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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 376

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

To explain that if we wrongly explained the reason for loss and gain, ISvaran will abandon us, piLLai lOkAchAryar is using a worldly example and showing it.

sUthram 376

edukka ninaikkiRavanaith thaLLinAy engai edAmaikku uRuppiRE.

Simple Explanation

When a person who tries to help in pulling another person out, is blamed as the one who pushed him in, it will make that person abandon the initiative.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

edukka ninaikkiRavanai …

That is – when a person falls into a deep well due to his carelessness caused by his karma, a compassionate person who is standing-by will try to help to come out of the well. At that time, if the person inside the well considering only the fact that the person who had set out to help was standing in close proximity, said “Oh! You are the one who pushed me into the well”, the person outside would become angry thinking “He is blaming for a mistake that I did not commit” and abandon the initiative of helping him.

Similarly, when AthmA who remains fallen in the great pit of samsAram due to his own karma, blames ISvaran who is compassionate to try and rescue the AthmA, saying “All along you have pushed me into samsAram and kept me here”, ISvaran will become angry and abandon the AthmA saying “Let him suffer as he deserves”.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 250

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

When asked “Are these AzhwArs at the same level in performing mangaLASAsanam?” piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully explains.

sUthram 250

AzhwArgaL ellAraiyum pOl allar periyAzhwAr.

Simple Explanation

periyAzhwAr is unlike all other AzhwArs.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

AzhwArgaL …

That is – there is great difference between periyAzhwAr and all other AzhwArs, in performing mangaLASAsanam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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yathIndhra pravaNa prabhAvam – Part 83

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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Further events at kOyil

On the day that thiruvEngadamudaiyAn ordained thirumalai aiyangAr to carry out kainkaryam at thirumalai, jIyar was conducting kAlakshEpam for thiruvAimozhi 3.3 decad, ozhivilAkkAlam udanAy manni vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdum nAm (without any break, we should carry out faultless service to emperumAn). He was in a state of grief whether he was standing or sitting or lying down and was lamenting, feeling enervated. The previous night, an EkAngi (an assistant to the jIyar who is a bachelor) by the name thiruvEnkata jIyar, came in the dream of prathivAdhi bhayankaram aNNA and told him “Oh SrIvaishNava dhAsar! Come! Tomorrow, during the kAlakshEpam of ozhivilAkkAlam jIyar will be in a trance since he was not carrying out kainkaryam there. Tell him that in SEshaSailam (thirumalai), we will grant kainkaryam to him, who is the reincarnationi of AdhiSEshan”. prathivAdhi bhayankaram aNNan woke up with a start and was wondering “Such is the glory of this dream!” He completed his daily chores the next morning and reached thirumalaiyAzhwAr (discourse hall in jIyar matam) where he prostrated before jIyar. Seeing the condition of jIyar there and recollecting his dream the previous night, finding that both were similar, he became pleased and recounted his dream to jIyar. jIyar praised aNNA and told him “This too is such a mercy [of emperumAn]!” feeling happy. He asked aNNA to narrate his dream again and again, shared it with the [ashta]dhikkajangaLs (his eight principal disciples) and asked them “How do you feel about this?” They told him “By now, an amazing act should have happened at thirumalai; dhEvarIr should order someone to learn about it”. At that time, azhagaraNNan, a person in the SrIvaishNava assembly, got up, prostrated before jIyar and told him “adiyEn will leave for thirumalai, with dhEvarIr’s divine feet as purushakAram (recommendatory role), worship appan (thiruvEngadamudaiyAn) and learn about the event there”. jIyar was much pleased with him and mercifully gave him permission to leave. azhagaraNNan went immediately to thirumalai and worshipped perumAL. He saw iLaiyAzhwAr piLLai there, both of them exchanged salutations and enquired about each other. iLaiyAzhwAr piLLai took him to meet rAmAnuja aiyangAr who showered him with presents and enquired repeatedly about jIyar’s glories. aiyangAr told azhagaraNNan about perumAL’s order to carry out kainkaryam at thirumalai as well as his urge to take refuge under jIyar. azhagaraNNan told him about jIyar’s urge to carry out kainkaryam at thirumalai and the dream that prathivAdhi bhayankaram aNNA had. rAmAnuja aiyangAr said “adiyEn has become a fortunate person; with the blessings of the divine hands of jIyar, adiyEn will carry out kainkaryam to the extent of adiyEn’s ability”. He then gave his permission for iLaiyAzhwAr and azhagaraNNan to leave for SrIrangam. They left immediately, prostrated before jIyar, proffered the abhayahastha prasAdhams (images of emperumAn’s divine right hand, granting refuge) from various dhivyadhESa emperumAns in the north at this divine feet. jIyar accepted them and told iLaiyAzhwAr that he was seeing him after a long time.  He showered his grace on iLaiyAzhwAr as well as on azhagaraNNan. He then told prathivAdhi bhayankaram aNNA “Your dream has come to fruition. Wasn’t it for you that thiruvEngadamudaiyAn has showered his mercy!” He kept embracing iLaizhAywar piLLai saying “You have gone a long distance!” He heard about the true nature and true characteristics of rAmAnuja aiyangAr from him, feeling pleased. He kept reminiscing about the unanimity among namperumAL, SrI badhrikASramap perumAL, thirunArAyaNap perumAL (thirunArAyaNapuram), thiruvEngadamudaiyAn, azhagar [on mAmunigaL’s thaniyan]. All these events had been written mercifully by kandhAdai appan in his prabandham “varavaramuni vaibhava vijayam” and heard mercifully by jIyar.

