mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 4-6

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sUthram – 4

Introduction: For the query “Will it be fruitful to the chanter if he loves and adores it so much?” lOkachArya explains starting with “manthraththilum”.

மந்த்ரத்திலும் மந்த்ரத்துக்கு உள்ளீடான வஸ்துவிலும் மந்த்ரப்ரதனான ஆசார்யன்பக்கலிலும் ப்ரேமம் கனக்க உண்டானால் கார்யகரமாவது.

manthraththilum manthraththukkuLLIdAna vasthuvilum manthrapradhanAna AchAryan pakkalilum prEmam ganakka uNdAnAl kAryakaramAvadhu.

Simple meaning: When the mumukshu develops great love and affection towards this manthram, the inner meaning of this manthram (sriman nArAyaNan) and the AchAryan who renders it to him, then this manthram will truly bear fruit for him.

vyAkyAnam:

If the chanter has love for the manthram which is a reminder of his knowledge, has love for the lord who is the innermost meaning of the manthram through the three forms of being the owner, being the refuge and being the goal to be attained and has love for the AchAryan who gifted the manthram to him (the chanter) and for whom the manthram is totally subservient as per the saying in  vihagEndhrasamhithai patalam 22 “thanmanthram brAhmanAdhInam” (that manthram is subservient to the AchAryan), he shall derive the full advantage. 

This is so because the guideline is: (from vishNudharmam)

manthrE thath dhEvathAyAncha thathA manthra pradhE gurau |
thrishu bhakthis sadhA kAryA sA hi prathama sAdhanam ||

मन्त्रे तद्देवतायाञ्च तथा मन्त्रप्रदे गुरौ |
त्रिषु भक्तिस्सदा कार्या सा हि प्रथमसाधनम् ||

மந்த்ரே தத்3தே3வதாயாஞ்ச ததா2 மந்த்ரப்ரதே3 கு3ரௌ I
த்ரிஷு பக்திஸ் ஸதா3 கார்யா ஸாஹி ப்ரத2ம ஸாத3நம் II

(One should be devoted to the manthram, to the dhEvathA of the manthram (lord) and to the AchAryan who taught the manthram; such devotion will serve as the path for attaining bhagavAn)


sUthram – 5

Introduction: Now lOkAchArya details its great significance by enumerating its emergence in the next aphorism (5).

ஸம்ஸாரிகள் தங்களையும் ஈஶ்வரனையும் மறந்து, ஈஶ்வர கைங்கர்யத்தையும் இழந்து, இழந்தோமென்கிற இழவுமின்றிக்கே ஸம்ஸாரமாகிற பெருங்கடலிலே விழுந்து நோவுபட, ஸர்வேஶ்வரன் தன் க்ருபையாலே இவர்கள் தன்னையறிந்து கரைமரஞ்சேரும்படி, தானே ஶிஷ்யனுமாய் ஆசார்யனுமாய் நின்று திருமந்திரத்தை வெளியிட்டருளினான்.

samsArigaL thangaLaiyum ISvaranaiyum maRandhu ISvara kaingaryaththaiyum izhandhu izhandhOm engiRa izhavum inRikkE samsAramAgiRa perungadalilE vizhundhu nOvupada, sarvESvaran, than krupaiyAlE, ivargaL thannai aRindhu karaimaram sErumbadi thanE SishyanumAy AchAryanumAy ninRu thirumanthraththai veLiyittaruLinAn.

Simple meaning: samsAris (dwellers of materialistic realm) get stuck in the endless cycle of birth and death by forgetting their true form and their service to the lord. Without even realising that they have lost (forgotten), they suffer in this huge (samsAric) ocean. Then the supreme lord, due to his mercy, revealed the thirumanthram by being himself the disciple and the AchArya (nara – NArAyaNan), so that the samsAris can cross the ocean and reach him.

vyAkhyAnam:  

samsArigaL: samsAris are the souls bound by unending flow of births and deaths due to the eternal avidhyA (ignorance), karma (action), vAsanA (scent of earlier trespasses), ruchi (taste in those trespasses) for the transient objects, who suffer the life cycle forgetting themselves and their lord:

thangaLaiyum ISvaranaiyum maRandhu: Quote from hArithasmrithi:

dhAsabhUthA: svatha: sarvEhyAthmAna: paramAthmana: |
nAnyathA lakshaNam thEshAm bandhE mOkshE thathaiva cha ||

தா3ஸபூ4தா: ஸ்வதஸ்ஸர்வே ஹ்யாத்மாந: பரமாத்மந:|
நாந்யதா2 லக்ஷணம் தேஷாம் ப3ந்தே4 மோஷே ததை2வ ச||

(Aren’t AthmAs subservient to paramAthmA (bhagavAn) by their nature? There is no different type of identification for them while being in samsAram or mOksham (being in the materialistic world and being liberated from it). 

