mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 191-200

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 191

Introduction:  He describes the meaning of the first word: “sarvadharmAn”.

“sarva dharmAn” – ellA dharmangaLaiyum.
ஸர்வதர்மாந்- எல்லா தர்மங்களையும்.

Simple meaning: “sarvadharmAn” – All the dharmas.


sUthram – 192

Introduction: That is, dharma (stated in singular), dharmAn (dharmas, stated in plural) and sarva dharmAn (all dharmas). So, he proceeds to explain these three factors.

dharmamAvadhu palasAdhanamAy irukkumadhu.
தர்மமாவது – பலஸாதநமாயிருக்குமது.

Simple meaning: dharma – that which is an instrument to attain goal.


sUthram – 193

Introduction: As the word dharma includes the means for attainment of visible benefits also, he differentiates from that meaning.

inguchchollugiRa dharma Sabdham dhrushta palasAdhanangaLaich chollugai anRikkE, mOksha, pala sAdhanangaLaich chollugiRadhu.

இங்குச் சொல்லுகிற தர்மஶப்தம் த்ருஷ்ட பலஸாதநங்களைச் சொல்லுகையன்றிக்கே, மோக்ஷ பலஸாதநங்களைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: The word “dharma” used here talks of means for attaining mOksha, excluding means for attaining visible, temporal benefits.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as the previously explained means were described for mOksham, temporal benefits were distinguished from this goal; also the context of this description is of means for mOksham (bhagavath prApthi) which is distinctly different from earthly gains such as children, cows, food etc. and also unearthly but lowly gains such as heaven (other worlds) etc.


sUthram – 194

Introduction: Now he gives the meaning for the plural.

avai thAn – Sruthi smruthi vihithangaLAyp palavAy irukkaiyAlE bahuvachana prayOgam paNNugiRadhu.

அவைதான் – ஶ்ருதிஸ்ம்ருதி விஹிதங்களாய்ப் பலவாயிருக்கையாலே பஹுவசநப்ரயோகம் பண்ணுகிறது.

Simple meaning: They are mentioned in plural as they are mandated by Sruthi and smruthi and many in number.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, these means for attainment of mOksha are mandated by Sruthi (vEdhams) and smruthi (codes of law handed through generations) and many in number. Hence the word in plural form, “dharmAn”.


sUthram – 195

Introduction: If they are so many, what are they?

avaiyAvana – karma gyAna bakthi yOgangaLum, avathAra rahasya gyAnam, purushOththama vidhyai, dhESavAsam, thirunAma sankIrthanam, thiruviLakkerikkai, thirumAlai edukkai thodakkamAna upAya budhdhyA seyyumavaiyum.

அவையாவன- கர்ம ஜ்ஞாந பக்தியோகங்களும், அவதார ரஹஸ்யஜ்ஞாநம், புருஷோத்தம வித்யை, தேஶவாஸம், திருநாமஸங்கீர்த்தநம், திருவிளக்கெரிக்கை, திருமாலையெடுக்கை தொடக்கமான உபாய புத்த்யா செய்யுமவையும்.

Simple meaning: They are (karma, gyAna  and bhakthi yOgas) – various paths to attain ISvaran through the paths of deeds, knowledge and devotion, respectively; (avathAra rahasya gyAnam) – knowledge about the secret of [bhagavAn’s] incarnations; (purushoththama vidhyai) – knowledge about bhagavAn; (dhESa vAsam) – living in divine places (where ISvaran has taken residence); (thirunAma sankIrthanam) – chanting his divine names; (thiruviLakku erikkai) – lighting divine lamps in his shrine; (thirumAlai edukkai) – stringing garlands of flowers for him and similar services rendered with a conscious feeling that they are the means for the attainment.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, what has been described as “many” are:

karma yOga which is described as the independent means:

bhagavath gIthA 3-19, 20:
“thasmAdhaSakthas sathatham kAryam karma samAchara |
asakthO hyA charan karma paramApnOthi purusha: ||”
“karmaNaiva hi samsidhdhim AsthithA janakAdhaya:|”

(Hence, carry out the deeds without attachment (in them); one who carries out deeds without attachment, attains AthmA.  Did not kings such as janaka attain AthmasAkShAthkAram (seeing AthmA) only through carrying out deeds!)