Later, one day, when jIyar was returning from the divine kAvEri river, iLaiyAzhwAr lent him his hand and told him about the desire of rAmAnuja aiyangAr [to carry out kainkaryam, being blessed by the divine hands of jIyar]. jIyar said “There will be another opportunity to worship thiruvEngadamudaiyAn; at that time, his desire would be fulfilled; for now, let him have the wealth of  kainkaryam”. iLaiyAzhwAr then told jIyar that rAmAnuja aiyangAr was worshipping jIyar’s divine sandals as his thiruvArAdhanap perumAL. Once jIyar reached the matam, a few SrIvaishNavas who were connected to his divine feet, told him that they are leaving for thirumalai in order to worship during the purattAsi mahOthsavam. jIyar was very pleased on hearing that, looked in the direction of  thirumalai, offering his anjali, gave them his divine sandals and told them to give them to rAmAnuja aiyangAr, after which they left for thirumalai.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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yathIndhra pravaNa prabhAvam – Part 19

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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Subsequently, kUrakulOththama dhAsa nAyan, realising that he was in his final days, called thirumalai AzhwAr and told him “Approach viLAnjOlaippiLLai and learn all the significant meanings that you desire; approach thirukkaNNangudip piLLai and learn thiruvAimozhi from him”. Then, reminiscing the divine feet of his AchAryar, piLLai lOkAchAryar, he left for thirunAdu (SrIvaikuNtam). His final obsequies were conducted through his son. kUrakulOththama dhAsar’s star is thiruvAdhirai (ArudhrA) in aippasi (thulA) month. His thaniyan is

lOkAchArya krupA pAthram kauNidinya kulabhUshaNam
samasthAthma guNAvAsam vandhE kUra kulOththamam
svayamAhUya SailESa guravE’rthapradhAnatha:
labhdhOdhArapitham kUrakulOththamam aham bhajE

(I offer my salutations to kUrakulOththama dhAsa nAyanAr who was the recipient of piLLai lOkAchAryar’s mercy, who is an ornament for the kauNdinya clan and who is the repository of all auspicious qualities; I worship kUrakulOththama dhAsa nAyanAr who voluntarily called thirumalai AzhwAr and showered distinguished meanings [of rahasyArthams] and who was called as udhArar (magnanimous person) because of that).