Forgetting the self-established servitude to the lord which is the signal identity of the soul, and the lord who is the unconditional owner of the soul as expressed in scriptural vEdhic texts such as  thaiththirIya upanishadh nArayaNavalli:पतिं विश्वस्य “(பதிம்விஶ்வஸ்ய) (nArAyaNa is the lord of universe and he is the lord for himself, viz. there is none above nArAyaNa)
and SrI vishNu thathvam SlOkam “स्वामित्वं ब्रह्मणि स्थितं (ஸ்வாமித்வம் ப்3ரஹ்மணி ஸ்தி2தம்)” (being the possessor of the universe is a natural quality in the supreme entity (bhagavAn)), the samsAris do not even know that sarvESvaran is their absolute and unconditional lord.

However, instead of saying “Not knowing” why is he saying “Forgetting”?  Shouldn’t one say that if (s)he had thought of something earlier and some harm had come to that thought (such as losing that thought), then (s)he can say that (s)he has forgotten?  Just as thirumangai AzhwAr has said in the periya thirumozhi pAsuram 6-6-2 “maRandhEn unnai munnam” (I had forgotten you earlier), piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully mentioned it that way considering that if one understands the readily available connection with bhagavAn, then the firmness in that connection could be remembered later.

ISvara kainkaryaththaiyum izhandhu: due to ignorance (avidhyA mentioned earlier) even the eternal blissful service (kainkaryam) is not attained. piLLai lOkAchArya says that samsAris lose service as they remain without knowing the greatness of purushArtham (end result) and their inability to attain it even though they are born only to enjoy this.

izhandhOm engiRa izhavum inRikkE: He mentions the lack of repentance [on the part of samsAris] for the loss of servitude as there is lack of clarity about the knowledge of self, supreme being (bhagavAn or emperumAn] and purushArtham (attainable goal)  .

samsAramAgiRa perum kadalilE vizhundhu nOvupada: jithanthE SlOkam says 

samsAra sAgaram ghOram ananthaklESa bhAjanam
संसार सागरं घोरमनन्तक्लेशभाजनम्
ஸம்ஸார ஸாக3ரம் கோ4ரம் அநந்தக்லேஶ பா4ஜநம்

(samsAram is an ocean which is cruel in nature and is the cause of unlimited suffering)

which means the soul has fallen into the ocean of samsAram which can’t be crossed by anyone by one’s own attempts and  is full of innumerable sufferings caused by thApa thraya (the threefold troubles brought on by self, by nature and by the supreme entity) haunting it. Thus these souls are ignorant of the reality of themselves, of the lord, of their attainable goal of life, that this life is anathema for realisation. They do not know anything about the five essential esoteric concept of arththa panchakam (knowledge about (i) AthmA (self), (ii) paramAthmA (supreme being), (iii) prApyam (means to attain supreme being) , (iv) prApakam (end result or benefit, after attaining the supreme being) and  (v) virOdhi (hurdles in attaining the supreme being)) as mentioned in  hAritha smrithi 8-141

prApyasya brahmano rUpam 
प्राप्यस्य ब्रह्मणो रूपं 
ப்ராப்யஸ்ய ப்ரஹ்மணோ ரூபம்

(the characteristics of supreme being who is to be attained . . .)

which is the essence of all SAsthra. The aphorism further elaborates about how bhagavAn explained these meanings to samsAris through thirumanthram, which is the essence of all SAsthras.

