mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 261-270

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 261

Introduction: Announcing that he is ready to dispel his obstacles and keep off his sorrow, lOkAchArya quotes from another authority:

“eththinAl idark kadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE” engiRAn.
‘எத்தினாலிடர்க் கடற்கிடத்தியேழை நெஞ்சமே’ என்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: He says, “eththinAl idark kadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE”.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, thirumazhisai AzhvAr addresses his own heart, in thiruchchandha viruththam 115: “Since ISvara has entered you, taking upon himself the responsibility of removing the obstacle and accepting you in his servitude, why are you immersed in the ocean of sorrow?”  Here, he says the same thing to arjuna who is grieving.

sUthram – 262

Introduction: Now lOkAcharya conveys one distinguished opinion of bhagavAn’s to remove his sorrow without trace.

pApangaLai nAn poRuththup puNyam enRu ninaippidA niRka, nI sOgikkak kadavaiyO?
பாபங்களை நான் பொறுத்துப் புண்யமென்று நினைப்பிடா நிற்க, நீ ஶோகிக்கக்கடவையோ?

Simple meaning: Should you grieve when I bear your sins as auspicious?

vyAkhyAnam: That is, first I made your sins the subject of my forgiveness, and then out of my affection (vAthsalya) I took them as auspicious instead of sins, just as it has been said in thiruchchandha viruththam 111 “seydha kuRRam naRRamAgavE koL” (consider my faults as good) and periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-9-2 “seydhArEl nanRu seydhAr” (even if he had done (an evil act), it is good only) . And yet should you be grieving?

Thus by the five words in the second half of the SlOka,

  1. the characteristics of the comfort provider (nivarthaka svarUpa);
  2. surrender of the person comforted (nivarthya  ASraya);
  3. sins that are dispelled (nivarthya pApas);
  4. the way they are dispelled (nivarthya prakAra); and
  5. the resultant removal of grief (SOka nivruththi) have been described.

sUthram – 263

Introduction: Now lOkAchArya proceeds to bring this text to its end, highlighting  the following aspects in sequential order:

  1. the rarity of one getting interested (taste) in knowing the meaning of this SlOka;
  2. the focus (central theme) of the SlOka;
  3. the difficulty in developing faith in the SlOka;
  4. the reason for ISvara not teaching this in the beginning itself;
  5. the reason for the vEdhas mandating other means (upAyas);
  6. why it is not a fault if we give up these means as per our intrinsic characteristic (of SEshathva);
  7. since they are congruent for different reasons, they are not to be given up as per the sentient’s intrinsic characteristic;
  8. upAya for the attainment;
  9. the prerequisite needed on the part of the sentient for the attainment;
  10. the sentient’s auspicious deeds are not to the liking of ISvara;
  11. either survive with absolute faith etc., in this meaning or get destroyed;
  12. One who is not fully faithful in the principle, if engages in this, will be ruined and
  13. those who are eligible for this.

Of these, to highlight the importance of a sentient to develop a taste (interest, ruchi) in this, he cites a narrative of the times of SrI rAmAnuja.

uyyakkoNdAr vishayamAga udaiyavar aruLich cheydha vArththaiyai smarippadhu.
உய்யக்கொண்டார் விஷயமாக உடையவர் அருளிச்செய்த வார்த்தையை ஸ்மரிப்பது.

Simple meaning: Here, one should remember the words spoken by udaiyavar (rAmAnuja) to  (his disciple) uyyakkoNdAr.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, SrI uyyakkoNdAr, who had established truthfulness [about ISvaran] was oriented in bhakthi (as a means). SrI rAmAnuja, his AchArya was interested in making him realise the meaning of this SlOka, and so explained it in detail. SrI uyyakkoNdAr said, “swAmy! The meaning of this SlOka is very beautiful. Yet, I am not having the taste and keenness to abide by this, giving up bhakthi nishtA“.   SrI rAmAnuja told him: “Since you are a scholar, you agreed to the meaning of the SlOka; but since you do not have the grace of the lord, you do not have the taste for this”.

sUthram – 264

Introduction: Now, he goes on to explain the focus of this SlOka.

idhukku ISvara svAthanthryaththilE nOkku.
இதுக்கு ஈஶ்வர ஸ்வாதந்த்ர்யத்திலே நோக்கு.

Simple meaning: It has the independence of  ISvara as its focus.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, this SlOka, which is an authority on its own and is juxtaposed with all SAsthras,  has as its focus the independence (svAthantrya) of the lord, which can facilitate all the dharmas [here, this would refer to all the other upAyas] to be completely let go of, making him [ISvaran] as the sAdhanam [readily available upAyam] for the sentient, without expecting any assistance and providing the means for the sentient to reach him.

sUthram – 265

Introduction: Now he describes the difficulty in gaining faith in this.