Subsequently, thirumalai AzhwAr approached thirukkaNNangudip piLLai, prostrated before him and submitted to him “You should mercifully give adiyEn (servitor) the meanings of thiruvAimozhi”. piLLai also agreed and started telling the meanings of thiruvAimozhi, based on the meanings of the words. Since thirumalai AzhwAr was an expert in thamizh, he requested piLLai to give him the meanings in a descriptive way. Since piLLai had reached old age, he was unable to do so and asked thirumalai AzhwAr to approach thirupputkuzhi jIyar and learn from him. thirumalai AzhwAr reached kAnchIpuram and learnt that the day that he reached kAnchIpuram was the twelfth day after jIyar had attained mOksham (SrIvaikuNtam). He felt very sorrowful. All the AchAryars in the dhEvarAjap perumAL temple as well as the temple employees took him to worship perundhEvith thAyAr and pEraruLALan and offered him sacred water, SrI SatAri (representing divine feet of emperumAn), divine garland, divine thuLasi etc and praised him to be the torch bearer for the dharSanam (one who spreads the philosophy of bhagavadh rAmAnujar).

The next day, nAlUrp piLLai and his son, nAlUrAchchAn piLLai returned from thirunArAyaNapuram and reached the temple to carry out mangaLASAsanam (extolling) pEraruLALan. At that time, thirumalai AzhwAr was inside the sannidhi, carrying out mangaLASAsanam. Not knowing that thirumalai AzhwAr was inside the sannidhi, they asked people outside as to who was carrying out mangaLASAsanam inside. They said that it was kOyil thirumalai AzhwAr. They mercifully said “Isn’t it kOyil thirumalai perumAL kOyil?” (it is customary to refer to the divine temples at SrIrangam, thirumalai and kAnchIpuram as kOyil, thirumalai and perumAL kOyil). When archakar (temple priest) was blessing all with SrISatAri, nAlUrppiLLai, who was in the back row, raised his head towards the archakar to receive SrISatAri. When SrISatAri was applied, he supported SatAri with his divine hands. The archakar hurriedly brought the SrISatAri inside the sannidhi, caught thirumalai AzhwAr by his hands, brought him to nAlUrp piLLai, handed him over to nAlUrp piLLai telling him “We had ordained that he be taught mUvAyiram (commentary for 3000 pAsurams, i.e. pAsurams other than thiruvAimozhi) at jyOthishkudi; he has come; in order to make up for the loss of thiruputkuzhi jIyar, you teach him that too” indicating that emperumAn was speaking through him. nAlUrp piLLai said “adiyEn has become blessed. Is adiyEn capable of teaching him that which even thirukkaNNangudip piLLai could  not? ” emperumAn, through the archakar, said “If nAlUrAchchAn piLLai teaches him, that would be equivalent to your teaching him as per the saying AthmAvai puthranAmAsi (it is the AthmA who is born as a son)”. Hearing this, nAlUrp piLLai was very happy and told thirumalail AzhwAr “Welcome, AzhwAr! adiyEn has become very aged; you are an expert in many fields; only he (pointing to his son nAlUrAchchAn piLLai) is capable of teaching you”. Handing thirumalai AzhwAr to his son nAlUrAchchAn piLLai, he left for thirunArAyaNapuram.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 78

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

When asked “How can you say like this? Isn’t one known by the village, clan etc from which one comes?” piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully responds.

sUthram 78

grAma kulAdhigaLAl varum pEr anarththa hEthu.

Simple Explanation

The name derived from one’s village, clan etc are reasons for disaster.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

grAma …

That is, as being known by one’s native village, clan etc will cause ahankAra, it will lead to disaster in the form of svarUpa hAni (damaging the true nature of self which is different from body). Hence, it is implied that AthmA should not be identified by those aspects.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 75

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar is mercifully explaining what is expressly said as accidental and is opposite to this [SEshathvam].

sUthram 75

svAthanthryamum anya SEshathvamum vandhERi.