sarvESvaran than krupaiyAlE:  lakshmi thanthram 17-70 says

ISESithavya sambandhAth anidham prathamAdhapi
ईशेशितव्य संबन्धादनिदं प्रथमादपि 

ஈஶேஶிதவ்யஸம்ப3ந்தா4த் அநித3ம் ப்ரத2மாத3பி

(Due to the relationship which exists since eternity between the owner and the owned (in other words, between lord and us, the souls) . . . ). Such emperumAn, who has a relationship with the AthmAs, as mentioned in ahirbhudhdhnya samhithai 14-28

Evam samsruthi chakrasthE bhrAmyamAnO svakarmabhi:
jIvE dhu:khAkulEvishnO: krupA kApyupajAyathE

एवं सम्सृतिचक्रस्थे भ्राम्यमाणो स्वकर्मभि:
जीवे दु:खाकुले विष्णो: कृपा काप्युपजायते

ஏவம் ஸம்ஸ்ருதிசக்ரஸ்தே2 ப்4ராம்யமாணோ ஸ்வகர்மபி4😐
ஜீவே து3:கா2குலே விஷ்ணோ: க்ருபா காப்யுபஜாயதே ||

(an inexplicable compassion is created in vishNu towards the jIvAthmAs who suffer due to the repeated cycle of samsAram)

is moved by compassion at the tremendous tribulations they undergo.

ivargaL thannai aRindhu karaimaram sErumbadi: These jIvAthmAs, who suffer in the ocean of samsAram, who pray as mentioned in jithanthE SlOkam 4

thvAmEva Saranam prApya nistharanthi manIshiNa:
त्वामेव शरणम् प्राप्य निस्तरन्ति मनीषिण:
த்வாமேவ ஶரணம் ப்ராப்ய நிஸ்தரந்தி மநீஷிண:

(the jIvAthmAs cross the ocean of samsAram only by surrendering to you), and as in vishNu dharmam SlOkam 1-59

samsArArNava magnAnAm vishayAkrAntha chethasAm
vishnupOtham vinA nAnyath kinchidhasthi parAyaNam

संसारार्णव मग्नानां विषयाक्रान्तचेतसां |
विष्णुपोतं विना नान्यत् किञ्चिदस्ति परायणम् ||

ஸம்ஸாரார்ணவமக்3நாநாம் விஷயாக்ராந்தசேதஸாம்|
விஷ்ணு போதம் விநா நாந்யத் கிஞ்சித3ஸ்தி பராயணம்||

(there is no means for those who are sinking in the ocean of samsAram and are caught by (the crocodile-like) worldly matters to reach the shore, other than the boat of vishNu (the all-pervading entity))

can reach the other side of eternity in his servitude, only through him.

thAnE SishyanumAy AchAryanumAy ninRu:  Therefore, he came as nArAyaNa ,the AchArya (teacher) and nara, the  Sishya (pupil)

thirumantharaththai veLiyittu aruLinAn: revealed the essence of SAsthrA, namely artha panchakam with absolute clarity. lOkAchArya says revealed  instead of declared to make it clear that emperumAn was not establishing something now, but instead he was bringing to light what was an ancient concept and that he brought it to light since he could not tolerate their [samsAris’] pitiable condition and enlightened them with what is very secretive.


sUthram – 6

Introduction: If so, is it not enough if he revealed the manthram as an AchAryan, why should he assume the role of Sishyan also? For this question lOkAchAryar relies by aphorism 6: to make the people know the desideratum of a disciple as they do not know.

ஶிஷ்யனாய் நின்றது, ஶிஷ்யனிருக்குமிருப்பு நாட்டாரறியாமையாலே அத்தை அறிவிக்கைக்காக.

SishyanAy ninRadhu – Sishyan irukkum iruppu nAttAr aRiyAmaiyAlE aththai aRivikkaikkAga.

