples, as it is recommended as an activity that facilitates bhagavath prApthi, wiping out sins:

“ghruthEna vAtha thailEna dhIpam yO jvAlayEn nara:|
vishNavE vidhivath bhakthyA thasya puNya palam SruNu||”;

“vihAya sakalam pApam sahasrAdhithya sannibha|
jyOthishmathA vimAnEna vishNulOkE mahIyathE||”.

(Listen to the benefit of one who lights a lamp with love for vishNu, as mentioned in SAsthram, with either ghee or oil: he gets relieved from all his sins, becomes effulgent like a thousand sUryas and through a splendorous aerial vehicle, reaches vishNu lOkam and becomes famous)

In a similar way, stringing garlands of flowers in his temples will enable the person to attain bhagavAn, after overcoming hurdles.


sUthram – 196

Introduction: Now he gives the meaning for the word “sarva”.

sarva SabdhaththAlE avvava sAdhana viSEshangaLai anushtikkumidaththil avaRRukku yOgyathApAthakangaLAna nithya karmangaLaichchollugiRadhu.

ஸர்வ ஶப்தத்தாலே அவ்வவஸாதந விஶேஷங்களை அநுஷ்டிக்குமிடத்தில் அவற்றுக்கு யோக்யதாபாதகங்களான நித்ய கர்மங்களைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: By the word “sarva”, the daily rituals (prerequisites), prescribed for the relevant activities which are practiced, are referred to.

vyAkhyanam: That is, the qualifying word ‘sarva’, implying plural, for the main word  “dharma”, indicates the daily ritualistic activities like the panchamahA yagnas such as sandhya vandhana etc which make the performer eligible for these activities, preventing disqualifications as stated in dhaksha smruthi 1-12 “sandhyA hInO’Suchir nithyam anarha: sarva karmasu” (one who does not perform sandhyA vandhanam everyday is impure and unfit to perform any ritual).


sUthram – 197

Introduction: He concludes his statement in this sUthram.

Aga, Sruthi smruthi chOdhithangaLAy nithya naimiththikAdhi rUpangaLAna karma yOgAdhyupAyangaLai enRapadi.

ஆக, ஶ்ருதி ஸ்ம்ருதி சோதிதங்களாய் நித்ய நைமித்திகாதி ரூபங்களான கர்மயோகாத்யுபாயங்களை என்றபடி.

Simple meaning: Thus,  upAyas which are karma yOga in form, vetted by Sruthi and smruthi, mandated as daily rituals.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, all the aforementioned activities which are affirmed as in pUrvamImAsai 1-1-2 “chOdhanA lakshaNArthO dharma:” (dharma is that which follows rules which state “Do this; do not do this”) are mandated by Sruthi and smruthi, in the form of rituals for daily and special occasions and culminating in karma yOga, form one set of upAya.


sUthram – 198

Introduction: Why are they, though contradictory to the intrinsic nature of the sentient and are to be qualified as “adharma”, called “dharma”?

ivaRRai dharmam engiRadhu – bhramiththa arjunan karuththAlE.
இவற்றை தர்மம் என்கிறது- ப்ரமித்த அர்ஜுநன் கருத்தாலே.

Simple meaning: They are called “dharma” in the perception of bewildered arjuna.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, since these are opposed to the very noble dharma of absolute loyalty and servitude to ISvaran, they are called against the tenets by meaning of the word dharma. Also, as arjuna was against performing his own duty of fighting the battle, his misconception of dharma is described. Thus he has completed explaining the first word.


sUthram – 199

Introduction: Now he describes the second word “parithyajya”.

parithyajya
பரித்யஜ்ய.

Simple meaning: Giving up completely

vyAkhyAnam: This also has three parts of (thyAga) sacrifice, “lyap”, and the prefix “pari”. First he describes the sacrifice part (thyAga) .


sUthram – 200

thyAgamAvadhu – ukthOpAyangaLai anusandhiththu ‘SukthikaiyilE rajatha budhdhi paNNuvAraip pOlEyum, viparIthadhiSA gamanam paNNuvAraip pOlEyum anupAyangaLilE upAya budhdhi paNNinOm’ engiRa budhdhi viSEshaththOdE thyajikkai.

