mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 13 – 15

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 13

Introduction: For the query “is this manthra accepted and adopted by distinguished people?” lOkAchArya replies in the next aphorism 13:

இத்தை வேதங்களும், ருஷிகளும், ஆழ்வார்களும், ஆசார்யர்களும் விரும்பினார்கள்.
iththai vEdhangaLum rishigaLum AzhwArgaLum AchAryargaLum virumbinArgaL.

Simple meaning: vEdhas, rishis, AzhwArs and AchAryas liked this.

vyAkyAnam: That is, vEdhas, which are apaurushEya (not composed by anyone), perennially pure and spotless, and self-sustaining (needing no other certification or fortification for their authenticity) liked this because:

In the vishNu gAyathri while reciting all the three vyApaka manthras at the outset it mentions the word nArAyaNa; it commences with

“viSvam nArAyaNam”.      (thaiththirIya-nArAyaNa anuvAka) (it is nArAyaNa who is everything) in nArAyaNa anuvAka which is the essence of all the vEdhAntha to pronounce

nArAyaNa param brahma thathvam nArAyaNa: para:
nArAyaNa parO jyOthi: Athma nArAyaNa: para:
yachcha kinchith jagathyasmin dhruSyathE SrUyathEpi vA
anthar bahiScha thathsarvam vyApya nArAyNa: sthitha:

नारायण परं ब्रह्म  तत्वं नारायण: पर:
नारायणपरो ज्योतिरात्मा नारायण: पर:
यच्च किम्चिज्जगत्यस्मिन् दृश्यते श्रूयतेपि वा
अन्तर्बहिश्च तत्सर्वं व्याप्य नारायण: स्थित:

நாராயணபரம் ப்3ரஹ்ம தத்த்வம் நாராயண: பர:|
நாராயணபரோ ஜ்யோதிராத்மா நாராயண: பர:|
யச்ச கிஞ்சிஜ்ஜக3த்யஸ்மிந்த்3ருஶ்யதே ஶ்ரூயதேபி வா|
அந்தர்ப3ஹிஶ்ச தத்ஸர்வம் வ்யாப்ய நாராயணஸ் ஸ்தி2த:||

(thaiththirIya nArAyaNa) (nArAyaNa is the supreme brahmam; nArAyaNa is the supreme entity; nArAyaNa is the supreme radiance; nArAyaNa is the supreme soul; nArAyaNa permeates all the things inside and outside)

It is said  in mahOpanishath

ekO havai nArAyaNa AsIn nabrahmA nESAnOnEmE dhyAvA prthvI
एको हवै नारायण आसीन्नब्रह्म नेशानो नेमे ध्यावापृथिवी
ஏகோ ஹவை நாராயண ஆஸீந்நப்3ரஹ்மா நேஶாநோ நேமே த்4யாவாப்ருதி2வீ

(at the time of great deluge only nArAyANa was there; neither brahmA nor Siva; nor these earth and skies)

In SubhAlopanishath it says at the start

“chakshuScha dhrashtavyancha nArAyaNa:
SrOthancha SrOthavyancha nArAyaNa
dhiSaScha pradhiSaScha nArAyaNa:“

चक्षुश्च द्रष्टव्यञ्च नारायण:
श्रोत्रञ्च श्रोतव्यञ्च नारायण:
दिशश्च प्रदिशश्च नारायण:

சக்ஷுஶ்ச த்3ரஷ்டவ்யஞ்ச நாராயண:
ஶ்ரோத்ரஞ்ச ஶ்ரோதவ்யஞ்ச நாராயண:
தி3ஶஶ்ச ப்ரதி3ஶஶ்ச நாராயண:

(the eyes and the seen are nArAyANa; the ear and the heard are nArAyaNa
the directions and sub directions are nArAyANa);

In the antharyAmi brAhmaNa, it says at the beginning, middle and at the end, very frequently:

yasyAthma SarIram yasya pruthvI SarIram
yasya mruthyu: SarIram
Esha sarvabhUthAntharAthmA apahathapApmA
dhivyO dhEva EkO nArAyaNa:

यस्यात्मा शरीरं यस्य पृथिवी शरीरं
यस्य मृत्यु: शरीरं
एष सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा अपहतपाप्मा दिव्यो देव एको नारायण:

யஸ்யாத்மா ஶரீரம் யஸ்ய ப்ருதி2வீ ஶரீரம்
யஸ்ய ம்ருத்யு: ஶரீரம்
ஏஷ ஸர்வபூ4தாந்தராத்மா அபஹதபாப்மா தி3வ்யோ தே3வ ஏகோ நாராயண:

(subhAlopanishath : for whom the soul is body; for whom the earth is body; for whom the primordial nature referred by mruthyu is body;the lord residing in all elements as their inner soul, absolutely devoid of all imperfections is nArAyaNa alone)

In all these instances vEdha ignored the words vishNu and vAsudhEva and preferred the word nArAyaNa to define divine qualities, form etc.

