SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:
ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்
sUthram – 271
Introduction: To the question, how is this possible, he says:
karmamkainkaryaththilEpugum; gyAnam-svarUpaprakASaththilEpugum; bakthiprApyaruchiyilEpugum; prapaththisvarUpayAthAthmyagyAnaththilEpugum.
கர்மம் கைங்கர்யத்திலேபுகும்; ஜ்ஞாநம்- ஸ்வரூபப்ரகாஶத்திலேபுகும்; பக்திப்ராப்யருசியிலேபுகும்; ப்ரபத்திஸ்வரூபயாதாத்ம்யஜ்ஞாநத்திலேபுகும்.
Simple meaning: karma enters service (kainkaryam); gyAna enters enlightenment of the self (svarUpa prakASam); bhakthi enters taste for the attainable (prApya ruchi); surrender (prapaththi) enters knowledge about the true status of the self (svarUpa yAthAthmya gyAnam).
vyAkhyAnam: That is, whatever mandated act he performs in accordance with his varNa and ASrama, as it is done not as an act expecting some results but as an offering to ISvaran in all humility, it is very much to his liking and so enters service (kainkaryam). The subtle knowledge that visualizes ISvaran’s svarUpa, being intellectual in nature, enters the divine knowledge facilitating such vision once the consciousness of result oriented self-propulsion slips out. As stated in
SrI bhagavath gIthA 11-54:
bhakthyA thvananyA Sakya ahamEvam vidhOrjuna
gyAthum dhrashtum cha thaththvEna pravEshtum cha paranthapa
(Oh arjuna! Vanquisher of enemies! I, of such qualities, can be truly known, seen, and entered into only by devotion (bhakti) which does not expect anything in return)
Like hunger for food, this will enter the taste (ruchi) for service. prapaththi (surrender) in the form of seeking the attainable with undivided servitude enters the absolute and true nature of the sentient (svarUpa yAthAthmya) which is total dependence on ISvaran and having only ISvaran as refuge.
sUthram – 272
Introduction: Of these, bhakthi and prapaththi, which is the instrument for him to attain his goal (pala), if both are removed?
Oru palaththukku ariyavazhiyaiyum, eLiya vazhiyaiyum upadhESikkaiyAlE, ivai iraNdum ozhiya bagavath prasAdhamE upAyamAgak kadavadhu.
ஒரு பலத்துக்கு அரிய வழியையும், எளிய வழியையும் உபதேஶிக்கையாலே, இவை இரண்டும் ஒழிய பகவத்ப்ரஸாதமே உபாயமாகக்கடவது.
Simple meaning: Since for the same result, both an easy route and a difficult route are taught, leaving these two aside, only his grace (bhagavath prasAdha) has to be the means (upAya).
vyAkhyAnam: For the single gain of bhagavath prApthi (attaining bhagavAn), as stated in the lag:hvathri smruthi -1:
“janmAnthara sahasrEshu thapO gyAna samAdhibhi:
narANam kshINa pApAnAm krishNE bhakthi: prajAyathE”,
being achieved in thousands of births by the integral parts of karma and gyAna is the difficult bhakthi mArga; by giving up all the means as stated in “sarva dharmAn parithyajya” in a singular observance (sakruth anushtEyam) is prapaththi mArga. As his grace alone is the real desire, neither the difficult bhakthi nor the easy prapaththi, but may bhagavath prasAdha only be the means.
sUthram – 273
Introduction: Yet, should there not be something from sentient’s side for his attainment? lOkAchArya replies to this query:
pERRukku vENduvadhu – vilakkAmaiyum irappum.
பேற்றுக்கு வேண்டுவது – விலக்காமையும் இரப்பும்.
Simple meaning: For attainment, avoidance and praying alone are required.
vyAkhyAnam: That is, for the fruition of attainment (phalasidhdhi), the sentient should have two qualifications:
- Not avoiding ISvaran when he comes for protection through his own efforts and
- Praying to make it the end benefit
sUthram – 274
Introduction: Other than these, will it not be fine if he [sentient] also has some auspicious deeds to offer from his side? lOkAchArya says that is not to his [ISvaran’s] liking.
chakravarththith thirumagan, pApaththOdE varilum amaiyumenRAn; ivan puNyaththaip pogattu vara vENum enRAn.