Simple Explanation

Independence and servitude towards others are accidental.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

svAthanthryamum …

svAthanthryam

To remain for the self [feeling uncontrollable by others].

anya SEshathvam

To remain as a servitor towards entities other than bhagavAn.

vandhERi

These are said to be accidental since these are acquired due to chEthana’s avidhyA (ignorance) etc.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 58

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

No specific introduction.

sUthram 58

upAyAntharam iraNdaiyum poRukkum.

Simple Explanation

Other upAyams (means) will tolerate both (self and others).

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

upAyAntharam iraNdaiyum poRukkum.

Other upAyams are known as sAdhyOpAyam (upAyam gets manifested by individual effort) and are different from sidhdhOpAyam (bhagavAn who is readily available), for those who are devoid of knowledge about their total dependence on bhagavAn and are engaged in self-effort. Since these are mentioned in SAsthram (vEdham) as upAyam, they will tolerate self, and since they require the pre-requisite actions to be done in their coming into existence etc, they will tolerate others which are different from self as well. It is said in, lakshmI thanthram “bhakthyA labhyas thvananyayA” (He is attainable by pure bhakthi only), Athma sidhdhi “ubhaya parikarmitha svAnthasya akAnthikAthyanthika bhakthi yOgaiga labhya:” (bhagavAn is attainable by bhakthi yOgam which is without any other expectation by the one who is having pure heart decorated with karma yOgam and gyAna yOgam), lagvathri smruthi “janmAnthara sahasrEshu thapOdhyAna samAdhibhi: | narANAm kshINa pApAnAm krishNE bhakthi prajAyathE ||” (Due to karma yOgam in the form of thapas (penance), gyAna yOgam and bhakthi yOgam in thousands of births, for men, the sins get destroyed and bhakthi gets created) .

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 30

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar concludes this principle by highlighting the result the previously explained aspects.

sUthram 30

AgaiyAl Sudhdhi aSudhdhigaL iraNdum thEda vENdA; irundhapadiyE adhikAriyAm iththanai.

Simple Explanation

Thus, one need not seek purity or impurity; one is qualified in the present state.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

AgaiyAl …

AgaiyAl

Saying “based on the actions of these two personalities during the practice of prapaththi and hearing about the same”.

Sudhdhi aSudhdhigaL iraNdum thEda vENdA

While engaging in prapaththi, an impure person need not acquire purity, and a pure person need not acquire impurity. As both personalities who were previously mentioned, engaged in prapaththi in an impure state, one may have a doubt that one should be impure to perform prapaththi – to eliminate such doubt piLLai lOkAchAryar says “aSudhdhi thEda vENdA” (one need not seek impurity).

irundhapadiyE adhikAriyAm iththanai

Whatever state one is in while performing prapaththi, whether pure or impure, he is qualified in that state itself. As both dhraupadhi and arjunan did not acquire purity while performing and hearing about prapaththi respectively, they also did not intentionally acquire impurity – they were qualified as they were.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 3

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar is subsequently explaining to clarify the doubt “if there is any gradation in the uththarabhAga upabruhmaNam (ithihAsas and purANas which explain vEdhAntha)” Alternative explanation – piLLai lOkAchAryar himself voluntarily, explains thinking to highlight which among the two upabruhmaNams which speak about the single part (uththara bhAgam) have more strength (authority).

sUthram 3

ivai iraNdilum vaiththuk koNdu ithihAsam prabalam.

Simple Explanation

Among the two (ithihAsams and purANams), ithihAsams have more strength.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

ivai iraNdilum …

That is among the two (ithihAsams and purANams) which are seen together due to being explanation for the greater part, that is uththarabhAgam, for authenticity, ithihAsam are said to have greater strength than purANam.

ithihAsams carry more strength than purANams due to parigraha athiSayam (greater acceptance), madhyasthathA (being neutral) and karthurApthathamathvam (the trustworthiness of the author).

