Author Archives: sarathyt

About sarathyt

Disciple of SrImath paramahamsa ithyAdhi pattarpirAn vAnamAmalai jIyar (29th pattam of thOthAdhri mutt). Descendant of komANdUr iLaiyavilli AchchAn (bAladhanvi swamy, a cousin of SrI ramAnuja). Born in AzhwArthirungari, grew up in thiruvallikkENi (chennai), presently living under the shade of the lotus feet of jagathAchArya SrI rAmAnuja, SrIperumbUthUr. Learned sampradhAyam principles from vELukkudi krishNan swamy, gOmatam sampathkumArAchArya swamy and many others. Full time sEvaka/servitor of SrIvaishNava sampradhAyam. Taking care of koyil.org portal, which is a humble offering to our pUrvAchAryas. koyil.org is part of SrI varavaramuni sambandhi Trust (varavaramuni.com) initiatives.

SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 382

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

When asked “Have we seen any incident where ISvaran accepts having agyAtha sukrutham (good deeds done unknowingly) in this manner?” piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully explains

sUthram 382

lalithA charithAdhigaLilE ivvarththam surukkam ozhiyak kANalAm.

Simple Explanation

In the history of lalithA et al, we can see this principle explained elaborately.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

lalithA charithAdhigaLilE ivvarththam surkkam ozhiyak kANalAm

That is – lalithA who was the daughter of the vidharbA king and is the wife of kASI king, was having more beauty, having her husband fully attracted towards her,  physical radiance, having all noble qualities in comparison to his husband’s three hundred other wives; she was lighting divine lamps in bhagavAn’s sannidhi constantly, without any difference between day and night and was very sincere in that service; seeing that, the other wives asked her “How did you acquire this beautiful form and attachment towards this lamp lighting kainkaryam?”

Since she was born with memories from previous life, she explained her history starting with vishNu dharmam “thadhEshA kathayAm yEthath yathvruththam mama SObhanA:” (Oh auspicious women! Let me explain the incidents which you enquired from me). She explained how maithrEya, the priest for sauvIra king built a vishNu temple on the banks of dhEvi river and was doing all kainkaryams there everyday as said in vishNu dharmam “sauvIra rAjasya purA maithrEyObhUth purOhitha: | thEnachAyathanam vishNO: kAritham dhEvikA thatE || ahanhani SuSrushA pushpa dhUpAmbhulEpanai: | dhIpAdhAnAdhibhiSchaiva chakrE thathra vasan dhvija: ||” (Previously, there was a priest named maithrEya for the sauvIra king; a vishNu temple was built by him on the banks of dhEvi river; that brAhmaNa lived there and was serving emperumAn with flowers, incense, water, sandalwood paste, lamp etc); as said in vishNu dharmam “kArthikE dhIpithOdhIpa upAththas thEnachakadhA | AsIn nirvANa bhUyishtO dhEvasya purathO nichi || dhEvathAyathanEchAsam thathrAhamapi mUshikA | pradhIpavarthi grahaNEkrutha budhdhir varAnanA: || gruhIthAcha  mayAvarthi: prushadhamSO rarAvacha | nashtAchAham thathas thasya mArjAlasya bhayAnughA || vakthra prAnthEna naSyanthyA sa dhIpa: prErithOmayA | jajvAla pUrvavadh dhIpthyA thasmin nAyathanE puna: ||” (In a kArthikA month, on a night, a lamp was lit by that maithrEya in front of emperumAn; it was about to die; I was present as a female mouse in that temple. Oh beautifully faced ladies! I had the intention to eat the wick which was lit in that lamp; as I grabbed the wick with my mouth, a cat meowed; becoming frightened by that cat’s meow, I shivered and died; as I was dying, the wick was kindled by my mouth and the temple became well lit by that lamp) – in the kArthikA month, as the lamp lit by maithrEya in that emperumAn’s temple was about to die, I, who was living in that temple as a female mouse, grabbed the wick from the lamp using my mouth; as I heard the meow of a cat at that time, I became frightened and died; the wick was kindled by my mouth at the time of my death; “mruthAchAham thathO jAthA vaidharbI rAja kanyakA | jAthi smarA kAnthimathI bhavathInAm parAguNai: ||” (I, who died, subsequently took birth as the daughter of vidharbA king with memories from previous birth, beauty and with best of your qualities) – how she died and took birth as the daughter of vidharbA king with memories from previous birth; “Esha prabhAvO dhIpasya kArthikE mAsi SObhanA: | dhaththasya vishNvAyathanE yasyEyam vyshtiruththamA || asankalpithampyasya prEraNam yath krutham mayA | vishNvAyathana dhIpasya thasyai thadhbhujyathE palam || dhathO jAthi smruthirjanma mAnushyam SObhanam vapu: | vaSya: pathirmE sarvAsAm kimpunar dhIpa dhAyinAm ||” (Oh fortunate ones! Such greatness is present for lamp lit in kArthikA month; such greatness which is there for a lamp lit in vishNu’s sannidhi; I got to light a lamp unintentionally in vishNu’s sannidhi and yet I reaped the benefits of the same; in this manner, after acquiring memories from previous birth, human birth, beautiful body and more control over the husband over the other wives, what to speak about those who intentionally perform this lamp kainkaryam to emperumAn in kArthikA month) – in this manner, it is elaborately explained in lalithA’s history in SrIvishNu dharmam by her that she acquired this greatness by the result of such good deeds done unknowingly.

