mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 116-120

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


dhvaya prakaraNa

Introduction: to dhvaya prakaraNa

After delineating the meaning of thirumanthra, lOkAchArya describes the meaning of dhvaya (mahAmanthra) in which the upAya (means) and upEya (goal) defined by its middle and last words (nama:, nArAyaNa) are explained.

In the three granthas earlier proffered by lOkAchArya, he had described thirumanthra, and charamaSlOka and finally dhvaya ; but here, after thirumanthra, he describes dhvaya and finally charamaSlOka. Why?  Because, meaning can be explained in both the orders. AchchAn piLLai and jIyar have done in this order.

The idea behind these two types of exposition is: keeping charamaSlOka before dhvaya  falls in the pattern of rule (vidhi) first and practice (anushtAna) later, as thirumanthra gives the means (prApya), charamaSlOka gives the goal (prApyam), dhvaya mahAmanthra exposits the practice (anushtAna) of both.

After thirumanthra, keeping dhvaya first and then charamaSlOka: the middle (nama:) and last words (nArAyaNa) of thirumanthra are explained in the dhvaya, and charamaSlOka is the explanation for dhvaya.

Therefore, there is no objection in meditating on these either way. As lOkAchArya has already given three granthas in one pattern, with a view to adapting the other pattern also, he fashioned this mumukshuppadi in this presentation of dhvaya prakaraNa after thirumanthra prakaraNa.

******Thus the introduction avathArika of mAmunigal’s for dhvaya prakaraNa of mumukshuppadi.*******


sUthram – 116

Introduction: Now, at the outset lOkAchArya lists out the mandatory qualities of a SrIvaishNava briefly:

puRambuNdAna paRRukkaLai adaiya vAsanaiyOdE vIdugaiyum, emperumAnaiyE thanjam enRu paRRugaiyum, pERu thappAdhenRu thuNindhirukkaiyum, pERRukkuth thvarikkaiyum, irukkum nAL ugandharuLina nilangaLilE pravaNanAy guNAnubava kainkaryangaLE pOzhudhu pOkkAgaiyum, ippadi irukkum SrIvaishNavargaL ERRam aRindhu ugandhirukkaiyum, thirumanthraththilum dhvayaththilum niyathanAgaiyum, AchArya prEmam ganaththirukkaiyum, AchAryan pakkalilum emperumAn pakkalilum kruthagyanAyp pOrugaiyum, gyAnamum virakthiyum SAnthiyum udaiyanAy irukkum parama sAthvikanOdE sahavAsam paNNugaiyum vaishNavAdhikArikku avaSyApEkshitham.

புறம்புண்டான பற்றுக்களையடைய வாஸனையோடே விடுகையும், எம்பெருமானையே தஞ்சமென்று பற்றுகையும், பேறுதப்பாதென்று துணிந்திருக்கையும், பேற்றுக்கு த்வரிக்கையும், இருக்கும் நாள் உகந்தருளின நிலங்களிலே ப்ரவணனாய் குணாநுபவ கைங்கர்யங்களே பொழுது போக்காகையும், இப்படி இருக்கும் ஸ்ரீவைஷ்ணவர்கள் ஏற்றமறிந்து உகந்திருக்கையும், திருமந்திரத்திலும் த்வயத்திலும் நியதனாகையும், ஆசார்ய ப்ரேமம் கனத்திருக்கையும், ஆசார்யன் பக்கலிலும் எம்பெருமான் பக்கலிலும் க்ருதஜ்ஞனாய்ப் போருகையும், ஜ்ஞாநமும் விரக்தியும் ஶாந்தியும் உடையனாயிருக்கும் பரம ஸாத்விகனோடே ஸஹவாஸம் பண்ணுகையும் வைஷ்ணவாதிகாரிக்கு அவஶ்யாபேக்ஷிதம்.