vyAsa and other parama rishis who had delineated the exquisite meanings of vEdhas in their texts famed as upabrahmaNas (supplements to vEdhas) preferred this word as can be seen from nAradhIyam ashtAkshara brahmavidhyA, 1-41:

yathA sarvEshu vEdhEshu nAsthi nArAyaNAth para:
thathA sarvEshu manthrEshu nAsthi chAshtAksharAth para:

यथा सर्वेषु देवेषु नास्ति नारायणात्पर:
तथा सर्वेषु मन्त्रेषु नास्ति चाष्टाक्षरात्पर:

யதா2 ஸர்வேஷூ தே3வேஷூ நாஸ்தி நாராயணாத்பர:|
ததா2 ஸர்வேஷூ மந்த்ரேஷூ நாஸ்தி சாஷ்டாக்ஷராத்பர:||,

(just as there is none superior to nArAyaNa among all the gods, there is nothing superior to the ashtAkshara manthram among all manthrams)

nArasimha purANamn 18-32:

bhUthvOrdhva bAhuradhyAthra sathya pUrvam bravImi va:
hE puthra SishyA: SruNutha na manthrOshtAksharAth para:“

भूत्वोर्ध्वबाहुरद्यात्र सत्यपूर्वं ब्रवीमि व:|
हे पुत्रशिष्या: शृणुत न मन्त्रोष्टाक्षरात्पर:||

பூத்வோர்த்4வபாஹூரத்3யாத்ர ஸத்யபூர்வம் ப்3ரவீமிவ:|
ஹே புத்ரஶிஷ்யா: ஶ்ருணுத ந மந்த்ரோஷ்டாக்ஷராத்பர:||,

(Oh sons and disciples! Here and now, I raise my hand and make this solemn vow; listen. There is no manthram which is superior to thiruvashtAksharam (divine eight lettered manthram).

nAradIyam ashtAkshara brahma vidhyA 1-42 :

“sarva vEdhAntha sArArtha: samsArArNava thAraka:
gathirashtAksharO nruNAm apunarbhava kAnkshiNAm“

सर्व वेदान्त सारार्थ: संसारार्णव तारक:
गतिरष्टाक्षरो नृणाम् अपुनर्भव काङ्क्षिणाम्

ஸர்வவேதா3ந்த ஸாரார்த்த2ஸ்ஸம்ஸாரார்ணவதாரக:|
க3திரஷ்டாக்ஷரோ ந்ருணாம் அபுநர்ப்ப4வ காங்க்ஷிணாம்||,

( for those who desire not to be reborn, ashtAksharam which is the essence of all the vedAntham, and capable of bailing out of the ocean of birth, is the refuge)

mahAbhAratham, sahasranAmAdhyAyAm:

ArthA vishaNNA: SithilAScha bhIthA: ghOrEshu cha vyAdhishu varthamAnA: |
sankIrthya nArAyaNa SabdhamAthram vimuktha dhu:khA: sukhinO bhavanthi ||

आर्ता विषण्णा: शितिलाश्च भीता: घोरेषु च व्याधिषु वर्तमाना: |
सङ्कीर्त्य नारायण शब्दमात्रं विमुक्तदु:खा: सुखिनो भवन्ति ||

ஆர்த்தா விஷண்ணா: ஶிதிலாஶ்ச பீ4தா: கோ4ரேஷூ ச வ்யாதி4ஷூ வர்த்தமாநா:|
ஸங்கீர்த்ய நாராயண ஶப்த3மாத்ரம் விமுக்த து3:கா2ஸ்ஸுகி2நோ ப4வந்தி||,

(People who have lost their wealth and feel sad, who are depressed without wealth, who are getting destroyed without Athma balam (spiritual strength), who are frightened without experience of bhagavAn and who are suffering from cruel diseases, are cleared of all their distress by just chanting the nArAyaNa manthram and rejoice )

vihageSwara samhithA 24-12, gAruda purANam 220-9 :

nArAyaNEthi SabdhOsthi vAgasthi vaSavarthinI |
thathApi narakE ghOrE pathanthIthi kimadhbutham ||

नारायणेति शब्दोsस्ति वागस्ति वशवर्तिनी |
तथापि नरके घोरे पतन्तीति किमद्भुतम् ||

நாராயணேதி ஶப்தோ3ஸ்தி வாக3ஸ்தி வஶவர்த்திநீ|
ததா2பி நரகே கோ4ரே பதந்தீதி கிமத்3பு4தம்||

(The word nArAyANa is there; the sensory organ for speech is under control; yet people fall into horrible hell. This is a great wonder!)

nAradhIyam ashtAkshara brahma vidhyA 1-40 :

kim thathra bahubirmanthrai: kim thathra bahubir vrathai:
namO nArAyaNAyEthi manthra: sarvArtha sAdhaka:

किं तत्र बहुभिर्मन्त्रै: किं तत्र बहुभिर्व्रतै:|
नमो नारायणायेति मन्त्र: सर्वार्थसाधक:||

கிம் தத்ர ப3ஹூபி4ர் மந்த்ரை: கிம் தத்ர ப3ஹூபி4ர்வ்ரதை:|
நமோ நாராயணாயேதி மந்த்ர: ஸர்வார்த்த2ஸாத4க:||

(What is the use of so many manthrams? Or so many austerities? The manthram ‘namo nArAyaNAya alone begets all the benefits)

Thus the maharshis such as vyAsa et all expressed their love for this word nArAyaNa by extolling its greatness through their prabandhams which are auxiliaries to vEdhas.