Now, by “Adhi Sabdham” (the word Adhi, which indicates “etc”), the incident of other women as narrated in garuda purANam is explained.

suvrathA was the daughter of a very knowledgeable brAhmaNa, having lost her mother at a young age, and her father brought her up in a very caring manner to not let her think about her mother’s loss; as the time came for her to be given in marriage, her father too died; she became very sad and was set to give up her body “yEna samvardhithA bAlA yEnAsmi parirakshithA | thEna pithrA viyukthAham najIvEyam kathanchana || nadhyAmvA nipathishyAmi samiththEvA huthASanE | parvathAth vA pathishyAmi pithruhInA nirASrayA ||” (I, who am young, who was raised by my father, who protected me, have lost him and thus cannot survive; I who have lost my father will jump into a river or radiant fire or will fall from a mountain); at that time yama who is intent on the well-being of all entities, with compassion, assumed the form of an elderly brAhmaNa and came there as said in “Agathya karuNAvishtO yamassarva hithOtha: | sthavira brAhmaNO bhUthvA prOvAchEdham vachasthadhA: ||” (yama who is intent on the well-being of all entities, with compassion, assumed the form of an elderly brAhmaNa and came there and spoke this sentence); he eliminated her sorrow by saying “alambAlE viSAlAkshi rOdhanEnAthi vihvalE | nabhUya: prApyathE thAthas thasmAn nArhathi SOchithum ||” (Oh child who is having very sorrow filled eyes! Stop crying. You will not get back your father. Hence you are not bound to be sad). He further stated to her about the karma of hers which led to her such state of losing both mother and father as in “thasmAth thvam dhu:kham uthsrujya SrOthum arhasi suvrathE | pithrubhyAm vipra yOgOyam yEnAbhUth karmaNAthava ||” (Oh one with noble conduct! Due to this reason, you should give up your sorrow and you are qualified to hear about the karma which led to losing your mother and father); saying this he said starting with “purA thvam sundharInAma vESyA parama sundharI | kruththa gIthAdhi nipuNA vINA vENu vichakshaNA ||” (Previously you were a very beautiful prostitute who was expert in dancing, singing, playing veeNA, flute etc, having the name sundhari) – you were a prostitute named sundhari in your previous birth; a son of a brAhmaNa, who was attracted by you and who consummated with you, was killed by a SUdhra who was considering him to be a competitor in your matter; that brAhmaNa boy’s mother and father cursed you saying “You who got our son killed will lose your parents in your next birth and suffer” and hence you acquired this sorrow; she asked “Then why did I, who am a sinner, get this noble birth?” yama responded starting with “SruNu thasya mahA prAgyE nimiththam gathathO mama | yEna thvam brAhmaNasyAsya kulE jAthA mahAthmana: ||” (Oh one who is very intelligent! Listen to my words where I explain to you the reason due to which you have taken birth in this noble brAhmaNa’s family) – In your previous birth, as a very knowledgeable bhAgavatha who was detached from everything,  having equal vision towards everything, meditating upon bhagavAn, who roams around as per the rule of remaining in a village only for one night, took shelter of your veranda on a particular night; the chieftains of the village mistook him to be a thief and tied him to a tree; at that time you rushed to him, relieved him from the tree, took him to your home and cared for him. Because of such deed you attained this noble birth. This story of suvruthA is explained in ithihAsa samuchchayam.

Further, a lady was moving along in the sky being dragged by the servitors of yama and crying out for help, showing her helplessness; at that time, a lady named mAdhavi was performing penance at aSwaththa thIrtham for a long time; seeing the pitiful state of the lady being dragged, mAdhavi gave the result of her one day’s penance; immediately, the servitors of yama became her relatives, the path towards yama lOkam became very pleasant, she acquired a divine form in place of the yAthanA SarIram (the body which is used to transport a soul to yama lOka) she had; as they reached yama’s abode along with her, yama, with the shining appearance with fatherly affection, spoke sweet words as said in “pithEva dharmarAjObhUth thasyAsthath priyadharSana: | sAnthvayan sa mahAthEjA vyAjahAracha thAmprathi ||” (yamadharmarAja became very pleasing to her like a father; such radiant yama spoke some good words towards her) and spoke “bhadhrE thvayA sushtu krutham na kinchidhiha vidhyathE | ithO dhvAdhaSSa janmAnthE thvAm kaSchith sidhdha AviSath || vishNu bhakthO nivAsArtham rAthriyAnthu thava vESmani | thath sannidhana prabhavasthava sAdhu samAgama: || sAhivai brahmavidhushI SrImath rangamupASrithA | thathra thIrthOththamam SrImadhaSvaththam nAma samSrithA || dharmagyA dharmaparamA yasyAsthE sangamO bhavath ||” (Oh auspicious one! You have not done any good deed in this birth; at the end of twelve births before this current birth, an enlightened bhAgavatha came to your home on a particular night and sat; you attained sAdhu sangam in his presence; due to that sAdhu sangam, you, having attained brahma gyAnam (knowledge about bhagavAn) reached SrIrangam; there you reached a special sacred place known as aSwaththam and are having noble conduct) – (yama said) You have not done any good deed knowingly to be blessed by mAdhavi; twelve births before this current birth, a bhAgavatha came and stayed in your home; such presence gave you sAdhu sangam and such agyAtha sukrutham was told to be the cause for her result; this is explained in kOyil (SrIranga) mAhAthmyam in garuda purANam. These incidents explain agyAtha sukrutham.