Among these, parigraha means acceptance in SAsthram. Even in many purANams, ithihAsams are glorified more than purANams as seen in:

  • skAndha purANam “vEdha vEdhyE parE pumsi jAthE dhaSarathAthmajE | vEdha: prAchEthasAdhAsIth sAkshAth rAmAyaNAthmanA ||” (As SrIman nArAyaNan, the supreme lord, who is to be understood from vEdham, incarnated as the son of dhaSaratha, vEdhams came into existence in the form of SrI rAmAyaNam from vAlmeeki maharishi who is the son of prachEthas)
  • vAyu spoke in Siva purANam “mathimandhAnam Avidhya yEnAsau Sruthi sAgarAth | jagath hithAya janithO mahAbhAratha chandhramA: ||” (This great moon of mahAbhAratha was created by churning the ocean of vEdham with the mortar of intelligence by vyAsa for the benefit of the world …)
  • mArkaNdEya purANam “vyAsa vAkya jalaughEna kudharma tharuhAriNA | vEdha SailAvathIrnEna nIrajaskA mahIkruthA ||” (The words of vyAsa which are similar to water which can knock down the trees which are the unrighteous aspects which arose from the mountain of vEdham, can remove the dirt on the earth).
  • bibhEthi gahanAchchAsthrAn naras thIvrAdhivaushadhAth | bhArathaS SAsthra sArO ayamatha: kAvyAthmanA krutha: ||” (this mahAbhAratham which is the essence of SAsthram, was created in the form of an epic for that man who fears for the incomprehensible SAsthram, considering it to be heavy medication [for such man])
  • bhavishyath purANam “vishNau vEdhEshu vidhvathsu gurushu brAhmaNEshu cha | bhakthir bhavathi kalyANI bhArathadhEva dhImathAm ||” (Through mahAbhAratham, auspicious bhakthi occurs for the wise ones, towards the omnipresent SrIman nArAyaNan, vEdhams which reveal him, the scholars who are well versed in such vEdhams, the teachers who explain those principles and towards the brAhmaNas).

madhyasththA means – brahmA who is the propagator of all purANams, depending upon the guNam (quality) among the three viz sathvam (goodness), rajas (passion) and thamas (ignorance) which was predominant at particular times, praised the dhEvathA who is having such guNam as said in mAthsya purANam “yasmin kalpEthu yathprOktham purANam brahmaNa purA thasya thasyathu mAhAthmyam thath svarUpENa varNyathE” (Previously, on the kalpa (day) when purANams were spoken by brahmA, the greatnesss of the dhEvathAs was spoken according to the particular quality). Hence the purANams are partial (having favouritism) in nature. Unlike the purANams, since ithihAsams are focussed on the principles of vEdham and general worldly principles, they are not partial towards anyone.

karthurApthathamathvam means the author of the prabandham (literature) should have the ability to see the truth as it is and have the ability to present the matters that are seen as they are.

This greater strength of ithihAsams over purANams is commonly (without naming any ithihAsam or purANam) spoken by uyyakkoNdAr (a disciple of bhagavath rAmAnuja) in his thathva nirNayam as in “athEthihAsa purANayOrithihAsA baleeyAmsa: kutha: parigrahAthirEkAth sarvathra mAdhyasthyEna | bhUthArtha prathIthE: vachana saushtavEna karthurApthathamathvAva gathEScha ||” (Further, among ithihAsams and purANams, ithihAsams have greater strength since 1) the ithihAsams have been specifically praised and accepted, 2) they are being neutral in worldly and scriptural aspects, 3) they speak about past incidents and 4) due to the authors being trustworthy having composed the literature with apt words).

parASara bhattar too explained the greatness of mahAbhAratham (specifically) over purANams in SrI sahasranAma bhAshyam due to greater acceptance and neutrality as in “mahAbhAratham hi parigraha viSEshAvasitham” (mahAbhAratham is greatly accepted in purANams), “dharmEchArthEcha kAmEcha mOkshEcha bharatharshabha | yadhi hAsthi thadhanyathra yan nEhAsthi nathath kvachith ||” (Oh dharmaputhra! In dharmam, artham, kAmam and mOksham, whatever meanings are explained elsewhere in vEdhams, all of those are present in mahAbhAratham, and if any principle is not given in this, it will not be found elsewhere) and in “ithi laukika vaidhika sakalArtha nirNayAdhi kruthathvEna | kvachidhapi apakshapAdhithvAchcha purANEbhyO balavaththaram ||” (Since it was determined that mahAbhAratham has been created to establish the scriptural and worldly principles and since there is no partiality anywhere in it, it is a greater authority than puraNams).

