mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 71-80

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 71

Introduction: While it would be apt to first describe the subservience in relation to the soul as it is the repository of the quality of subservience (seshathvam), in detailing the praNava, why describe the subservience first and then the soul?

maNaththaiyum oLiyaiyum koNdu pUvaiyum rathnaththaiyum virumbumA pOlE SEshamenRu AthmAvai AdharikkiRadhu; allAdha pOdhu “uyirinAl kuRaivilam” engiRapadiyE thyAjyam; adhu thOnRa SEshathvaththaich chollip pinnai AthmAvaich chollugiRadhu.

மணத்தையும், ஒளியையுங்கொண்டு, பூவையும், ரத்நத்தையும் விரும்புமாபோலே, ஶேஷமென்று ஆத்மாவை ஆதரிக்கிறது அல்லாதபோது “உயிரினாற்குறைவிலம்” என்கிறபடியே த்யாஜ்யம்; அது தோன்ற ஶேஷத்வத்தைச் சொல்லிப் பின்னை ஆத்மாவைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: Since we like flowers and rubies  because of the scent and luster respectively, soul is celebrated because of its servitude; in the absence of servitude it is expendable as said in “uyirinAl kuRaivilam” (we don’t suffer from the lack of such insubmisive soul); for this reason servitude is described first and then the soul.

vyAkyAnam: We like a flower as it is the repository of scent and a ruby as it is of luster. So also the soul is celebrated as it is the repository of servitude. If it is not in servitude to bhagavAn, we have no use for it and it is fit to be given up. To emphasise the importance of the soul’s servitude unto him, SEshathvam is described first and then the AthmA.


sUthram – 72

Introduction: Now lOkAchArya summarises the meaning of this praNava which is composed of three words:

Aga praNavaththAl “kaNNapuram onRudaiyAnukku adiyEn oruvarkku uriyEnO” engiRapadiyE jIva para sambandham solliRRu.
ஆக, ப்ரணவத்தால் “கண்ணபுரமொன்றுடையானுக்கு அடியேன் ஒருவர்க்குரியேனோ” என்கிறபடியே ஜீவபரஸம்பந்தஞ்சொல்லிற்று.

Simple meaning: Thus, by praNavam (manthra), the connection between the jIvAthmA and paramAthmA was stated as indicated by thirumangai AzhvAr in his pAsuram:

“kaNNapuram onRu udaiyAnukku adiyEn oruvarkku uriyEnO”.

vyAkyAnam: In the praNava manthram, thirumangai AzhvAr gave the meaning for the fourth causative akAra in “kaNNapuram onRu udaiyAnukku”; SEshathva (servitude) makAra in “adiyEn”; ananyaSEshathva (non-subservience to others) ukAra in “oruvarkku uriyEnO”

Thus the jIva para – SEsha SEshi connection has been delineated on the lines of kaliyan.


sUthram – 73

Introduction: Also, to highlight the togetherness of perumAL and pirAtti in accepting the servitude of the jIva, lOkAchArya cites a line from pOygai AzhvAr.

iththAl “thAmaraiyAL kELvan oruvanaiyE nOkkum uNarvu” enRadhAyiRRu.
இத்தால், “தாமரையாள் கேள்வனொருவனையே நோக்குமுணர்வு” என்றதாயிற்று.

Simple meaning: By this, pOigai AzhvAr’s pAsuram “thAmaraiyAL kELvan oruvanaiyE nOkkum uNarvu” is remembered.

vyAkyAnam: By this praNava manthram , the lord meant by akAra is spoken as the divine consort of SrI mahAlakshmi,”thAmaraiyAl kELvan”. “oruvanaiyE nOkkum uNarvu” indicates the chathurthi and ukAra meaning servitude is for him only. “uNarvu” refers to the gyAna that is the proof of the soul which is related to him in the jIva para relationship.


sUthram – 74

Introduction: In akAra, lOkAchArya showed the meaning of his being the reason for everything, jagath kAraNathva. Now as another meaning for the word, he dwells into it.

akAraththAlum makAraththAlum rakshakanaiyum rakshyaththaiyum solliRRu; chathurthiyAlum ukAraththAlum, rakshaNa hEthuvAna prApthiyaiyum palaththaiyum solliRRu.

அகாரத்தாலும், மகாரத்தாலும், ரக்ஷகனையும், ரக்ஷ்யத்தையும் சொல்லிற்று; சதுர்த்தியாலும், உகாரத்தாலும் ரக்ஷணஹேதுவான ப்ராப்தியையும், பலத்தையும் சொல்லிற்று.

Simple meaning: The saviour (rakshaka) was talked about in akAra and the jIva in makAra. The fourth causative chathurthi and ukAra spoke of the goal (prApthi, the reason for saving) and the pala (gain) i.e. kainkaryam, servitude.

vyAkyAnam: Thus, in akAra, ISvara the savior is spoken of. makAra spoke of the jIva who is protected. chathurthi the fourth causative spoke of prApthi because of the servitude (SEshathva). The gain for the jIva due to such protection is eternal servitude to him and him only which is described by ukAra.