surukkam ozhiyak kANalAm

Can be seen elaborately. With bhagavAn’s katAksham (merciful glance), due to this agyAtha sukrutham, these personalities got these aforementioned results; these can be highlighted as examples to explain that ISvaran will bless individuals based on agyAtha sukrutham.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 381

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

Now, to elaborate upon what was previously explained mercifully in sUthram 366 “bhagavath guNAnusandhAnam abhaya hEthu” (Thinking about bhagavAn’s qualities will lead to fearlessness), piLLai lOkAchAryar is mercifully explaining the sequence of efforts of ISvaran which were done for the liberation of the AthmA.

sUthram 381

thripAdh vibhUthiyilE paripUrNAnubhavam nadavA niRka, adhu uNdadhu urukkAttAdhE dhESAntharagathanAna puthran pakkalilE pithruhrudhayam kidakkumApOlE, samsArigaL pakkalilE thiruvuLLam kudi pOy ivargaLaip pirindhAl ARRamAttAdhE, ivargaLOdE kalandhu parimARugaikkuk karaNa kaLEbarangaLaik koduththu avaRRaik koNdu vyAparikkaikkIdAna Sakthi viSEshangaLaiyum koduththu, kaNkANa niRkil ANaiyittu vilakkuvargaLenRu kaNNukkuth thORRAdhapadi, uRangugiRa prajaiyaith thAy mudhugilE aNaiththuk koNdu kidakkumA pOlE, thAnaRindha sambandhamE hEthuvAga vida mAttAdhE, agavAyilE aNaiththuk koNdu, Atchiyil thodarchchi nanRu enRu vidAdhE saththaiyai nOkki udan kEdanAy, ivargaL asath karmangaLilE pravarthikkumbOdhu mItkamAttAdhE, anumathi dhAnaththaip paNNi udhAsInaraip pOlE irundhu mItkaikkidam pArththu, nanmaiyenRu pEridalAvadhoru thImaiyum kANAdhE neRRiyaik koththip pArththAl oru vazhiyAlum pasai kANAdhu ozhindhAl aprApyam enRu kaNNa nIrOdE mILuvadhu; thanakkERa idam peRRa aLavilE ennUraich chonnAy, en pEraich chonnAy, en adiyArai nOkkinAy, avargaL vidAyaith thIrthAy, avargaLukku odhunga nizhalaik koduththAy enRAp pOlE silavaRRai ERittu, madi mAngAyittu, pon vANiyan ponnai urai kallilE uraiththu mezhugAlE eduththuk kAl kazhanjenRu thirattumA pOlE, janma paramparaigaLdhORum “yAdhruchchigam prAsangikam Anushangikam” engiRa sukrutha viSEshangaLaik kaRpiththuk koNdu thAnE avaRRai onRu paththAkki nadaththik koNdu pOrum.

Simple Explanation

While emperumAn was having complete experience in thripAdh vibhUthi (paramapadham), that enjoyment did not show in his divine form; as a father’s heart will be with the son who has moved away to a different place, emperumAn’s heart went towards samsAris (people of material world), being unable to bear their separation;

  • he granted them body and senses to interact with them
  • he granted them special abilities to use the body and senses
  • knowing that they will abandon him if he stood in front of them, he hid himself from their eyes, just as a mother embraces her sleeping child from behind, considering the relationship which is known only to him and embraced the AthmA from within
  • considering that continuity is important even when one is not having ownership, he ensured their existence, suffering along with them
  • when they engage in ignoble activities, being unable to rescue them, granting permission for those acts and remaining neutral, trying to redeem them
  • while not observing anything appearing to be good, even if bad, when scratching the forehead to check for life/love, when such love was not found, returning with teary eyes
  • when he gets an opportunity, he places some good qualities on the AthmA saying “You recited my name, you recited the name of my abode, you cared for my devotees, you quenched their thirst, you offered them shade to take rest etc”, doing similar to a person who places mangoes on the lap of a passer by and accusing him of stealing, emperumAn places such good acts on the AthmA
  • just as a gold smith will rub the gold on a stone to check its purity, and gather the gold stuck to the stone using wax and collect a small quantity, emperumAn will create good deeds for the AthmA in his many sequence of births namely yAdhruchchikam (unexpected), prAsangikam (incidental), Anushankikam (coincidental), and will make them look ten folds.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

thripAdh vibhUthiyilE …

As it is said in purusha sUktham “thripAdhasyAmrutham dhivi” (Three among four parts are eternally present in paramapadham), nithya vibhUthi is said as thripAdh vibhUthi. The nature of three-parts-paramapadham is explained in several ways. How is that?