AzhwArs too liked this word profoundly.

nammAzhwAr mercifully said, “vaN pugazh nAraNan”, ”selva nAraNan” and ”vAzh pugazh nAraNan” (“வண்புகழ் நாரணன்”, “செல்வ நாரணன்”, “வாழ்புகழ் நாரணன்” ) in the beginning, middle and end of his thiruvAimozhi 1-2-10, 1-10-8 and 10-9-1 respectively;

periyAzhwAr began with thiruppallANdu 4 “nAdu nagaramum nangaRiya namO nArAyaNAya”, and ended with periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5-1-3 ”OvAdhE namO nAraNA enban”; (“நாடுநகரமும் நன்கறிய நமோ நாராயணாய”, “ஓவாதே நமோ நாரணாவென்பன்”);

kulaSEkara perumAL started with perumAL thirumozhi 2-4 “nAth thazhumbezha nAraNA” and ended with perumAL thirumozhoi 10-11 ”nalam thigazh nAraNan”; (“நாத்தழும்பெழ நாரணா”  “நலந்திகழ் நாரணன்”)

thirumazhisaip pirAn started with nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 1 “nAn muganai nArAyaNan padaiththAn” and compled with thiruchchandhaviruththam 77 ”ettezhuththum OthuvArgal vallar vAnamALavE”;

(“நான்முகனை நாராயணன் படைத்தான்” ,  “எட்டெழுத்துமோதுவார்கள் வல்லர் வானமாளவே”

thirumangai AzhwAr said in periya thirumozhi 1- 1 – 1

nAn kaNdukondEn nArAyaNA ennun nAmam”; he said once at the beginning and nine times further in this padhigam (decad), and later in siRiya thirumadal, he said
nArAyaNA O! maNivaNNa! nAgaNaiyAy vArAy

“நான் கண்டுகொண்டேன் நாராயணாவென்னும் நாமம்”
“நாராயணா ஓ! மணிவண்ணா! நாகணையாய்! வாராய்”

mudhal AzhwArs (the first three AzhwArs, poigai, bhUtham, pEy AzhwArs) also mercifully said:

“nanmAlai koNdu namO nAraNA ennum solmAlai kaRREn“ (mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 57)
“நன்மாலைகொண்டு நமோ நாரணா வென்னும் சொன்மாலை கற்றேன்” ;

“nAraNA enRu OvAdhu uraikkum urai uNdE” (mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 95)
“நாரணாவென்றோவாதுரைக்குமுரையுண்டே”

“gyAnach chudar viLakkERRinEn nAraNaRkku” (iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 1)
“ஞானச்சுடர் விளக்கேற்றினேன் நாரணற்கு”,

“nAraNan than nAmangal” (iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 2)
“நாரணன் தன் நாமங்கள்”,

“pagaRkaNdEn nAraNanaik kaNdEn” (iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 81)
“பகற்கண்டேன் நாரணனைக் கண்டேன்”

“nAmam pala solli nArAyaNa” (mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 8)
“நாமம் பல சொல்லி நாராயணா”

As nammAzhwAr observed in thiruvAimozhi 1-1-1 “mayarvaRa madhinalam aruLinan” (“மயர்வற மதிநலமருளினன்”) by his causeless compassion and grace all the AzhwArs who comprehended all objects by their inherent qualities liked this word as being comprehensive, took refuge in it, taught this to their disciples as the means for salvation discarding other words. All the AchAryas who followed the AzhwArs also liked it.  Thus the greatness of this manthram over the other manthrams has been mentioned.


sUthram – 14

Introduction: Then lOkAchArya describes how the greatness of the word is more than that of the lord whom it indicates, in aphorism 14:

வாச்ய ப்ரபாவம் போலன்று வாசக ப்ரபாவம்.
vAchyap prabAvam pOlanRu vAchakap prabAvam.

Simple meaning: The greatness (efficacy) of the word is not like that of the person, the lord (indicated by it).

vyAkyAnam: That is, the efficacy (greatness) of this word is not like that of the lord (who is indicated by it)

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

sUthram – 15

Introduction: To the query what is that greatness? lOkAchArya says, even if he is far away, the word will stand by and protect.

அவன் தூரஸ்தனானாலும் இது கிட்டி நின்று உதவும்.
avan dhUrasthanan AnAlum idhu kitti ninRu udhavum.

Simple meaning: Even when he is far from us, this word shall stand by us and protect and help us.

vyAkyAnam: That is, even when the lord meant by the word is not present and is away, this word, referring to him, shall stand by and fulfil the desires and prayers of the seekers who uttered it.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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