mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 91-96

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 91

Introduction: The difference in the faith (in him) before knowing the meaning of “nama:” and after internalising the meaning of ”nama:” is now explained:

“ISvaran thanakkEyAy irukkum; achiththu piRarkkEyAy irukkum; AthmA thanakkum piRarkkum podhuvAi irukkum” enRu muRpatta ninaivu; angananRikkE, achiththaip pOlE “thankkEyAga enaik koLLa vENum” engiRadhu namassAl.

“ஈஶ்வரன் தனக்கேயாயிருக்கும்; அசித்துப் பிறர்க்கேயாயிருக்கும்; ஆத்மா தனக்கும் பிறர்க்கும் பொதுவாயிருக்கும்” என்று முற்பட்ட நினைவு; அங்ஙனன்றிக்கே, அசித்தைப் போலே தனக்கேயாக எனைக் கொள்ளவேணுமென்கிறது நமஸ்ஸால்.

Simple meaning: The earlier thinking (of the jIva) is: ISvara is for himself, insentient things are only for others; soul is common to oneself and others; unlike this, ”nama:” teaches to desire that he [ISvaran] uses the soul as if it is insentient (as he likes).

vyAkyAnam: That is, ISvara as said in SrI guNarathna kOSam 28, “svarUpam svAthanthryam bhagavatha:” has absolute independence over himself and so exists for only himself; due to lack of knowledge and being totally depending on others, insentients are absolutely at the disposal of others; due to the SEshathva seen in chathurthi  in akAra, and the knowing in makAra the soul is doodling between  selfishness due to knowledge and servitude due to the SEshathva. This is the idea of the jIvA before realising the essence of “nama:”. However, once the nuance of  ”nama:” is internalised there is a yearning for the status of servitude to him like an insentient, just as AzhvAr states in thiruvAImozhi 2-9-4 ”thanakkEyAga enaik koLLum IdhE” (“தனக்கேயாகவெனைக் கொள்ளுமீதே”) may he take me for himself, as he desires, howsoever he desires.


sUthram – 92

Introduction: lOkAchArya explains the word of AzhvAr, “thanakkEyAga”:

adhAvadhu bOga dhaSaiyil ISvaran azhikkum pOdhu nOkka vENum enRu azhiyAdhozhigai.
அதாவது –  போகதஶையில் ஈஶ்வரன் அழிக்கும்போது நோக்கவேணுமென்று அழியாதொழிகை.

Simple meaning: That is, when with the ISvara during his enjoyment protocols, [the jIvAthmA] should not intervene and prevent him.

vyAkyAnam: Just as AzhvAr said in thiruvAimozhi 9-6-7 ”AtkoLvAnoththu en uyir uNda mAyan” (“ஆட்கொள்வானொத்து என்னுயிருண்ட மாயன்”),  as the enjoyer, ISvara mingles with the jIva coming down to his level;  though he enters as one to take him in servitude due to his love, he clears the servility of him; at such confluence jIva should not retreat, remembering his lowliness as that would deny the enjoyer his bliss.


sUthram – 93

Introduction: To the question – why does ISvara destroy the servility of the (surrendering) soul? lOkAchArya replies:

azhikkaikku hEthu kIzhE solliRRu; mElum sollum.
அழிக்கைக்கு ஹேது – கீழே சொல்லிற்று; மேலுஞ்சொல்லும்.

Simple meaning: Reason for such destruction of servility has been given earlier; it shall be further explained.

vyAkyAnam: That is, as in praNava the soul’s svarUpa (identity) is given as servitude, when ISvara accepts him, jIva should not assume humility. This has been seen in the chathurthi as ”kinkara svabhAva” and as a servile servant he can not remain aloof from Isvaran’s all engulfing love.


sUthram – 94

Introduction: Now,  describing  the greatness of  the deep faith with  total acceptance of his superiority, lOkAchArya winds up the commentary on this word:

inninaivu piRandha pOdhE kruthakruthyan; inninaivu illAdha pOdhu ellA dhushkruthangaLum krutham; inninaivilE ellA sukruthangaLum uNdu; idhu inRikkE irukkap paNNum yagyAdhigaLum prAyaSchiththAdhigaLum nishprayOjanangkaL; idhu thannAlE ellAp pApangkaLum pOm; ellAp palangaLum uNdAm.