  • As said in purusha sUktham “pAdhOsya viSvA bhUthAni thripAdhasyAmrutham dhivi” (For this brahmam with universal form, the sentient and insentient entities of samsAra make one part and three parts eternally remain in parampadham) – all the sentient and insentient entities of this world are a small portion, as said in one-fourth; his eternal wealth in the supreme sky will be three folds as said in thripAdh. Since [vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa] jIyar mercifully explains in dhIpa prakASam “indha vibhUthi dhvaya vishayamAna pAdha Sabdhamum thripAchchabdhamum alpathva mahathvangaLukku upalakshaNam iththanai ozhiya parichchEdha paramanRu, leelA vibhUthiyil aNdangaL thAnE asankyAthangaLAyiRE iruppadhu” (The word “pAdham” and “thripAdh” in context of these two worlds, are indicative of less and more only and not in count, since there are countless oval shaped universes in leelA vibhUthi itself), it is said that the nithya vibhUthi will be three times that of the effectual state of land mass in this leelA vibhUthi.
  • Alternatively, as mercifully explained by Srutha prakASikA bhattar in Srutha prakASikai “dhivi ithi aprAkrutham sthAnam uchyathE; thripAdhathvancha aprAkruthair bhOgya bhOgOpakaraNa bhOgasthAna viSEshairvA bhUshaNAsthrathvAdhi rUpENa jagadhanthargatha vasthvabhimAnibhir nithyair bhagavadhanubhavamAthraparaiScha nithyasidhdhair mukthaiSchAthmbhirvA sambhavathi” – since nithya vibhUthi is with three divine aspects such as special enjoyable materials, special tools to enjoy and special places to enjoy, and as mentioned in asthra bhUshaNa adhyAyam (in SrIvishNu purANam), nithyasUris who are the controllers of entities inside the world in the form of weapons, ornaments etc, nithyasUris and mukthAthmAs who are fully focussed on enjoying bhagavAn, and in this manner since nithya vibhUthi has these three types of AthmAs, it is known as thripAdh. Thus in nithya vibhUthi which is most enjoyable being totally different from leelA vibhUthi.

paripUrNa anubhavam nadavA niRka

Since being united with nithyas and mukthas where each experience gives ultimate bliss through the form of svarUpa (true nature), rUpa (forms), guNa (qualities) and vibhUthis (wealth) are all simultaneously enjoyed as complete experience which is continuously happening.

adhu uNdadhu urukkAttAdhE 

That is – not showing the freshness in his divine form, where his form changes every now and then.

dhESAntharagathanAna puthran pakkalilE pithruhrudhayam kidakkumApOlE, samsArigaL pakkalilE thiruvuLLam kudi pOy

That is – while a father has many sons, if one son goes to another town due to his karma, though the father may live along with the other sons, the father’s heart will be on the son who is away, thinking “while he is also born like these children to remain with me and enjoy, he has now lost that opportunity”; similarly, while enjoying along with nithyasUris and mukthAthmAs, his divine heart will stretch up to samsAris who are in a different abode, thinking “While they also have right in this enjoyment, these chEthanas have lost it!”.

ivargaLaip pirindhAl ARRa mAttAdhE

That is – during the time of deluge [while there is a valid relationship], as emperumAn remained in paramapadham separated from this samsAri chEthanas (bound souls) , just as a person who was separated from sons and grand sons will feel lonely, emperumAn too was unable to bear such loss as said in mahOpanishath “sa EkAkI na ramEtha” (that SrIman nArAyaNan being alone during deluge, did not rejoice). Though he had all chEthanas as his body and he remained their soul even during deluge, he did not consider that as union, he considers being their antharAthmA and them having body and senses and controlling their actions and inactions, as union and when they lack body and senses and remain like achith and his presence in paramapadham is felt by him as separation, piLLai lOkAchAryar is mercifully saying “ivargaLaip pirindhAl” (when separated from them).

ivargaLOdE kalandhu parimARugaikkuk karaNa kaLEbarangaLaik koduththu

That is – to interact with them being antharAthmA and in his vibhava avathArams (incarnation) and archAvathArams (deity forms), as said in SrIvishNu dharmam “vichithrA dhEhasampaththir ISvarAya nivEdhithum | pUrvamEva kruthA brahman hasthapAdhAdhisamyuthA ||” (Oh brAhmaNa! To offer oneself and other materials, AthmA previously got connected to the amazing body with hands and legs), being merciful, he gave the body and senses [to Athmas to enable them to] surrender unto his divine feet.

avaRRaik koNdu vyAparikkaikkIdAna Sakthi viSEshangaLaiyum koduththu

That is – granting special abilities such as chith Sakthi (ability to think), pravruththi Sakthi (ability to act) and nivruththi Sakthi (ability to refrain from action) to use the body and senses and know what is to be known, do what is to be done and avoid what is to be avoided.

