mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 51-59

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 51

Introduction: What is the meaning conveyed by this? lOkAchArya says in aphorism 51:

iththAl ISvaranukku SEsham engiRadhu.
இத்தால், ஈஶ்வரனுக்கு ஶேஷமென்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this, the soul is shown as being subservient (SEsha) to ISvara.

vyAkyAnam: That is, this being “thAdharthyE chathurthI” (fourth case indicating ‘for that’) means the soul is subservient to the ISvara.

“thAdharthyE chathurthiI” in grammar refers to fourth case.


sUthram – 52

Introduction: Generally the belief is that servitude is painful. manu 4-160 says “sarvam paravaSam dhukkham”, subservience is painful. So, people raise the doubt – is not subservience painful? sarvam paravaSam du:kham sarvam Athma vaSam sukham ithi vidhyAth samAsEna lakshaNam sukha dhu:khayO:”  (being controlled by others is painful in every way; remaining independent is pleasurable in all ways. We could understand that this is the definitioni for happiness and sadness). It is also said “sEvA Svavruththi:” (serving others is dog’s work).This is asked as a query.

SEshathvam dhukka rUpamAgavanRO nAttil kANgiRadhu ennil.
‘ஶேஷத்வம் து:க்கரூபமாகவன்றோ நாட்டிற் காண்கிறது’ என்னில்.

Simple meaning: Is not subservience seen as painful around us?


sUthram – 53

Introduction: lOkAchArya says that there is no such dictum, as subservience to a beloved person is not painful. Servitude to a beloved person is seen as pleasurable, and not painful as we see around us.

andha niyamam illai; ugandha vishayaththukku SEshamAy irukkum iruppu sugamAgak kANgaiyAlE.

அந்த நியமம் இல்லை; உகந்தவிஷயத்துக்கு ஶேஷமாயிருக்கும் இருப்பு ஸுகமாகக் காண்கையாலே.

Simple meaning: There is no such dictum, as servitude to the loved one is perceived as a pleasure.

vyAkyAnam: That is, we see all around us, as stated by nammAzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 4-1-5 “paNimin thiruvaruL” (shower your grace on me) being servile to a beloved is seen in samsAram as causing enjoyment. Therefore, servitude does not cause pain.


sUthram – 54

Introduction: To the query, “Is not servitude to the desired person pleasurable because of the qualities of the person?” lOkAchArya says:

akAraththilE kalyANa guNangkaLaich sollugaiyAlE indha SEshathvamum guNaththAlE vandhadhu.
அகாரத்திலே கல்யாண குணங்களைச் சொல்லுகையாலே, இந்த ஶேஷத்வமும் குணத்தாலே வந்தது.

Simple meaning: This servitude (to him) is also because of the auspicious qualities (kalyAna guNas) stated in the letter a-kAra.

vyAkyAnam: That is, this servitude to ISvara also comes because of the auspicious qualities in him which are the necessary prerequisites for the saviour while he is protecting his proteges. Therefore, the opinion is that this is also definitely pleasurable.


sUthram – 55

Introduction: But, is it possible, as this results from a cause (aupAdhikam), it may be objected that this is not the inherent quality (of the soul)? lOkAchArya replies to this:

SEshathvamE AthmAvukku svarUpam.
ஶேஷத்வமே ஆத்மாவுக்கு ஸ்வருபம்.

Simple meaning: Servitude (Seshathva) alone is the identity (inherent svarUpam, quality) for the soul.

vyAkyAnam: That is, the citation of the beloved ones making servitude a pleasure is only to highlight the facilitating qualities; just as it has been mentioned in vishNuthathvam:

svathvam Athmani sanjAtam svAmithvam brahmaNi sthitham |
AthmadhAsyam harE: svAmyam svabhAvam cha sadhA smara ||

स्वत्वमात्मनि  सञ्जातं स्वामित्वं ब्रह्मणि स्तिथं |
आत्मदास्यं हरे: स्वाम्यं स्वभावं च सदा स्मर ||

ஸ்வத்வமாத்மநி ஸஞ்ஜாதம் ஸ்வாமித்வம் ப்ரஹ்மணி ஸ்தித2ம் |
ஆத்மதா3ஸ்யம் ஹரேஸ் ஸ்வாம்யம் ஸ்வபா4வம் ச ஸதா3 ஸ்மர ||

(The quality of being the belonging is inherently natural to the soul; the quality of being the owner is inherently natural to the brahmam; this is the only relationship between the two; I do not agree with anything else. If you are interested in your salvation, and desirous of your existence, then always think of the servitude of the soul and the supremacy of hari). 

and in hArItha smrithi :

dhAsabhUthA: svatha: sarvE hi AtmAna: paramAthmana: |
nAnyathA lakshaNam thEshAm bandhE mOkshE thathaiva cha ||

 दासभूता: स्वत: सर्वे ह्यात्मान: परमात्मन: |
नान्यता लक्षणम् तेषां बन्धे मोक्षे तथैव च ||

தாஸபூ4தாஸ் ஸ்வதஸ் ஸர்வே ஹ்யாத்மாந: பரமாத்மந: |
நாந்யதா லக்ஷணம் தேஷாம் ப3ந்தே4 மோக்ஷே ததை2வ ச||

(all AthmAs are naturally enslaved to paramAthmA. In samsAram as well as mokshAm there is no other definition).

etc, some SAsthra statements highlight servitude (SEshathva) as the inherent quality of the soul and so it is the only identity of the soul.


sUthram – 56

Introduction: To the question why to adapt the soul only for servitude, does it not have other qualities like wisdom (gyAnam) and bliss (Anandham)? lOkAchArya says, in the absence of servitude (SEshathva) the soul has no identity.

