mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 31-35

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full series

Previous

ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 31

Introduction: To the query, of these three words which is primary, lOkAchArya replies, the primary word is praNavam, in aphorism 31.

idhil mudhaRpadham praNavam.
இதில் முதற்பதம் ப்ரணவம்.

Simple meaning: In this (manthra), the first word is praNavam.

vyAkyAnam: Sruthi said as in nArAyaNOpanishath

“OmithyagrE vyAharEth”
ओमित्यग्रे व्याहरेत्
ஓமித்யக்3ரே வ்யாஹரேத்

(the chanter has to say ‘Om’ initially)

Smruthi said,

praNavAdhyam namO madhyam nArAyaNa padhAnthimam |
manthramashtAksharam vidhyAth sarva sidhdhikaram nruNAm ||

प्रणवाद्यम् नमोमद्यम् नारायण पदान्तिमं |
मन्त्रमष्टाक्षरम् विद्यात् सर्वसिद्धिकरं नृणाम् ||

ப்ரணவாத்3யம் நமோமத்3யம் நாராயணபதா3ந்திமம் |
மந்த்ரமஷ்டாக்ஷரம் வித்3யாத் ஸர்வஸித்3தி4கரம் ந்ருணாம் ||

(ashtAkshara is to be known as having Om as the first word, nama: as the middle word, and the word nArAyaNa at the end. This proffers the chanters all the sidhdhis (results)).


sUthram – 32

Introduction: Now, to elucidate the meaning of praNavam, lOkAchArya describes its composition of three divine letters, namely, a,u,ma

idhu ‘a’ enRum ‘u’ enRum ‘ma’ enRum mUnRu thiruvaksharam.
இது `அ’ என்றும், `உ’ என்றும், `ம’ என்றும் மூன்று திருவக்ஷரம்.

Simple meaning: This is of three divine letters, a, u and ma.

vyAkhyAnam: This praNavam, in its split form, has three letters, three words, revealing three meanings. In its combined form it is a single letter, a single word, giving a single meaning.


sUthram – 33

Introduction: lOkAchArya proceeds to explain the genesis of these three letters with an example of three pots:

mUnRu thAzhiyilE thayirai niRaiththuk kadaindhu veNNai thirattinAR pOlE mUnRu vEdhaththilum mUnRu aksharaththaiyum eduththadhu.

மூன்று தாழியிலே தயிரை நிறைத்துக் கடைந்து வெண்ணைய் திரட்டினாற்போலே மூன்று வேதத்திலும் மூன்று அக்ஷரத்தையும் எடுத்தது.

Simple meaning: Like churning curd in three pots and collecting butter, three letters were chosen from the three vEdhas.

vyAkyAnam:

As mentioned in atharva vEdham gOpadha brAhmaNam pUrva bhAgam prapAthaka 1 brAhmaNam 6

bhUrithi rig vEdhAdhajAyatha | bhuva ithi yajur vEdhAth |
suvarithi sAma vEdhAth | thAni SukrANyabhyathapath |
thEbhyO abhithabhthEbhyas thrayO varNA ajAyantha ||
akAra ukAra makAra ithi | thAnEkadhA samabharath thadhEthadhOmithi ||

भूरिति ऋग्वेदादजायत | भुव इति यजुर्वेदात् |
सुवरिति सामवेदात् | तानि शुक्राण्यभ्यतपत् l
तेभ्योभितप्तेभ्यस्त्रयो वर्णा अजायन्त|

अकार उकार मकार इति| तानेकधा समभरत्तदेतदोमिति ||

பூ4ரிதி ருக்3வேதா3த3ஜாயத | பு4வ இதி யஜுர்வேதா3த் |
ஸுவரிதி ஸாமவேதா3த் | தாநி ஶுக்ராண்யப்4யதபத் l
தேப்4யோ அபி4தப்தேப்4யஸ் த்ரயோ வர்ணா அஜாயந்த |
அகார உகார மகார இதி | தாநேகதா4ஸமப4ரத்ததே3ததோ3மிதி ||

(“bhU:’ came as the essence of Rig vEdham; ‘bhuva:’ came as the essence of yajur vEdham; ‘suva:’ came as the essence of sAma vEdham; prajApathi melted the pure blocks of gold viz  ‘bhU: bhuva: suva:’; from the molten flow their essence came as letters ‘a u ma’ He added them up and that became the OmkAra).

In atharva vEdham also, as said in manu 2-76

akAranchApyukArancha makArancha prajApathi: |
vEdhathrayAnnirabruhath bhUrbhuvas svarithIthi cha ||

அகாரஞ்சாப்யுகாரஞ்ச மகாரஞ்ச ப்ரஜாபதி: |
வேத3 த்ரயாந் நிரப்3ருஹத் பூ4ர்பு4வஸ் ஸ்வரிதீதி ச ||

(prajApathi took out from the three vEdham the three words bhU: bhuva: suva:, and like allowing the molten gold to run for purification he made these three words to run by his sankalpa (vow) and created from them, the three letters akAra, ukAra, and makAra).

lOkAchArya says that from rig, yajur and sAma vEdhas, the three words  “bhU: bhuva: suva:” were generated which were flown like molten gold from which the three letters a,u and ma were generated by the sankalpa of nArAyaNa, like from three pots the vEdhas were churned like curd to yield the three aksharas.


sUthram – 34

Introduction: lOkachAryA says, thus it is known to be the sAra (essence) of all the vEdhas.

AgaiyAl, idhu sakala vEdha sAram.
ஆகையால், இது ஸகலவேத ஸாரம்.

Simple meaning: Therefore, this is the essence of all vEdhas.

vyAkyAnam: As the three letters are from three different vEdhas, the combined word is the essence of all the vEdhas.