kaNkANa niRkil ANaiyittu vilakkuvargaLenRu kaNNukkuth thORRAdhapadi

Passage from bhattar’s thirumanjana kattiyam “thvam mE aham mE kuthasthath thadhapikutha idham vEdha mUla pramANAm | EdhathachchAnAdhi sidhdhAdhanubhava vibhavaAth sOpi sAkrOSa Eva| kvAkrOSa: kasya gIthAdhishu mama vidhitha: kOthra sAkshI sudhIsyAth | hantha thvath pakshapAdhI sa ithi nrukalahE mruthya madhyasthavath thvam ||” ((bhagavAn says) Oh jIvAthmA! You are my servant. (AthmA says) I am my own and not yours. How can you say that? (bhagavAn says) This opinion of mine is believed through SAsthrams starting with vEdham. (AthmA says) My opinion is believed through practical experience since time immemorial. (bhagavAn says) That experience has been refused forever. (AthmA says) Who and how it was refused? (bhagavAn says) I have presented my objection in SrI gIthA etc in a very popular way. There are many wise men who have seen me presenting my objection and they are my witness. (AthmA says) This is surprising. Those wise men are partial towards you. While I am objecting to your claim, it seems that your highness are standing [with wet clothes] as if there is no end to this debate and as if you are vowing it)

That is – even after doing all of these, if he considers his relationship with the chEthanas as being their lord and stood in front of him to be seen by their eyes, if he said as in bhattar’s kattiyam “thvammE” (you are mine), they will not tolerate it and being independent, they will say “aham mE” (I am mine), they will say “You cannot stand in front of us ever” and will vow and get rid of him; thinking about that, he remained invisible for them as said in thaiththirIya upanishath “na chakshushA paSyathi kaSchanainam” (No one can see ISvara using their physical eyes) and in thiruvAimozhi 7.2.6 “katkilee” (one who cannot be seen by the mortal eyes).

uRangugiRa prajaiyaith thAy mudhugilE aNaiththuk koNdu kidakkumA pOlE, thAnaRindha sambandhamE hEthuvAga vida mAttAdhE, agavAyilE aNaiththuk koNdu

That is – just as a caring mother will embrace her child from behind while the child is sleeping without realising about self or mother, thinking only about her relationship with the child as the protector-protected, ISvaran being unable to abandon the AthmA due to the protector-protected relationship which is known to him, being the antharAthmA, will always be connected to the AthmA who is sleeping since time immemorial without knowing about the nature of self and bhagavAn, as said in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath “Athmani thishtan” (bhagavAn is present inside AthmA).

Atchiyil thodarchchi nanRu enRu vidAdhE saththaiyai nOkki

That is – when a person steals another person’s belonging and rules over it, if the owner of the material keeps following up highlighting his ownership, it will lead to his victory, over time; similarly, as said in bhattar’s kattiyam “anubhava vibhavAth” (I am enjoying ownership), even during the ownership of chEthana, emperumAn, considering that continuity will add strength to his case if he keeps on holding on to the AthmA, being one-sided, being the antharAthmA, not abandoning the AthmAs ever being the sustainer, takes care of the sustenance of those AthmAs who are sustained.

udan kEdanAy

That is – in this manner to sustain them, emperumAn accompanies them in all states while entering heaven and hell, and supports them.

udan kEdan

Considering the AthmA’s suffering to be his own suffering.

ivargaL asath karmangaLilE pravarthikkumbOdhu mItkamAttAdhE, anumathi dhAnaththaip paNNi udhAsInaraip pOlE irundhu mItkaikkidam pArththu

That is – as in thathva sAram “AdhAvISvara dhaththayaiva purushas svAthanthrya SakthyA svayam | thaththath gyAnam chikIrhsaNa prayathnAni uthpAdhayan varthathE ||” (In the beginning, chEthana was given independence by ISvara; with such independence, he himself causes knowledge, desire and efforts and lives), these chEthanas who were given by ISvara, the  independent ability in the form of being knowledgeable, are qualified to engage in actions which match one’s ruchi (taste); even when such chEthanas engage in sinful acts due to their past evil impressions, while emperumAn who is antharyAmi can rescue them, since such act will a) interrupt the role of SAsthram which is in the form of his commandments, b) lead to sarva mukthi prasangam (why is everyone not liberated?), instead of rescuing them, he will grant permission; while he is not indifferent, he remains indifferent thinking “how will they become good?” and will look out for some good qualities in them which can be highlighted as the reason to liberate them.

nanmaiyenRu pEridalAvadhoru thImaiyum kANAdhE

That is – while seeking such opportunity either through the limits of SAsthram or what is placed on the AthmA based on emperumAn’s knowledge, he waits for an opportunity to relieve them from sinful acts; while he does not find any goodness, he does not even see a bad act which can be named as a good act.

nanmaiyenRu pEridalAvadhoru thImai

[Bad acts which may unknowingly become good]