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – avathArikai – Part 2

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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Let us continue with the second part of the avathArikai (introduction). In this section of the introduction, mAmunigaL explains the two types of classifications (6 sections and 9 sections) for this prabhandham.

piLLai lOkAchAryar, mAmunigaL – SrIperumbUthUr

First, let us see how this prabhandham is classified into six sections:

In this prabhandham, starting from (sUthram 1) “vEdhArtham aRudhiyiduvadhu” up to (sUthram 4) “aththAlE adhu muRpattadhu“, the authenticity of the pramANam (source of knowledge) is established. Thus, this section is the introduction for the prabhandham.

From (sUthram 5) “ithihAsa SrEshtam” up to (sUthram 22) “prapaththi upadhEsam paNNiRRum ivaLukkAga“, purushakAra vaibhavam and upAya vaibhavam are discussed. pirAtti‘s role is explained as purushakAram (advocacy/recommendation) – seeing the jIvAthmAs who are filled with defects, she constantly highlights to bhagavAn that his nature is to be merciful and uplift the ones who are surrendered unto him. This section also discusses bhagavAn as the upAyam (means) who is so merciful and this mercy of his is even more glorious than purushakAram.

From (sUthram 23) “prapathikku” up to (sUthram 79) “EkAnthI vyapathEshtavya:“, the nature of prapaththi is discussed in a detailed manner. prapaththi is the act of accepting bhagavAn as the upAyam. The following aspects are discussed:

  • For this act of accepting bhagavAn as upAyam, there is no restriction based on place, time, method, qualification of the one performing prapaththi and the result.
  • the one who accepts our prapaththi (to whom we surrender/approach) must be capable
  • the three classifications of the persons who perform prapaththi
  • the limitations of accepting prapaththi as the means (bhagavAn is the means – prapaththi is simply an act that fits the nature of jIvAthmA)
  • collective explanation of prapaththi’s nature and ancillary aspects.

Thus, this section establishes that bhagavAn is the upAyam and his glories. In this, up to (sUthram 70) “prApthikku ugappAnum avanE” is the crux of the matter. 71-79 are supplementary.

From (sUthram 80) “upAyaththukku” up to (sUthram 307) “upEya virOdhigaLAyirukkum“, the code of conduct/behaviour of a prapanna is explained. This section discusses the following aspects:

  • the mandatory qualities of the jIvAthmA who accepts bhagavAn as upAyam (means) and upEyam (goal)
  • the need to give up attachment towards other upAyams and
  • general do’s and dont’s for such persons

From (sUthram 308) “thAn hithOpadhEsam paNNumbOdhu” up to (sUthram 365) “ugappum upakAra smruthiyum nadakka vENum“, Sishya lakshaNam (the attitude of a disciple towards his AchArya) is explained in detail. This section discusses the following aspects:

  • the nature of sidhdhOpAya nishtar (one who fully depends on bhagavAn who is the established means)
  • the nature of a true AchArya
  • the nature of a true Sishya and his total dependence on AchArya
  • the interactions between AchArya and Sishya
  • the Sishya’s gratitude towards AchArya who helped him to be uplifted.

From (sUthram 366) “svadhOshAnusandhAnam bhaya hEthu” up to (sUthram 406) “nivarthaka gyAnam abhaya hEthu“, bhagavAn‘s nirhEthuka krupai (causeless mercy) is explained. It is because of this causeless mercy of bhagavAn that one progresses to various stages – adhvEsham (not having hatred) to ultimate goal of performing eternal kainkaryam. It is established that one gets relieved of one’s sorrows by seeing the causeless mercy of bhagavAn which guarantees the liberation of the jIvAthmA.