த்யாகமாவது – உக்தோபாயங்களை அநுஸந்தித்துஶுக்திகையிலே ரஜதபுத்தி பண்ணுவாரைப் போலேயும், விபரீததிஶா கமநம் பண்ணுவாரைப் போலேயும் அநுபாயங்களிலே உபாயபுத்தி பண்ணினோம்என்கிற புத்தி விசேஷத்தோடே த்யஜிக்கை.

Simple meaning: “thyAga” (sacrifice) is not merely giving up; it is giving up the stated means (upAyas) with the mindset of people who realise their error in perceiving silver in a piece of shell or, who retrace their path after traveling in the wrong direction for a destination, with full consciousness of such giving up.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, what is mentioned here is not merely giving up, but, realising the futility of the means described earlier in view of their faults as they are unsuitable for persons interested in bhagavath prApthi, and giving up with full realisation such as throwing away a shell mistaken for silver or retracing the route after realising that such a path would not take to the desired destination. It is giving up with the conscious thought that one has adopted a means which will not enable that person to attain bhagavAn and giving up the means completely.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 185-190

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

SrI piLLai lOkAchAryar aruLichcheydha mumukshuppadi –
charama SlOka prakaraNam
mAmunigal Introduction to charama SlOkam

After detailing the meaning of dhvaya mahAmanthram, the middle esoteric secret (madhyama rahasya of rahasya thraya), lOkAchArya describes the meaning of the charama SlOka (the ultimate SlOka of bhagavath gIthA) which is the explanation for dhvaya, essence of bhagavath gIthA known as the gist of mahAbhAratha that is the fifth vEdha, as this SlOka :

  1. states in its first sentence the choice of means (upAya varaNam) in the words of the lord himself, that is acceptable for all, as he himself pronounces it;
  2. describes giving up of other means as the choice as part of means (upAya);
  3. emphasises giving up of perceiving the choice as a means and
  4. lists out release from all the sins that prohibit attainment of the goal (prApthi) in the second half of the SlOka.

Only to hear the meaning of this SlOka, emperumAnAr (rAmAnuja) trekked eighteen times to the abode of thirukkOshtiyUr nambi.

nambi also, considering the greatness of its meaning and also the rarity of appropriate personages to learn it, tested his interest in learning it by making him walk several times, putting him on fast for a month, and extracting a promise of secrecy, imparted its meaning to rAmAnuja.

Since only a person of extreme internal discipline, of intense feeling for the ISvara, of distaste for anything not related to him, and of extreme delight in listening to the lore of the lord, is qualified to learn the meaning of this SlOka, AchAryas before SrI rAmAnuja were not revealing it due to the rarity of authorities who can know and due to the value of the meaning of it. However, out of immense compassion, emperumAnAr revealed it to all, without looking at the value of its meaning, but at the incalculable damage samsAra was causing to the chEthanas.

Besides such teaching of this, lOkAchArya made it a point to describe its meaning in brief and in great detail in different granthas. Yet, he also made it so easy to learn for even women and children in this text only.


sUthram – 185

Introduction: In this, to  enlighten everyone about the greatness of the meaning of this SlOka, he states the reason for the SlOka to be called charama SlOka:

kIzhE sila upAya viSEshangaLai upadhESikka, avai dhuSSakangaL enRum svarUpa virOdhigaL enRum ninaiththu SOkAvishtanAna arjunanaik kuRiththu avanudaiya SOka nivruththi arththamAga ‘ini idhukku avvarugillai’ ennum padiyAna charamOpAyaththai aruLichcheygaiyAlE, charama SlOkam enRu idhukkup pErAy irukkiRadhu.