  • While one engages in harming others – incidentally harming those who are enemies of bhagavAn or bhAgavathas
  • being desirous of sensual pleasures, following a female servitor of bhagavAn and entering temples for her sake
  • chasing a cow which ate from one’s crops and in process of trying to angrily beat it, circum-ambulating temple, chasing it
  • reciting the divine names to insult others

neRRiyaik koththip pArththAl oru vazhiyAlum pasai kANAdhu ozhindhAl aprApyam enRu kaNNa nIrOdE mILuvadhu

That is – when a person was bitten by snake and was almost dead, to awaken him with the help of manthram etc, his forehead will be scratched to see if there is any blood flow; when such blood flow is not observed, the relatives will give up saying “we cannot bring him back to life”; similarly, after not finding any goodness and also any bad aspects which can be named as good in them and when no such wetness (attachment towards bhagavAn) is observed, emperumAn will return with teary eyes thinking “We cannot get this AthmA; we have lost it”.

Alternatively,

nanmaiyenRu pEridalAvadhoru thImai

As said in SrIvishNu dharmam “SyEnEnAbhicharan yajEtha” (One who needs to eliminate his enemy should perform SyEna yAgam), since SyEna yAgam causes faith in SAsthram and is ordained in SAsthram, it can be named as a good deed and because it is harmful for others, it can be named as bad deed; when no good deed is observed in a person, even such SyEna yAgam, being within the limits of SAsthram, can be considered as a good deed since it shows faith in a person towards SAsthram; when such a quality is not seen in the chEthanas.

In such case,

neRRiyaik koththip pArththAl oru vazhiyAlum pasai kANAdhu ozhindhAl aprApyam enRu kaNNa nIrOdE mILuvadhu

Since the chEthana does not have the qualification of having knowingly performed good deeds, emperumAn checks if the chEthana at least has any unknowingly performed good deeds, and when he does not find it, he returns with sorrow since there is no way he can accept the chEthana.

thanakkERa idam peRRa aLavilE

That is – instead of returning fully, with desire to uplift them, still he roams around seeking opportunity to accept them and when he gets such opportunity.

ennUraich chonnAy, en pEraich chonnAy, en adiyArai nOkkinAy, avargaL vidAyaith thIrthAy, avargaLukku odhunga nizhalaik koduththAy enRAp pOlE silavaRRai ERittu

That is,

  • while the chEthana is reciting the names of many towns as in this town, that town etc, if he says any of the dhivyadhESams such as kOyil (SrIrangam), thirumalai etc, considering that itself as the reason, he will say “You recited my abode’s name”.
  • while the chEthana recites a person’s name saying that name, this name etc, if he recites any of the divine names of emperumAn, considering that itself, saying “You recited my name”.
  • just as a few bhAgavathas are travelling through a forest route, and just as some robbers plan to rob those bhAgavathas, at that time, a soldier, who was travelling there for his own purposes, appears there; the robbers leave the place fearing that soldie,r without robbing the bhAgavathas. Having that as the reason, emperumAn will say “You protected my devotees”.
  • a farmer observed that his land was becoming very dry in summer, he decided to bring water from a well and made a small canal from the well to the land and poured water through the canal; at that time, some bhAgavathas who travelled in dry lands for a long distance were looking for some water source to sustain their lives, without his knowledge washed their divine feet and rested there; seeing this, emperumAn will say “You eliminated the fatigue of my devotees”.
  • a person builds a veranda outside his home where he can sit and gamble and also sit there in a relaxed way when he needs some fresh air; some bhAgavathas who are travelling by his house, take shelter in that veranda due to rain and considering that as the reason, emperumAn will say “You gave shade to my devotees”.

In this manner, when the chEthana does not realise, emperumAn himself places some good deeds on him.

madi mAngAyittu

A person walks by a garden filled with mango trees, and is not bothered about the mangoes there; the guard goes and places some mangoes on that person and blames him to have stolen them. This is an example for emperumAn voluntarily placing good deeds on a person.

pon vANiyan ponnai urai kallilE uraiththu mezhugAlE eduththuk kAl kazhanjenRu thirattumA pOlE, janma paramparaigaLdhORum “yAdhruchchigam prAsangikam Anushangikam” engiRa sukrutha viSEshangaLaik kaRpiththuk koNdu thAnE avaRRai onRu paththAkki nadaththik koNdu pOrum

That is – a goldsmith who was given some gold by someone to test its quality, will rub it against the stone to test the quality of the gold, will eventually use wax to extract the small particles of gold on the stone, so that they are not wasted, and will subsequently gather small quantities of gold; similarly, not just one or two births, but throughout the series of births of AthmAs, emperumAn gathers good deeds in the following categories:

  • yAdhruchchikam – You eliminated the fatigue of devotees, you gave shade to devotees.
  • prAsangikam – You recited my abode’s name, you recited my name.
  • Anushangikam – You protected my devotees

He applies these good deeds on his own to the chEthana and not based on the ordained rules of SAsthram or knowingly done by the chEthanas. Further, he increases those deeds multifold times and conducts the AthmA in this manner.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 380

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar is showing pramANams (evidences) for emperumAn’s lotus feet remaining embracable even if he is angry.