Simple meaning: The mandatory requisites of a SrIvaishNava are:

  1. Giving up entirely the attachment to external sensory desires along with the roots of their scent;
  2. Surrendering exclusively only to SrIman nArAyaNa as refuge;
  3. Remaining confident that the result is guaranteed;
  4. Yearning for his result;
  5. Spending life with deep affection for his dhivya dhESams, always engaged in service to his auspicious qualities;
  6. Remaining ever pleasant to SrIvaishNavas who are great, in this way
  7. Being engaged with observance of thirumanthra and dhvaya;
  8. Deeply devoted to AchArya;
  9. Remaining grateful to AchArya and nArAyaNa; and
  10. Coexisting with a parama sAthvika who has wisdom (gyAna), detachment (virakthi), and peace (SAnthi).

vyAkhyAnam:

  1. Giving up entirely, attachment to external sensory desires is like vibhIshaNa who gave up “pitharam mAtharam dhArAn”

vihagendhra samhithai patalam 22:

(pitharam mAtharam dhArAn puthrAn bandhUn sakhIn gurUn
rathnAni dhanadhAnyAni kshethrAni cha gruhAni cha
sarvadharmAmscha santhyajya sarvakAmAmscha sAksharAn
lOkavikrAntha charaNau SaraNam the’vrajam vibhO)

(O my Lord! I reached your golden lotus feet which measured out all the worlds as the sole refuge, leaving father, mother, spouse, offsprings, relatives, friends, teachers, precious stones, grains, fields, houses, all means to reach you and also all attainable goals like kaivalya absolutely even without their scent)

2. Surrendering exclusively only to SrIman nArAyaNa. These two sentences tell the import of the first half of the charamaSlOka. How?… sensory attachment = sarva dharmAn; giving up = parithyajya; surrender to him = mAm; only nArAyaNa = “E”, Ekam.; refuge = SaraNam; yearning = vraja.

3. Remaining confident of the result: trusting that he would grace, without the doubts due to multifarious means,  the amazing superiority of the goal, and one’s own shortcomings; with such trust never should not remain idle thinking that we will see when we attain it but display an urge for it: “mAgavaikundham kANbadhaRku en manam Ekam eNNum”; or “thAvi vaiyam koNda thadandhAmaraigatkE kUvik koLLum kAlam innam kuRugAdhO”

4. By these he talks about deep faith (mahA viSvAsa) and yearning for goal (prApya thvarA) the twin desires of upAya and upEya.

5. Spending life time in dhivya dhESa and service to his temple – though eager to reach his abode eternally, it should be done here as declared in “thAn ugandha Ur”, and “kaNdiyUr, arangam, meyyam, kachchi, pEr, mallai…” are his favourite places and loving them takes us closer to him with thoughts and feelings focused on his auspicious attributes.

6. Remaining appreciative of such SrIvaishNavas is vital as even if one acquires other qualities this un-caviling  attitude is very difficult to practice, to appreciate them as lotus blooming in a fire pot.

7. Remain disciplined in thirumanthra and dhvaya is to remain steeped in their meaning in practice and keeping off from any other manthra.

8. Deep love for AchArya is needed as it is he who gave these valuable manthras because, “yasya dhEvE parA bhakthi: yathA dhEvE thathA gurau”.

svEthAswatharam 6-23:

yasya dhEvE parA bhakthir yathA dhEvE thathA gurau |
thasyaithE kathithAhyarthA: prakAsanthE mahAthmana: ||

(meanings of instructions given will be clear only to such a great person who has ultimate devotion towards the supreme entity and who has similar devotion towards his AchAryan)

9. Remaining grateful to the AchArya and ISvara: because the acharya made us, the nithya samsAris, eligible for the divine grace by taking us close to him like the alchemist changing steel into gold, and ISvara, for converting our enmity into love for him and gradually attracting to himself.

10. Coexisting with an excellent SrIvaishNava is vital for spiritual progress as his  connection shall keep us in balance without a shake or shift in attitude of detachment, absence of pride, knowledge of the true nature of the soul and its owner (emperumAn).


sUthram – 117

indha adhikArikku rahasya thrayamum anusandhEyam.
இந்த அதிகாரிக்கு ரஹஸ்யத்ரயமும் அநுஸந்தேயம்.

Simple meaning: For such a SrIvaishNava chanting and meditating of the entire rahasya thraya is mandatory.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, lOkAchArya says that for a SrIvaishNava of aforesaid description,  chanting with meditation of the entire rahasya thraya is mandatory for increasing his knowledge and resultant activities.

sUthram – 118

ellA pramANangaLilum dhEhaththAlE pERu engiRadhu; thirumanthraththil AthmAvAlE pERu engiRadhu; charamaSlOkaththil ISvaranAlE pERu engiRadhu; dhvayaththil periya pirAttiyArAlE pERu engiRadhu.