சக்ரவர்த்தித் திருமகன், பாபத்தோடேவரிலும் அமையுமென்றான்; இவன், புண்யத்தைப் பொகட்டு வரவேணுமென்றான்.
Simple meaning: chakravarthi thirumagan (SrI rAma) said that it is acceptable if one comes with sins to surrender; krishNa said that one should discard the dhamas (virtuous acts) before coming to surrender.
vyAkhyAnam: That is, SrIrAma, who is described as in
SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 37-13:
rAmO vigrahavAn dharma: sAdhu: sathya parAkrama:
rAjA sarvasya lOkasya dhEvAnAm maghavAniva
(SrI rAma is the embodiment of dharma; he possesses good character; he is truly valiant; he is the king of all the worlds just as indhra is for celestial entities);
Such SrI rAma said in
SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-35:
Anayainam hari SrEshta thaththamasyAbhayam mayA
vibhIshaNO vA sugrIva! yadhi vA rAvaNa svayam
(Oh sugrIva! The best among vAnaras! Bring him here! Whether it is vibhIshaNa or rAvaNa himself, he is granted refuge by me), even if the entity who surrenders is the sinner rAvaNa, please bring him. Thus, he did not consider sin a reason for rejection, but krishNa, who said “sarva dharmAn parithyajya”, said “for attainment, discard the auspicious acts which you feel are the way for attainment”, because:
mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 86-26:
yEcha vEdhavidhOviprA: yEchAdhyAthmavidhO janA:
thE vadhanthi mahAthmAnam krishNam dharmam sanAthanam
(those who know the vEdhams as well as the scholars who are thorough in vEdhAntha, say krishNa is the most ancient form of dharma.)
is how krishNa is described as dharmA itself and as he is ‘sahAyAnthara samsarga asahan’ can’t tolerate another means to attain him, except himself, says so.
sUthram – 275
Introduction: For one who is immersed in this concept, he can either uplift himself or perish as a non-believer, says lOkAchArya quoting embAr, a preceptor.
“AsthiganAy ivvarthaththil ruchi viSvAsangaLai udaiyanAy ujjIviththal, nAsthiganAy naSiththal ozhiya naduvil nilai illai” – enRu bhattarukku embAr aruLichcheydha vArththai.
”ஆஸ்திகனாய் இவ்வர்த்தத்தில் ருசி விச்வாஸங்களுடையனாய் உஜ்ஜீவித்தல், நாஸ்திகனாய்நஶித்தல் ஒழிய நடுவில் நிலையில்லை” என்று பட்டர்க்கு எம்பார் அருளிச் செய்த வார்த்தை.
Simple meaning: embAr told bhattar: “One should either uplift oneself with taste and trust in this concept or perish without believing; there is no middle path”.
vyAkhyAnam: That is, to SrI parASarabhattar, the renowned SAsthragna, his AchArya SrI embAr said “One who is rooted in this concept believes that this is true by bhagavAn’s greatness and develops a taste in it; he gets uplifted due to the deep belief in it. One who feels that all SAsthras are on one side and this SlOka the opposite, perishes since he does not believe in this and does not approve of it; there is no midway”.
sUthram – 276
Introduction: lOkAchArya says that for one who does not have complete belief it this, engagement with it will be cause for his ruin, through an example.
vyavasAyam illAdhavanukku idhil anvayam, Amaththil bhOjanam pOlE.
வ்யவஸாயம் இல்லாதவனுக்கு இதில் அந்வயம், ஆமத்தில்போஜநம்போலே.
Simple meaning: For one with no faith in this, participation is like eating with indigestion.
vyAkhyAnam: That is, for one who does not have faith, engagement with this SlOka would be cause for his ruin, just like a person eating when suffering from indigestion, as it could lead to death.
sUthram – 277
Introduction: lOkAchArya mercifully explains as to who qualify for this through ANdAL’s pAsuram.
“vittuchiththarkEttiruppar” engiRapadiyE adhikArigaLniyathar.
“விட்டுசித்தர்கேட்டிருப்பர்” என்கிறபடியே அதிகாரிகள் நியதர்.