SEshathvam illAdha pOdhu svarUpam illai.
ஶேஷத்வமில்லாதபோது ஸ்வரூபமில்லை.

Simple meaning: When there is no servitude (SEshthvam), there is no identity (svarUpam).


sUthram – 57

Introduction: He highlights in the next two sentences that in the absence of servitude (SEshathva), the soul suffers from assumed independence leading to self plundering of the soul.

AthmApahAram Avadhu svathanthram engiRa ninaivu: svathanthramAm pOdhu illaiyAy vidum.
ஆத்மாபஹாரமாவது ஸ்வதந்த்ரமென்கிற நினைவு; ஸ்வதந்த்ரமாம்போது இல்லையாய்விடும்.

Simple meaning: Plundering of the self is nurturing the thought of independence; once independent, the identity (of the soul) is lost.

vyAkyAnam: As stated in bhAratham-Adhi 74-28 :

yO anyathA santham AtmAnam anyathA prathipadhyathE |
kim thEna na krutham pApam chOrENa AtmApahArinA ||

योन्यथा संतमात्मानमन्यथा प्रतिपद्यते |
किं तेन न कृतं चोरेणात्मापहारिणा ||

யோ அன்யதா2ஸந்தமாத்மாநமந்யதா2 ப்ரதிபத்3யதே |
கிம் தேந ந க்ருதம் பாபம் சோரேணாத்மாபஹரிணா||

(AthmA belongs to bhagavAn. When a person thinks that it belongs to him, what sin has not been committed by such a person? [implies that this is the worst sin that a person can commit])

Self plundering is the belief that one’s inherent quality is independence and at that point of ”independence” the identity is lost leading to the position of ”asannEva”, as if not existing. Therefore, for its existence the soul needs to be in servitude.

Thus lOkAchArya detailed the meanings of  the letter akAra as:

  • ISvara’s kAraNathva (being the cause for everything, just as the letter ‘a’ is the cause for all the other letters),
  • ISwara’s rakshakathva (being the savior) as attained from the root of the word (ava rakshanE)
  • SrIya:pathithva (being the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi)
  • the relationship of the chEthanA and ISvara as SEsha and SEshI out of deep faith.

sUthram – 58

Introduction: Next lOkAchArya starts detailing the meaning for letter “u” and  states by its position in the word (a u m) it means emphasis.

sthAnapramANaththAlE ukAram avadhAraNArththam.
ஸ்தாநப்ரமாணத்தாலே உகாரம் அவதாரணார்த்தம்.

Simple meaning: By its location, ‘u’ denotes the meaning of avadhAram.

vyAkyAnam: As stated in

thadhEva bhutham thadhu bhavyamA idham |
thadhEva agnis thadh vAyus thadh suryas thadhu chandramA: ||

तदेव भूतं तदु भव्यमा इदं |
तदेवाग्निस्तद्वायुस्तत् सूर्यस्तदु चन्द्रमा: ||

ததே3வ பூ4தம் தது3 ப4வ்யமா இத3ம் |
ததே3வாக்நிஸ்தத்வாயுஸ் தத் ஸுர்யஸ்தது3 சந்த்ரமா: ||

(thaiththiriya nArAyaNa : paramAthmA is the past, that will be the future and present. That is in the indestructible paramAkASa. The Supreme brahmam is agni(fire), that is vAyu (air), that is sUrya (sun); that is the chandhra (moon)).

and other SAsthra vAkyas, the ukAra lends the word a tenor of emphasis as meaning.


sUthram – 59

Introduction: Emphasis usually means ayOga vyavach chEdha or anya yOga vyavach chEdha. (highlighting one by his/it’s qualities alone or highlighting that rejecting others). What is the meaning of this emphasis viz., emphasis because of the positional importance of ukAra? lOkAchArya explains:

iththAl piRarkku SEsham anRu engiRadhu.
இத்தால், பிறர்க்கு ஶேஷம் அன்று என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this, servitude to anybody else is denied.

vyAkyAnam: That is, by this letter of emphasis, “u”, it is stated that it is subservient to ISvara and to no one else. The question here is if by the fourth causative “Aya” (nArayaNAya) when the servitude to nArAyaNa is indicated can it be alluded to be subservient to another?

But in practice we observe house, land, sons, servants etc which belong to one person are also subservient to others simultaneously. So, we may get a doubt whether such servitude is possible here also in regard to ISvara and  the soul. Therefore, ukAra is here  to highlight that there is no such simultaneous servitude possible for the soul.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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