எல்லா ப்ரமாணங்களிலும் தேஹத்தாலே பேறென்கிறது; திருமந்திரத்தில் ஆத்மாவாலே பேறென்கிறது; சரமஶ்லோகத்தில் ஈஶ்வரனாலே பேறென்கிறது; த்வயத்தில் பெரியபிராட்டியாராலே பேறென்கிறது.

Simple meaning: All authetic texts (pramANas) say that ultimate goal (pERu, prApyam) is attained by body; thirumanthra says, by soul; charamaSlOka says, by ISvara; dhvaya says, by SrI mahAlakshmi (periya pirAtti).

vyAkhyAnam: All the texts that focus on the physical aspects of the soul say that he attains his goal (mOksha) by his body, by observing austerities and abhyAsa(practice). thirumanthra, which is focussed on his absolute dependence on and surrender to ISvaran with negation of self’s attempts for protection, says that his reaching the ultimate benefit is through his soul (by giving up his conscious attempts for this). charamaSlOka which is focussed on the independence (svAthanthrya) of ISvara says that the chEthana attains his ultimate benefit by his laying his burden at ISvara’s feet as ISvara takes upon himself the responsibility of cleansing chEthana’s sins which are hurdles in attaining ISvara.  dhvaya which is focussed on the conjugal auspiciousness of lakshmi-ISvara, emphasises that lakshmi, the distinguished entity, provides the benefit.


sUthram – 119

Introduction: For the doubt, since ISvara is the upAya (means for the goal), why cite SrimahAlakshmi as the upAya, lOkAchArya says:

periya pirAttiyArAlE pERu AgaiyAvadhu ivaL purushakAram AnAl alladhu ISvaran kAryam seyyAn engai.

பெரியபிராட்டியாராலே பேறாகையாவது, இவள் புருஷகாரமானாலல்லது ஈஶ்வரன் கார்யஞ்செய்யானென்கை.

Simple meaning: It is said that prApya (award of mOksha) is by SrImahAlakshmi because without her being the recommendatory authority (purushakAra bhUthai), he would not grant the reward.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, though granting the desires and obviating the undesirables are the pure discretion of ISvara, the soul gets his prApya because of her grace, in as much as ISvara would not grant the chEthana his desire, in spite of his sins and shortcomings,  but for her compassionate recommendations (purushakAram).


sUthram – 120

Introduction: The requisites of an ordinary SrIvaishNava have been stated until now.  Now, lOkAchArya narrates the special requisites of one who is inducted in the dhvaya mahA manthra:

dhvayaththukku adhikAri Akinjchanyamum ananyagathithvamum udaiyavan.
த்வயத்துக்கு அதிகாரி ஆகிஞ்சந்யமும், அநந்யகதித்வமும் உடையவன்.

Simple meaning: The practitioner (adhikAri) of dhvaya (mahA manthra) is possessed of destitution (Akinchanyam) and not having any other refuge (ananyagathithva).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the practitioner of dhvaya being devoid of the mind to choose his own means for the prApya, has Akinchanya (considering himself poor in any wealth of spiritual acquisition) and ananyagathithva (mind fixed in ISvara as the exclusive refuge), as stated in:

“akinchanOgathi: thvamEva upAya bhUthO mE bhava”;
“akinchanOnanya gathi: SaraNya”;
“pugalonRillA adiyEn”…etc.,

ahamasmi aparAdhAnAm Alaya: akinchana: agathi:
thvamEvOpAya bhUthO mE bhavEthi prArthanAmathi:

SaraNAgathi: ithyukthA sA dhEvEsmin prayujyathAm

(ahirbudhnya samhithai 36-38)

(l am the repository for all faults; I have no means other than you; nor do I have any goal other  than you, the wisdom of such prayer is known as saranAgathi. Let this be done unto this God)

na dharma nishtOsmi na chAthmavEdhI na bhakthimAms thvachcharaNAravindhE
akinchana: ananya gathiS Saranya thvathpAdhamUlam SaraNam prapadhyE

(sthOthra rathnam-22)

(Oh the one who is apt to be the refuge! I am not steadfast in karma yOga; nor in gyAna yOga; nor steady in devotion, bhakthi, in your feet; I have no means except your lotus feet; no goal except that; I fall at your feet as sole refuge for me)


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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