Simple meaning: Authorities who are like “vittu chiththar kEttiruppar” are destined for this.
vyAkhyAnam: That is, as AndAl says in her nAchiyArthirumozhi pAsuram 11-10, about her father:
“semmai udaiya thiruvarangar thAmpaNiththa
meymaip peru vArththai vittuchiththar kEttiruppar”,
(periyAzhwAr would have heard the great words of SrI ranganAtha, who has eminent quality and who had mercifully spoken of the true words, the charama SlOkam, and would have conducted himself in line with that). That is, the one who is reclining in srirangam as the meaning of the words, and is perfect in all the three faculties (manO, vAk, kAyam; mind, speech and physical), came to the battlefield for the sake of arjuna and asserted on the chariot, the most apt, easy to adopt and altruistic aphorism “mAm Ekam SaraNam vraja”. periyAzhvAr would have heard this and would have been deeply engaged with that dictum. Those who live accordingly, hearing this SlOkam, would also be firmly engaged with it.
sUthram – 278
Introduction: lOkAchArya concludes this dhivya grantham by quoting from the SrIsUkthis of AzhwArs to elaborate on this:
“vArththaiaRibavar” engiRapAttum, “aththanAgi” engiRa pAttum idhukku arththamAga anusandhEyam.
”வார்த்தையறிபவர்” என்கிற பாட்டும், “அத்தனாகி” என்கிற பாட்டும் இதுக்கு அர்த்தமாக அநுஸந்தேயம்.
Simple meaning: The two pAsurams , “vArththai aRibavar”, and “aththanAgi” are to be remembered as meaning for this (SlOka).
vyAkhyAnam: That is, nammazhvAr’s pAsuram thiruvAimozhi 7-5-10
vArththai aRibavar mAyavaRku ALanRi AvarO
pOrththa piRappodu nOyodu mUppodu iRappavai
pErththup perundhunbam veraRa nIkkith than thALinaik kIzhch
chErththu avan seyyum sEmaththai eNNith theLivuRRE
Will those who know the great words “sarva papEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi” be surrendered to anyone other than to him, who destroys the several births this soul is cursed with, the diseases that plague the bodies in these countless births, suffering from old age which falls like thunder and the ultimate nemesis that overtakes them [death] and even if they escape these, removing the unbearable abyss of kaivalya where the AthmAs enjoy themselves, but takes them in under his own feet such that they do not have to take another birth, and who is the entity that they have to reach, thinking of his protection and his ability to remove their enemies?
In thirumazhisai AzhvAr’s pAsuram thiruchchandha viruththam 115, “aththanAgi“ this opinion is expressed as follows:
aththanAgi annaiyAgi ALum embirAnumAy
oththovvAdha pal piRappozhiththu nammai AtkoLvAn
muththanAr mugundhanAr pugundhu nammuL mEvinAr
eththinAl idarkkadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE
Making us, nithya samsAris equal to the nithya mukthas though we are steeped in the odour of earthly life, he uplifts us, as all souls are equal in the form of knowledge though differing in body as celestials, humans etc and accepts us with the love of a mother, concern of a father, and as the master to have us as his slaves; without looking at his greatness or our pettiness, he carries our entire burden on himself; yet he is with us as if we befit this status! Oh ignorant mind! Are we good to know what is ideal for us? Or is he unwise to know that? Are we capable to ensure our welfare or is he incapable? When he is ready to accept you in his service, without looking at his eminence, coming down to our level to help us, why are you immersed in the ocean of sorrows?
Thus, the dharmas to be given up as part of surrender (svIkArAngathayA thyAjyam), the giving up of these dharmas, his saulabhya etc., as part of his acceptance, his expecting no other means for this seeking (upAya nairapEkshya), his characteristics of being upAya, seeking him only, as means (upAya), the gyAna and Sakthi of the accepted upAya, the characteristics of the sentient thus surrendering to him, the clusters of inauspicious sins that plague as virOdhis, the way these sins are liquidated, the absolutely care free light heartedness of such a sentient soul have been summarised.
charama SlOka prakaraNam sampUrNam.
emberumAnAr, lOkAchArya, jIyar thiruvadigalE SaraNam.
mumukshuppadi mAmunigaL vyAkhyAnam sampUrNam
adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan
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