Simple meaning: The lord took the role of Sishyan (disciple) to reveal the true nature of a Sishyan to this world.

vyAkyAnam:

That is, besides playing the role of AchAryAn, he played the role of disciple also, to manifest the following qualities of a disciple:

AsthikO dharma SeelaScha SeelavAn vaishNavaS Suchi:
gambhIraS chathurO dhIra: Sishya ithyabhidhIyatE

आस्तिको धर्मशीलश्च शीलवान् वैष्णव: शुचि:|
गम्भीरश्चतुरो धीर: शिष्य इत्यभिधीयते ||

ஆஸ்திகோ த4ர்ம ஶீலஶ்ச ஶீலவாந் வைஷ்ணவஶ்ஶுசி:|
3ம்பீ4ரஶ்சதுரோ தீ4ரஶ் ஶிஷ்ய இத்யபி4தீ4யதே||

(one who has belief in SAsthras, one who is desirous of engaging with the righteous activities (as mentioned in those SAsthras), one who has a demeanour befitting those, one who has vishNu bhakthi (devotion towards vishNu, emperumAn), one who is pure, without any vanity, one who cannot see the depths (of devotion towards AchAryan), one who is capable (in serving AchAryan) and one who is supremely confident in carrying out service to AchAryan is termed as Sishyan (disciple))

jayasamhithai SlOka:

SarIram vasu vigynAnam vAsa: karma gunAnasUn
gurvartham dhArayEdhyasthu sa SishyO nEthara: smrutha:

शरीरं वसु विज्ञानं वास: कर्म गुणानसून् |
गुर्वर्थं धारयेद्यस्तु स शिष्यो नेतर: स्मृत:||

ஶரீரம் வஸுவிஜ்ஞாநம் வாஸ: கர்ம கு3ணாநஸுந்|
கு3ர்வர்த்த2ம் தா4ரயேத்3யஸ்து ஸ ஶிஷ்யோ நேதர: ஸ்ம்ருத:||

(only he who sustains (his physical) body, wealth, knowledge, dwelling place, activities, characteristics, vital airs for the sake of his AchAryan, is termed as Sishyan; he, who is different from these, is not a Sishyan)

nyAsavimSathi – 7th SlOkam

sadhbuddhi: sAdhusEvi samuchitha charithas thathvabOdhAbhilAshI
SuSrUshus thyaktha mAna: pranipathanapara: praSna kAla prathIksha: |
SAntho dhAnthOnasUyu: SaraNamupagatha: SAsthra viSVAsaSAlee
Sishya:prAptha: parIkshAm kruthavidhabhimathas thathvathas: SikshanIya ||

सद्बुद्धि: साधुसेवि समुचितचरितस्तत्व बोधाभिलाषी
शुश्रूषुस्त्यक्तमान: प्रणिपतनपर: प्रश्नकाल प्रतीक्ष:|
शान्तो दान्तोsनसूयु: शरणमुपगत:शास्त्रविश्वास शाली
शिष्य: प्राप्त:परीक्षाम् कृतविदभिमतस्तत्वत: शिक्षणीय:

ஸத்3பு3த்3தி4ஸ் ஸாது4ஸேவீ ஸமுசிதசரிதஸ்தத்வபோ3தா4பி4லாஷீ
ஶுஶ்ருஷூஸ்த்யக்தமாந: ப்ரணிபதநபர: ப்ரஶ்நகாலப்ரதீக்ஷ:|
ஶாந்தோ தாந்தோநஸூயு: ஶரணமுபகதஶ்ஶாஸ்த்ர விஶ்வாஸஶாலீ
ஶிஷ்ய: ப்ராப்த: பரீக்ஷாம் க்ருதவித3பி4மதஸ் தத்வதஶ்ஶிக்ஷணீய||

(only one who has sound knowledge, one who follows wise people, one who has activities befitting knowledge, one who is desirous of receiving true knowledge, one who is desirous of service to his AchAryan, one who is without any ego, one who engages in bowing to the divine feet of his AchAryan, one who raises a query at the appropriate time, one who has control over his external and internal senses, one who is without jealousy, one who has attained the dwelling place of his AchAryan, one who has belief in SAsthras, one who has been tested (in all the qualities mentioned above), one who is dear to the great people who do not forget the beneficial acts of Acharyan, is the Sishyan who is apt to be told the truth)

Since the samsAris (those who live in this materialistic world) do not know the SishyalakshaNam (identities of a disciple) such as not following other means [to attain emperumAn], carrying out service [to the means to attain emperumAn], having the craving [to attain emperumAn], not having jealousy [towards AchAryan], emperumAn took the role of a Sishyan in order to reveal these qualities, by practicing these qualities himself.

Had he preached these qualities, they [samsAris] would cavil about, that he was boasting but if he practiced these qualities  they would also have belief and emulate the same, says piLLai lOkAchAryar.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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