sUthram 380

krupayA paryapAlayath” “arisinaththAl

Simple Explanation

SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.34 “krupayA paryapAlayath” perumAL thirumozhi 5.1 “arisinaththAl“.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

krupayA paryapAlayath

SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38.34 “satham nipathitham bhUmau SaraNya: SaraNAgatham | vadhArhamapi kAkuthstha: krupayA paryapAlayath ||” (perumAL, the refuge, with his mercy, protected kAkAsura who had fallen on the ground, who had surrendered, even if he deserved to be killed) – just as it is said that the crow which had committed great offense and was shot at using brahmAsthram, looked all around and fell at the divine feet of SrI rAma, as it did not find any refuge, he protected it using his mercy.

arisinaththAl

perumAL thirumozhi 5.1 “arisinaththAl InRa thAy agaRRidilum maRRavaL than aruL ninaindhE azhum kuzhavi adhuvE pOnRirundhEnE” (Even if the mother, who had great anger to cut her child into pieces, pushed her child aside, it will cry embracing her feet – I am in the same situation) – the mother who prayed long to get a child, may become angry to cut the child in to pieces, when the child engages in huge mischief; even if she angrily pushes the child away, the child, without any other refuge, will look into the face of its angry mother; similar to that child, even if your highness looks at my mistakes and tries to push me away, I have no other refuge than your divine feet – mercifully said SrI kulaSEkarap perumAL. Hence, it is clear that what is said in “sIRinAlum kAlaik kattik koLLalAmbadi iruppAn oruvan” is correct.

In this manner, the principle mercifully explained by kulaSEkara AzhwAr, was mercifully explained by ALavndhAr too in sthOthra rathnam 26 “nirAsakasyApi na thAvadhuthsahE mahESa! hAthum thava pAdhapankajam | rushA nirasthO’pi Sisu: sthanandhayO na jAthu mAthuScharaNau jihAsathi || (Oh sarvESvara (lord of all)! Even (if you) pushed (me) aside, I will not dare to let go of your divine lotus feet; [just like, even] if a nursing baby was pushed away (by the mother) out of anger, [the baby] would never like to leave the mother’s feet.

Thus, up to here, the doubts raised subsequent to sUthram 367 “bhayAbhayangaL iraNdum mARAdil agyathaiyE sidhdhikkum“.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 379

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

When asked “Though one has qualities such as having no other refuge etc, can one say such words which will cause anger in emperumAn?” piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully explains.

sUthram 379

sIRinAlum kAlaikkattik koLLalAmbadi iruppAn oruvanaip peRRAl ellAm sollalAmiRE.

Simple Explanation

When one has emperumAn whose feet can be embraced even if he is angry, one can say everything towards him.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

sIRinAlum …

That is – even when he is angry, he is so merciful that those who are target of his anger can embrace his divine feet; when one has such emperumAn, one can say anything towards him.

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 378

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar is explaining the reason for repeating periya thirumozhi 11.8.1 “Agilum seppuvan” (I will still say) after first saying “sIRRamuLa” (There is anger), in the form of question and answer.

sUthram 378

sIRRamuNdenRu aRindhAl sollumbadi en ennil; aruLum, Arthiyum, ananyagathithvamum sollap paNNum.

Simple Explanation

When AzhwAr knows that there is anger, why would he say this? Mercy, sorrow and helplessness will make one say it.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

sIRRam …

That is – after knowing that the previously said words will cause anger in ISvaran’s divine heart, how will one shamelessly say it in his divine presence? The following aspects will make one do it:

  • his mercy in the form of not bearing others’ sorrow which will not let his anger to survive in the case of self
  • the overflowing sorrow in samsAram which will not let one shut one’s mouth fearing for his anger
  • the lack of refuge where even if he throws one out due to anger, there is no other go

In this decad, mercy, sorrow and lack of refuge are revealed through several examples by AzhwAr:

  • Mercy is explained in periya thirumozhi 11.8.6 “adaiya aruLAy enakkundhan aruLE” (Please shower your mercy to reach you) , periya thirumozhi 11.8.8 “thuNiyEn ini nin aruL alladhu enakku” (Now, I will not have confidence in anything but your mercy), periya thirumozhi 11.8.9 “thoNdar Anavarkku innaruL seyvAy” (You should give your sweet mercy to your devotees)
  • Sorrow and lack of refuge are explained in periya thirumozhi 11.8.1 “ARRangarai vAzh marampOl anjuginREn” (I am fearing like a tree on the banks of a river), periya thirumozhi 11.8.1 “kARRaththidaippatta kalavar manampOl ARRath thulangA niRpan” (fearing like those men in boat caught amidst a storm), periya thirumozhi 11.8.3 “pAmbOdu oru kUraiyilE payinRAppOl thAngAdhuLLam thaLLum” (My heart will not be able to bear the fear like sleeping alongside a snake under one roof), periya thirumozhi 11.8.4 “irupAderi koLLiyin uL eRumbEpOl urugA niRkum en uLLam” (My heart is melting like that of an ant caught in a wood which is burning from both sides), periya thirumozhi 11.8.5 “veLLaththidaippatta nariyinampOlE uLLam thuLangA niRpan” (My heart will lament like that of a pack of jackals caught in a flood)

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 377

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

Should we explain that saying this [as in previous sUthram] will lead to ISvaran’s anger, using worldly example? Hasn’t thirumangai AzhwAr, who has seen the truth himself, explained this after saying a word at first?

sUthram 377

“sIRRamuLa” enRa anantharaththilE ivvarththaththaith thAmE aruLichcheydhAriRE.