So, from aphorism 26 onwards up to this (34), lOkAchArya has delineated

  1. vAkyArtha of this manthra
  2. number of letters forming the manthra
  3. number of words
  4. that the three words deliver three meanings
  5. that of these the primary word is such and that it is composed of three letters and
  6. since these three letters emerged as vEdha sAra, their congregation, praNava is sakala vEdha sAra.

    sUthram – 35

Introduction: Now, lOkAchArya decides to describe the meaning of these three letters and starts with the letter “a” in aphorism 35:

idhil akAram-sakala Sabdhaththukkum kAraNamAy nArAyaNa padhaththukku sangrahamAy irukkaiyAlE, sakala jagaththukkum kAraNamAy sarva rakshakanAna emperumAnaich chollugiRadhu.

இதில் அகாரம்-ஸகலஶப்தத்துக்கும் காரணமாய் நாராயணபதத்துக்கு ஸங்க்ரஹமாயிருக்கையாலே, ஸகலஜகத்துக்கும் காரணமாய் ஸர்வரக்ஷகனான எம்பெருமானைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: In this, letter “a” being the origin of all words, and also summary for the word nArAyaNa, indicates nArayaNa, the  origin of the entire world and saviour of all.

vyAkyAnam: That is, the letter a is the primary letter. As said in vishNu purAnam 1-5-63

nAma rUpancha bhUthAnAm kruthyAnAncha prapanchanam |
vEdha SabdhEbhya EvAdhau dhEvAdhInAm chakAra sa: ||

नामरूपञ्च भूतानां कृत्यानाञ्च प्रपन्चनम् |
वेदशब्देभ्य एवादौ देवादीनां चकार स: ||

நாமரூபஞ்ச பூ4தாநாம் க்ருத்யாநாஞ்ச ப்ரபஞ்சநம் |
வேத3 ஶப்3தேப்3ய ஏவாதௌ3 தே3வாதீ3நாஞ்சகார ஸ: ||

(prajApathi , at the time of creation, created the nomenclatures, forms and activities for all the four types of living beings viz celestial entities (dhEva), humans (manushya), animals (thiryak) and plants (sthAvaram), only from these sounds of vEdham and therefore, it is clear that all the words in vogue in the world have their roots in vEdham)

for all the worldly words vEdhas are the genesis, just as it has been said in laghvathri smruthi1-9

praNavAdhyAs thathA vEdhA:
प्रणवाद्यास्तथा वेदा:
ப்ரணவாத்3யாஸ் ததா2 வேதா3:

(All the vedhams have praNavam at the fore, and at end. All words are praNavam; therefore, we should learn praNavam)

As stated in thaiththirIya nArAyaNam 10-24 :

OmkAra prabhavA vEdhA:
ओङ्कारप्रभवा वेदा:
ஓங்காரப்ரப4வா வேதா3:

(praNavam is the genesis for these vEdhas)

thasya prakruthi leenasya: |
तस्य प्रकृतिलीनस्य
தஸ்ய ப்ரக்ருதிலீநஸ்ய

The tone of OmkAra which is chanted at the beginning of vEdham, which stabilises at the end of vEdham, in it the lord mahESwara stays as its  meaning.)

that pranava is its own origin…it is self generated;

As said in vAmana purANam

akArO vai sarvA vAk
अकारो वै सर्वा वाक्
அகாரோ வை ஸர்வா வாக்

(gArudam : All words are the letter “a”, its variations)

samastha Sabdha mUlathvAdhakArasya svabhAvatha:
समस्तशब्दमूलत्वादकारस्य  स्वभावत:
ஸமஸ்தஶப்3த3மூலத்வாத3காரஸ்ய ஸ்வபா3வத:

Naturally as “a” is the root of all words, and brahmam is the cause of all things, for that akAra and the brahmam, the relationship between the word and its meaning also occurs.)

as sarvESvara is the genesis for all the words, he being the sole saviour of all, being the bodies of all of them, is reflected by the word nArAyaNa as the letter is a summary of the word nArAyaNa.

Just as it is said in thaiththirIya bhruguvalli1-1 :

yathO vA imAni bhUthAni jAyanthE yE na jAthani jIvanthi
यतो वा इमानि भूतानि जायन्ते येन जातानि जीवन्ति
யதோ வா இமாநி பூ4தாநி ஜாயந்தே யே ந ஜாதாநி ஜீவந்தி,

(know that as the brahmam from which these things were born, by which they survive, and that which they reach while decaying)

Just as it is said in (vishNu purANa 1-2-70 :

sa Eva srujyas cha sarga karthA sa Eva pAthyaththi cha pAlyathE cha
स एव सृज्य: स च सर्गकर्ता स एव पात्यत्ति च पाल्यते च
ஸ ஏவ ஸ்ருஜ்யஸ் ஸ ச ஸர்க்ககர்த்தா ஸ ஏவ பாத்யத்தி ச பால்யதே ச,

one who is created is vishNu; one creates is vishNu; he alone consumes them during the great deluge (praLaya), he is being saved; the Supreme vishNu who is the giver of boons in stages as brahmA et al has the entire galaxy as his body).

[All these pramANams] extol him as the genesis for all the worlds, and saviour for all. So, this letter talks of genesis of nature (prakruthi, primary part of verb) and also protection (rakshakathva) as the meaning of the dhAthu, root of the word. When letter a is described as summary of the word nArAyaNa as saviour this quality of being genesis as obtained in the meaning of the root of the word has to be the basis for that.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

archived in https://srivaishnavagranthams.wordpress.com/

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – https://guruparamparai.wordpress.com
SrIvaishNava Education/Kids Portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s