gyAna yOga which is possible through karma yoga:

bhagavath gIthA 4-33:
SrEyAn dhravyamayAdhyagyA gyAna yagya: paranthapa |

sarvAm karmAkhilam pArtha gyAnE parisamApyathE ||

(Oh one who destroys the enemy! The sacred rite performed with knowledge is better than the mere rites with material possessions. Oh son of prithA! All deeds of work and those associated with them culminate In knowledge).

bhagavath gIthA 4-37 and 38:
“na hi gyAnEna sadhruSam pavithramiha vidhyathe

gyAnAgnis sarva karmAni bhasmasAth kuruthE thathA”

(In this world, there is nothing so sublime and pure as knowledge. The fire of knowledge will burn to ashes all karmas).

bhakthi yOga which is complemented by karma and gyAna:

bhagavath gIthA 11-54:

bhakthyA thvananyayA Sakya: aham Eva vidhOrjuna
gyAthum dhrashtum cha thathvEna pravEshtum cha paranthapa

(Oh Arjuna! Oh one who destroys the enemy! Only through devotion which does not expect a benefit can I, who am like this, be known truly, seen and attained)

bhagavath gIthA 9-34: 

manmanA bhava math bhakthO madhyAjI mAm namaskuru |
mAm Evaishyasi yukthvaivam AthmAnam math parAyaNa: ||

(Engage your mind always with me; be my devotee, worship me and offer me salutations. Considering only me as the supreme entity, keep your mind in me and attain me.)

avathAra rahasya gyAna (knowledge of the secret of incarnations) which is stated to be a means of attainment, precluded from virOdhi .

bhagavath gIthA 4-9:
janma karma cha mE dhivyam Evam yO vEththi thaththvatha: |
thyAkvA dhEham punar janma naithi mAmEthi sOrjuna ||

(Oh arjuna! One who knows my divine births and activities truly, upon leaving the body, does not take birth again in this material world, but attains me)

purushOththama vidhyA that would enable the sentient surrendering soul by his grace as stated in:

bhagavath gIthA 15-20:
ithi guhyathamam SAsthramidhamuktham mayAnagha
Ethadh budhdhvAbudhdhimAn syAth krutha kruthyascha bhAratha

(Oh sinless one! This esoteric SAsthram (religious treatise) (that I am the supreme entity) has been pronounced by me. Oh arjuna! Knowing this, one becomes wise and is considered as having completed the ordained deeds)

dhEsa vAsam – Living in a blessed place (puNya kshEthra vAsam) that is praised to grant the desired fruits as said in gAruda purANam SrIranga mahAthmyam 11-5 “dhESOyam sarva kAmadhuk” (this place will grant all that has been desired)

thirunAma sankIrthanam, which is said to dispel all sins as a prelude to attainment of prApya (bhagavath prApthi) as stated in mahAbhAratham AnusA parvam 254-132 ”sarvapApa viSudhdhAthmA yAthi brahma sanAthanam” (gets relieved from all sins and attains the supreme entity)

Lighting lamps in his temples, as it is recommended as an activity that facilitates bhagavath prApthi, wiping out sins:

“ghruthEna vAtha thailEna dhIpam yO jvAlayEn nara:|
vishNavE vidhivath bhakthyA thasya puNya palam SruNu||”;

“vihAya sakalam pApam sahasrAdhithya sannibha|
jyOthishmathA vimAnEna vishNulOkE mahIyathE||”.

(Listen to the benefit of one who lights a lamp with love for vishNu, as mentioned in SAsthram, with either ghee or oil: he gets relieved from all his sins, becomes effulgent like a thousand sUryas and through a splendorous aerial vehicle, reaches vishNu lOkam and becomes famous)

In a similar way, stringing garlands of flowers in his temples will enable the person to attain bhagavAn, after overcoming hurdles.


sUthram – 196

Introduction: Now he gives the meaning for the word “sarva”.

sarva SabdhaththAlE avvava sAdhana viSEshangaLai anushtikkumidaththil avaRRukku yOgyathApAthakangaLAna nithya karmangaLaichchollugiRadhu.