Simple Explanation

thirumangai AzhwAr himself explained this after saying in periya thirumozhi 11.8.2 “sIRRamuLa“.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

sIRRamuLa …

That is – thirumangai AzhwAr stated in periya thirumozhi 11.8.2 “innam – makkaL thORRakkuzhi thORRuvippAykol” (still – you will make me take birth in this pit of human beings) that ISvaran is making us remain in samsAram out of his freewill; he is thinking that saying in this manner will cause anger in bhagavAn who tries to uplift the AthmA who is in samsAram due to his own karma; based on previously explained word “sIRRamuLa” saying that there is scope for anger in divine heart, subsequently, thirumangai AzhwAr, who previously said “the cause for our loss is also bhagavAn” will lead to bhagavAn’s anger, repeats the same thing [just as in the first pAsuram, same thing is repeated in this pAsuram also].

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 376

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

To explain that if we wrongly explained the reason for loss and gain, ISvaran will abandon us, piLLai lOkAchAryar is using a worldly example and showing it.

sUthram 376

edukka ninaikkiRavanaith thaLLinAy engai edAmaikku uRuppiRE.

Simple Explanation

When a person who tries to help in pulling another person out, is blamed as the one who pushed him in, it will make that person abandon the initiative.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

edukka ninaikkiRavanai …

That is – when a person falls into a deep well due to his carelessness caused by his karma, a compassionate person who is standing-by will try to help to come out of the well. At that time, if the person inside the well considering only the fact that the person who had set out to help was standing in close proximity, said “Oh! You are the one who pushed me into the well”, the person outside would become angry thinking “He is blaming for a mistake that I did not commit” and abandon the initiative of helping him.

Similarly, when AthmA who remains fallen in the great pit of samsAram due to his own karma, blames ISvaran who is compassionate to try and rescue the AthmA, saying “All along you have pushed me into samsAram and kept me here”, ISvaran will become angry and abandon the AthmA saying “Let him suffer as he deserves”.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 375

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

The disaster that will occur if we change the meaning instead of explaining this way, is mercifully explained by piLLai lOkAchAryar subsequently.

sUthram 375

maRRaippadi sollil izhavukkuRuppAm.

Simple Explanation

If explained differently, that will lead to loss.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

maRRaippadi sollil

That is – instead of saying this way (as explained in previous sUthram), as explained in sUthram 367 “bhayAbhayangaL iraNdum mARAdil …“, if the reasons for loss and gain were reversed saying “the reason for loss is ISvaran’s freewill, the reason for gain is AthmA’s noble qualities”, that will lead to ISvaran withdrawing [from helping us] and will lead to losing the attainment of his divine feet. Alternatively – instead of saying that the loss is by AthmA and gain is by ISvaran as in previous sUthram “The reason for loss is chEthana’s karma, and the reason for the gain is ISvaran’s krupai”, if we said that ISvaran’s freewill is the reason for both loss and gain of AthmA, as ISvaran will withdraw considering that he is blamed for AthmA’s existence in samsAram since time immemorial, it will lead to losing the attainment of bhagavAn forever.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 374

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

When asked “In such case, what is the cause for loss and gain?” piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully explains.

sUthram 374

izhavukkadi karmam; pERRukkadi krupai.

Simple Explanation

Reason for loss is [one’s] karma; reason for gain is [bhagavAn’s] mercy.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

izhavukku …

That is – the reason to have lost bhagavAn since time immemorial is AthmA’s karma which has been accumulated since time immemorial as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.4.2 “mun seydha muzhu vinai” (big sins which were committed previously); the reason for such AthmA, who has lost him forever, to attain him is bhagavAn’s krupai which will flow breaching both banks of the river [i.e. the karma of the AthmA and the independence of bhagavAn] as said in 5.1.1 “vidhi vAykkinRu kAppAr Ar” (who can stop when bhagavAn’s mercy starts flowing?)

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 373

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

When asked “What are these two permissions?” piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully explains.

sUthram 373

iraNdum iruvarkkum svarUpam.

Simple Explanation

Both are natural qualities for both [bhagavAn and AthmA].

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

iraNdum …

iruvarkkum svarUpam

It is the natural state of both – AthmA who is parathanthra (dependent) and bhagavAn who is svathanthra (independent). That is – for AthmA who is parathanthra, since granting permission to bhagavAn to protect self is not beyond the scope of his true nature, it is AthmA’s true nature; for bhagavAn who is independent, since allowing samsAram as part of managing the entities through SAsthram, which is his commandment, to protect the entities which are protected by him, is natural, it is bhagavAn’s true nature.

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