கீழே சில உபாய விஶேஷங்களை உபதேஶிக்க, அவை துஶ்ஶகங்களென்றும், ஸ்வரூப விரோதிகளென்றும் நினைத்து ஶோகாவிஷ்டனான அர்ஜூநனைக் குறித்து அவனுடைய ஶோக நிவ்ருத்த்யர்த்தமாக ‘இனி இதுக்கு அவ்வருகில்லை’என்னும்படியான சரமோபாயத்தை அருளிச்செய்கையாலே, சரமஶ்லோகமென்று இதுக்குப் பேராயிருக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: This is called charama SlOka, because, earlier to this he [krishNa] preached (arjuna) a few means (upAya) which arjuna thought  were difficult to practice and also violative of one’s intrinsic nature. Therefore krishNa taught this to quell his sorrow, as the ultimate instruction (charama upadhESa) beyond which nothing exists.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, before this SlOka, even though  in several chapters, some upAyas such as karma yOga, gyAna yOga, bhakthi yOga etc had been taught in detail, as they demand severe physical austerities, as control of sensory organs is difficult, as these require to be practiced for prolonged duration with difficulties, as these means have been found to be objectionable because  they amount to be self propelled and tainted by independence of the sentient, when arjuna was distressed about his grievous loss, for his comfort and dispelling his concern, krishNa taught this as an easy means suitable for his intrinsic nature as the ultimate means. Hence its name, charama SlOka.


sUthram – 186

Introduction: Now lOkAchArya proceeds to give the meaning for the two sentences which form this SlOka.

idhil pUrvArdhaththAlE adhikAri kruthyaththai aruLichcheygiRAn; uththarArdhaththAlE upAya kruthyaththai aruLichcheygiRAn.

இதில் பூர்வார்த்தத்தாலே அதிகாரி க்ருத்யத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறான்; உத்தரார்த்தத்தாலே உபாயக்ருத்யத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: By the first half of this SlOkam, he describes what is done by the (surrendering) sentient and by the second half, what is done by the upAya (the one who is surrendered to).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in the SlOka of two halves, in the first half, he describes what is to be done by the sentient who qualifies for this upAya and in the second half what is to be done by the upAya, the chosen identity.


sUthram – 187

Introduction: What is to be done by the qualifying sentient?  He describes:

adhikArikku kruthyamAvadhu upAya parigraham.
அதிகாரிக்கு க்ருத்யமாவது – உபாய பரிக்ரஹம்.

Simple meaning: The activity to be done by the qualified sentient is acceptance of the means (upAya parigraham).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, what the qualified sentient has to do is to accept the means.


sUthram – 188

Introduction: If so, why prescribe sacrificing other means, instead of mandating this?

aththai sAngamAga vidhikkiRAn.
அத்தை ஸாங்கமாக விதிக்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: He prescribes it (the rule) with its auxiliaries.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, ISvaran prescribes acceptance of means along with its auxiliary viz sacrificing other means. Just like washing of feet etc are preliminaries to Achamana cannot be discounted though they are only part of Achamana, acceptance of the means without giving up (sacrificing) other means, is incompatible as stated in SAsthra:

prakshALya pAdhA vAchAmEth snAthvA vidhivadharchayEth |
sthithvArghyam bhAnavE dhadhyAth dhyAthvA dhEvam japEn manum ||

(Achamanam can be performed only after washing the feet; worshipping as ordained can be done only after taking bath; arghyam can be given to sUrya only in standing posture; manthram can be recited only while meditating on the celestial entity)

Just as Achamanam cannot be performed without following its auxiliary of washing the feet, here too, accepting upAya without giving up the other means is incompatible. Therefore, the argument that “sarva dharmAn parithyajya” allows/supports  the other means along with the extant upAya (him) is not sustainable.


sUthram – 189

Introduction: But since this is easy to accept and pleasurable to  adopt,   does it still need some stipulations?

rAgaprApthamAna upAyam thAnE vaidhamAnAl kadugap parigrahikkaikku udalAy irukkumiRE.

ராகப்ராப்தமான உபாயந்தானே வைதமானால் கடுகப்பரிக்ரஹிக்கைக்கு உடலாயிருக்குமிறே.

Simple meaning: When an easy to adopt and pleasurable means is mandated, it hastens the process of acceptance.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, milk is liked for its enjoyment. When it is offered as medicine for intestinal issues, it hastens its acceptance. Similarly, this upAyam is preferred by the sentient because of its distinction. When he is ordained to accept it, it hastens the process of acceptance.


sUthram – 190

Introduction: Now, in order to give the meaning for each word of this SlOkam, he starts by giving the number of words in the first half.

idhil pUrvArdham ARu padham.
இதில் பூர்வார்த்தம் ஆறு பதம்.

Simple meaning: In this, the first half has six words.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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