ஸர்வ ஶப்தத்தாலே அவ்வவஸாதந விஶேஷங்களை அநுஷ்டிக்குமிடத்தில் அவற்றுக்கு யோக்யதாபாதகங்களான நித்ய கர்மங்களைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: By the word “sarva”, the daily rituals (prerequisites), prescribed for the relevant activities which are practiced, are referred to.

vyAkhyanam: That is, the qualifying word ‘sarva’, implying plural, for the main word  “dharma”, indicates the daily ritualistic activities like the panchamahA yagnas such as sandhya vandhana etc which make the performer eligible for these activities, preventing disqualifications as stated in dhaksha smruthi 1-12 “sandhyA hInO’Suchir nithyam anarha: sarva karmasu” (one who does not perform sandhyA vandhanam everyday is impure and unfit to perform any ritual).


sUthram – 197

Introduction: He concludes his statement in this sUthram.

Aga, Sruthi smruthi chOdhithangaLAy nithya naimiththikAdhi rUpangaLAna karma yOgAdhyupAyangaLai enRapadi.

ஆக, ஶ்ருதி ஸ்ம்ருதி சோதிதங்களாய் நித்ய நைமித்திகாதி ரூபங்களான கர்மயோகாத்யுபாயங்களை என்றபடி.

Simple meaning: Thus,  upAyas which are karma yOga in form, vetted by Sruthi and smruthi, mandated as daily rituals.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, all the aforementioned activities which are affirmed as in pUrvamImAsai 1-1-2 “chOdhanA lakshaNArthO dharma:” (dharma is that which follows rules which state “Do this; do not do this”) are mandated by Sruthi and smruthi, in the form of rituals for daily and special occasions and culminating in karma yOga, form one set of upAya.


sUthram – 198

Introduction: Why are they, though contradictory to the intrinsic nature of the sentient and are to be qualified as “adharma”, called “dharma”?

ivaRRai dharmam engiRadhu – bhramiththa arjunan karuththAlE.
இவற்றை தர்மம் என்கிறது- ப்ரமித்த அர்ஜுநன் கருத்தாலே.

Simple meaning: They are called “dharma” in the perception of bewildered arjuna.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, since these are opposed to the very noble dharma of absolute loyalty and servitude to ISvaran, they are called against the tenets by meaning of the word dharma. Also, as arjuna was against performing his own duty of fighting the battle, his misconception of dharma is described. Thus he has completed explaining the first word.


sUthram – 199

Introduction: Now he describes the second word “parithyajya”.

parithyajya
பரித்யஜ்ய.

Simple meaning: Giving up completely

vyAkhyAnam: This also has three parts of (thyAga) sacrifice, “lyap”, and the prefix “pari”. First he describes the sacrifice part (thyAga) .


sUthram – 200

thyAgamAvadhu – ukthOpAyangaLai anusandhiththu ‘SukthikaiyilE rajatha budhdhi paNNuvAraip pOlEyum, viparIthadhiSA gamanam paNNuvAraip pOlEyum anupAyangaLilE upAya budhdhi paNNinOm’ engiRa budhdhi viSEshaththOdE thyajikkai.

த்யாகமாவது – உக்தோபாயங்களை அநுஸந்தித்துஶுக்திகையிலே ரஜதபுத்தி பண்ணுவாரைப் போலேயும், விபரீததிஶா கமநம் பண்ணுவாரைப் போலேயும் அநுபாயங்களிலே உபாயபுத்தி பண்ணினோம்என்கிற புத்தி விசேஷத்தோடே த்யஜிக்கை.

Simple meaning: “thyAga” (sacrifice) is not merely giving up; it is giving up the stated means (upAyas) with the mindset of people who realise their error in perceiving silver in a piece of shell or, who retrace their path after traveling in the wrong direction for a destination, with full consciousness of such giving up.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, what is mentioned here is not merely giving up, but, realising the futility of the means described earlier in view of their faults as they are unsuitable for persons interested in bhagavath prApthi, and giving up with full realisation such as throwing away a shell mistaken for silver or retracing the route after realising that such a path would not take to the desired destination. It is giving up with the conscious thought that one has adopted a means which will not enable that person to attain bhagavAn and giving up the means completely.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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