இந்நினைவு பிறந்தபோதே க்ருதக்ருத்யன்; இந்நினைவில்லாதபோது எல்லா துஷ்க்ருதங்களும் க்ருதம்; இந்நினைவிலே எல்லா ஸுக்ருதங்களும் உண்டு. இது இன்றிக்கே இருக்கப் பண்ணும் யஜ்ஞாதிகளும் ப்ராயஶ்சித்தாதிகளும் நிஷ்ப்ரயோஜநங்கள்; இதுதன்னாலே எல்லாபாவங்களும்போம், எல்லா பலங்களும்உண்டாம்.

Simple meaning: When this thought occurs, he is deemed to have performed all sacred acts he has to; without this thought, he is considered to have indulged in all evil acts; in this thought all noble acts are deemed to have been performed. All sacrifices and atonement, without this, are wasteful; all sins will get washed out by this and all auspicious results will occur.

vyAkyAnam: (when this thought occurs) The moment he gets the deep faith that ISvaran shall take me for his pleasure “thanakkEyAga enaik koLLum IdhE”, his [jIvAthmA’s] absolute subservient faith makes him having completed all that he has to do for his redemption.

(without this thought) In the absence of this thought all evil acts are considered to have been done because in the absence of pArathanthrya prathipaththi (absolute faith with total dependence on ISvaran), as said in mahAbhAratham, Adhi parvam 74-28) “kim thEna na krutham pApam chOrENa AthmApahAriNA” (किं तेन न कृतं पापं चोरेणात्मापहारिणा – கிம் தேந ந க்ருதம் பாபம் சோரேணாத்மாபஹாரிணா)  (Which sin is not committed by one,  who knows that his soul that belongs to bhagavAn, considers it to be his own, as this amounts to thievery?), since one who has plundered his own soul, he is a thief.

(in this thought all are noble acts…) This is so, because by this thought ISvara is pleased with him as if he has performed  all sacred acts.

(All sacrifices and atonement….) All the sacrifices (yagya) done by him to please ISvara, acts of atonement such as kruchra, chAndhrAyaNA etc go waste as they neither please ISvara nor entail the relief from the sins committed.

(All sins will get washed out) As this absolute trust in ISvara’s superior independence pleases him,  whatever sins accumulate in the absence of such pleasure  get liquidated. He is eagerly waiting to do something good for his devotees, just as AzhvAr said in periya thiruvandhAdhi 53 “un adiyArkku  en seivan enRE iruththi nI” (“உன்னடியார்க்கென் செய்வனென்றேயிருத்தி நீ”) he is waiting to continuously  grant  all auspicious things to his devotee and therefore, right from wiping out the cycle of samsAra, till attainment of eternal service (kainkarya prApthi) everything reaches him.

Thus lOkAchArya delineated in detail the meaning for the middle word, ”nama:”


sUthram – 95

Introduction: Now lOkAchArya gives the meaning for the word “nArAyaNa”, starting with the word, ”nArAyaNa”.

nArAyaNan enRadhu – nArangkaLukku ayanam enRapadi.
நாராயணனென்றது நாரங்களுக்கு அயநமென்றபடி.

Simple meaning: ”nArAyaNan”, because he is refuge to “nAras”.

vyAkyAnam: That is, as  the word ”nArAyaNa” is amenable to both the forms of ”nArANAm ayanam ya: sa: nArAyaNa:” (நாராணாம் அயநம் ய: ஸ: நாராயண:”) and “nArA: ayanam yasya sa: nArAyaNa:” (“நாரா: அயநம் யஸ்ய ஸ: நாராயண:”) he takes first the thath purusha samAsa where we get the meaning that he is the refuge for all nAra objects.


sUthram – 96

Introduction: What are the nArAs?

nArangaLAvana – nithyavasthukkaLinudaiya thiraL.
நாரங்களாவன நித்ய வஸ்துக்களினுடைய திரள்.

Simple meaning: nArAs are the clusters of permanent (non-decaying) objects.

vyAkyAnam: The word “nAra” is derived from ”nara”, ”nAra” and ”nArA:” where ”ra” indicates the transient entities and the preceding letter ”na” negates such transient quality (ring-kshayE where root ra indicates decaying objects). In cluster, with “aN” prathyaya and elongated first letter, nAra – group of objects that are permanant, its plural nArA: refers to clusters of such objects; hence

by saying nithya (permanant) the word nara
by saying vasthu (objects) the word nAra, and
by saying thiraL (clusters) meaning of bahu vachanA, i.e. plural,more than two clusters of objects are indicated.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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