From (sUthram 407) “svathanthranai upAyamAgap paRRina pOdhiRE” up to the end (sUthram 463) explains the ultimate stage of one’s faith, i.e. being fully dependent on AchArya. This principle is established as explained by madhurakavi AzhwAr in kaNNinuN chiruthAmbu 9 “mikka vEdhiyar vEdhaththin utporuL” – the true essence of the vEdham which is practiced by experts.

As it starts with “vEdhArtham aRudhiyiduvadhu” (the essence of SAsthram is established) and ends with “charama parva nishtai” (being fully dependent on AchArya), it is clearly established that being fully dependent on the AchArya’s mercy is the essence of vEdham.

Just like charama SlOkam (sarva dharmAn parithyajya…) is the essence of SrI bhagavath gIthA, the last prakaraNam (section) is the essence of this prabhandham. There (in SrI bhagavath gIthA), bhagavAn first shows various upAyams (karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgams etc) and observing that arjuna is fearful of taking upon himself the independence to choose the right path, he shows the sidhdhOpAyam (himself as the established upAyam thrashing all other upAyams). Here, the glories of sidhdhOpAyam (bhagavAn as the means) are explained in detail and observing that there is the fear of bhagavAn’s independence (which could lead to favourable or unfavourable situations), the ultimate path of depending on AchArya (which is the safest means) is shown.

Thus, the 6 prakaraNams (sections) of the prabhandham which highlights 6 principles are explained.

Let us now see how this prabhandham is classified into 9 prakaraNams (sections).

The introduction section and the purushakAra/upAya vaibhavam discussed in 1 to 22 sUthrams are the same as explained previously.

Subsequently, starting from (sUthram 23) “prapaththikku” and ending at (sUthram 114) “bhagavath vishaya pravruththi sErum” – this section explains the principle of bhagavAn as upAyam (which was highlighted in the first prakaraNam) in a detailed manner.

From (sUthram 115) “prApakAnthara parithyAgaththukku” up to (sUthram 141) “AgaiyAlE sukharUpamAyirukkum” explains the defects of upAyams other than prapaththi. The discussion in this section about prapaththi’s greatness is ancillary.

From (sUthram 142) “ivanaip peRa ninaikkum pOdhu” up to (sUthram 242) “idaichchiyAy peRRuvidudhal seyyumbadiyAyirukkum” explains the glories of sidhdhOpAya nishtar (those who fully accept bhagavAn as the only means).

From (sUthram 243) “ippadi sarvaprakAraththAlum” up to (sUthram 307) “upEya virOdhigaLAyirukkum” explains the prapanna dhinacharyA (daily routine of a prapanna).

From (sUthram 308) “thAn hithOpadhEsam paNNum pOdhu” up to (sUthram 320) “chEthananudaiya ruchiyAlE varugaiyAlE” explains the sadhAchArya lakshaNam (the qualities of a true AchArya).

From (sUthram 321) “Sishyanenbadhu” up to (sUthram 365) “upakAra smruthiyum nadakka vENum” explains the sachchishya lakshaNam (the qualities of a true sishya).

From (sUthram 366) “svadhOshAnusandhAnam” up to (sUthram 406) “nivarththaka gyAnam abhaya hEthu” explains the aspect of bhagavAn pursuing/uplifting jIvAthmAs out of his causeless mercy.

From (sUthram 407) “svathanthranai” up to the end (sUthram 463) explains that AchAryan is the upAyam (means) and upEyam (goal).

In line with these 2 types of classifications, “pERu tharuvikkumavaL than perumai” (thaniyan explaining the 6 sections) and “thirumAmagaL than” (thaniyan explaining the 9 sections) were rendered in glorification of this prabhandham. Thus it is acceptable to understand this prabhandham in both types of classifications.

Thus we have seen the section in the glorious introduction by mAmunigaL for piLLai lOkAchAryar‘s SrIvachana bhUshaNam where the two types of classifications for this prabhandham are explained in detail.

In the subsequent articles we will see the continuation of this most wonderful introduction of mAmunigaL for piLLai lOkAchAryar‘s SrIvachana bhUshaNam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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