Thus lOkAchArya gave the meaning for the first word, praNavam in thirumanthram.


sUthram – 75

Introduction: Now, lOkAchArya is proceeding to give in detail the meaning for the forthcoming words, first indicating how the remaining part of the manthra is an explanation for this (praNava).

inimEl praNavaththai vivarikkiRadhu.
இனிமேல் ப்ரணவத்தை விவரிக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: Now on, we describe praNavam in detail.

vyAkyAnam: Here, “in detail” is, giving the meaning of the word, explaining the meaning already indicated. jIyar said in his dhIpaprakAsam and in vAdhikEsari kArikai:

ukthArtha viSadhIkAra yukthArthAnthara bOdhanam |
matham vivaraNam thathra mahithAnAm manIshiNAm ||

उक्तार्थ विशदी कार युक्तार्थान्तर बोधनम् |
मतं विवरणं तत्र महितानां मनीषिणाम् ||

உக்தார்த2 விஶதீ3 கார யுக்தார்தா2ந்தர போ3த4நம்
மதம் விவரணம் தத்ர மஹிதாநாம் மநீஷிணாம்||

(It is the principle of revered elders that vyAkhyAnam (commentary) is to clarify the stated concept, and describe suitable ideas.)

and in rahasyAthraya vivaraNam, the format of such detailing.


sUthram – 76

Introduction: What is the pattern of describing in detail? lOkAchArya commences with, ukAra:

ukAraththai vivarikkiRadhu namassu; akAraththai vivarikkiRadhu nArAyaNa padham; makAraththai vivarikkiRadhu chathurththi; nArapadham enRum solluvArgaL.

உகாரத்தை விவரிக்கிறது நமஸ்ஸு; அகாரத்தை விவரிக்கிறது நாராயணபதம்; மகாரத்தை விவரிக்கிறது சதுர்த்தி; நாரபதமென்றுஞ் சொல்லுவார்கள்.

Simple meaning: ukAra is described by “nama:”; akAra is described by the word nArAyaNa; makAra is described by chathurthi, the fourth causative; also the word “nAra”.

vyAkyAnam: That is, “nama:” describes ukAra as it excludes self also along with the others while talking of servitude to bhagavAn only (ananya SEshathva); the word “nArAyaNa” describes akAra  as it talks in detail of the identity of ISvara the saviour, the sentient and insentient entities which are all protected by him, the auspicious qualities of his in such protection, and the kind of protection.  Just as it is mentioned in mImAmsaka statements:

nAkinchith kurvatha: SEshathvam
नाकिञ्चित्कुर्वत: शेषत्वम्
நாகிஞ்சித்குர்வதஶ்ஶேஷத்வம்

(there is no SEshathvam (servitude) for one who does not render service)

akinchithkarasya SEshathvAnupapaththi:
अकिञ्चित्करस्य शेषत्वानुपपत्ति
அகிஞ்சித்கரஸ்ய ஶேஷத்வாநுபபத்தி:

(sEshathvam, servitude, does not fit with one who does not render service)

without a little service unto him, servitude is incomplete and so the chathurthi, which indicates this service, describes “ma”kAra, the soul, which is the repository of servitude. As the word “nAra” explains the eternity (nithyathva), singularity (eka rUpathva), plurality (bahuthva) etc of the soul, it is also said that the word “nAra” describes “ma”kAra.


sUthram – 77

Introduction: Why is this described in the inverted order instead of the order in which the letters appear? asks lOkAchArya and answers:

adaivE vivariyAdhozhigiRadhu virOdhi pOy anubavikka vENdugaiyAlE.
அடைவே விவரியாதொழிகிறது- விரோதி போய் அநுபவிக்க வேண்டுகையாலே.

Simple meaning: It is not described in the chronology as enjoyment comes after the obstacles (virOdhIs) wear off.

vyAkyAnam: That is, description is not in the order of the letters because in the word nArAyaNa, the experience of servitude has to be after the removal of  obstacles like I (ahankAra) and mine (mamakAra) [resulting in delusion of body for soul, and soul to be dependent on others and servile to identities other than him] by  “nama:”.


sUthram – 78

Introduction: Now, starting to give the meaning for the word in the middle (of thirumanthram), he first splits the word “nama:” into two words, “na” and “ma:”.

namassu – na enRum, ma: enRum iraNdu padham.
நமஸ்ஸு- “ந” என்றும், “ம:” என்னும் இரண்டு பதம்.

Simple meaning: “nama:” is made of two words, “na” and “ma:”.


sUthram – 79

Introduction: Asking what is the meaning for these two words, lOkAchArya starts with “ma:”.

ma: engiRa iththAl, thanakku uriyan engiRadhu; na enRu aththaith thavirkkiRadhu.
”ம:” என்கிற இத்தால், “தனக்கு உரியன் என்கிறது; ”ந” என்று அத்தைத் தவிர்க்கிறது.

Simple meaning: “ma:” means, “belonging to me; mine”; “na” eliminates that (belonging)

vyAkyAnam: By “ma:” which is having sixth causative, this makAra indicates self orientation and so means, “I belong to myself”; and by nakAra which is a negating word (nishEdha vAchi) such ownership is negated.


sUthram – 80

Introduction: lOkAchArya now sums up and brings together the meaning obtained by these two words, “ma:” and “na”.

Aga nama: engiRa viththAl ‘thanakku uriyan anRu’ engiRadhu.
ஆக “நம:” என்கிற இத்தால், “தனக்கு உரியனன்று” என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: Therefore, by the word “nama:” the meaning conveyed is “not belonging to me”.

vyAkyAnam: Instead of telling the meaning in the chronology of the word, the meaning is conveyed for the combined word “nama:” because while obviating a thing like nammAzhvAr did in his thiruvAimozhi “vIdumin muRRavum”, what is to be  given up has to be declared as relinquishable (prohibited). lOkAchArya himself has stated this in his grantham “parandhapadi”.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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