‘idhu thAn anuvAdha kOtiyilE’ enRu vangippuraththu nambi vArththai.
“இதுதான் அநுவாதகோடியிலே” என்று வங்கிப்புரத்து நம்பி வார்த்தை.

Simple meaning: “This is part of repeating what is already known”, says, vangipurathu nambi.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the meaning of this SlOka is a repetition of what is already known, says vangipurathu nambi (who was rAmAnujar’s disciple and confidante). 

sUthram – 266

Introduction: What is the reason for this?

arjunan, krishNanudaiya AnaiththozhilgaLAlum, rishigaL vAkyangaLAlum, krishNan than kAryaththilE adhikariththuk koNdu pOrugaiyAlum, ivanE namakkuth thanjzam enRu thuNindha pinbu thannaip paRRach chollugaiyAlE.

அர்ஜுநன், க்ருஷ்ணனுடைய ஆனைத் தொழில்களாலும், ருஷிகள் வாக்யங்களாலும், க்ருஷ்ணன் தன் காரியத்திலே அதிகரித்துக் கொண்டு போருகையாலும், இவனே நமக்குத் தஞ்சமென்று துணிந்த பின்பு தன்னைப்பற்றச் சொல்லுகையாலே.

Simple meaning: This is so (repetition of previously known information), because (a) he asks us to seek him as refuge, (b) arjuna has now decided to do so due to krishNa’s magnificent deeds, (c) of the words of rishis and (d) krishNa is engaged in his (arjuna’s) acts.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, arjuna, the ideal person for this SlOka, has known krishNa right from his childhood for his humanly impossible activities, helping him in his life in the city as well as forests; and also the statements of sages who are experts in the philosophy of the supreme and ordinary, such as:

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 86-24; harivamSam 133-62:

Esha nArAyaNa: SrImAn kshIrArNava nikEthana:
nAga paryankam uthsrujya hyAgathO mathurAm purIm

(This very Sriman NArAyana who is reclining in the kshIrasAgara has left his bed of AdhiSEshan and come down to mathurApuri.)

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 86-25:

“puNyA dhwAravathI yathra thathrAsthehE madhusUdhana:
sAkshAth dhEva: purANOsau sahi  dharma: sanAthana:”

(madhusUdhana is there where the most auspicious and sacred dhwArakA is situated; he is the natural and most ancient entity; also he is the most ancient dharma.)

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 88-27:

“yathra nArAyaNO dhEva: paramAthmA sanAthana:
thathra  krithsnam jagath pArtha thIrthAn yAyatha nAni cha”

(Oh pArtha! Wherever the most ancient and divine nArAyaNa is, there all the worlds, all sacred thIrthas [divine water bodies], and temples exist.)

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 86-26:

“yE cha vEdha vidhO viprA: yE chAdhyAthma vidhO janA:
thE vadhanthi mahAthmAnam krishNam dharmam sanAthanam”

(brahmaNas who know the vEdhas, and scholars who know the vEdhAntha say that only krishNa is the oldest form of dharma, that is, sanAthana dharma.)

mAhAbhAratham AraNya parvam 86-27:

“pavithrAnAm hi gOvindha: pavithram paramuchyathE
puNyAnAmapi puNyOsau mangaLAnAncha mangaLam”

(gOvindha is praised as the most auspicious among sacred entities which render us sacred; he alone makes the sacred things such, and he is the auspicious among all auspicious entities)

mAhAbhAratham sabhA parvam 41-23:

“krishNa Evahi lOkAnAm uthpaththirapi chApyaya:
krishNasya hi kruthE bhUtham idham viSvam charAcharam“

(Is it not krishNa who alone creates and destroys all the worlds? Do not all the immovable and mobile entities, making all this world, belong to him?)

It is after knowing all this that arjuna knew that it is not these means (upAyas) which were his refuge but he [ISvaran], and hence his statement, “seek me as refuge”.

sUthram – 267

Introduction: Now he gives the reason for ISvaran not teaching this in the beginning itself.

puRambu piRandhadhellAm, ivan nenjai SOdhikkaikkAga.
புறம்பு பிறந்தது எல்லாம், இவன் நெஞ்சை ஶோதிக்கைக்காக.

Simple meaning: What were also stated besides, was to test his thinking.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, when krishNa starts teaching arjuna at his request:

SrI bhagavath gIthA 2-7:

kArpaNya dhOshopahathasvabhAva: pruchchAmi thvAm dharma sammUda chethA:
yaS SrEyasyAn nischitham brUhi thanmE sishyasthEham SAdhi mAm thvAm prapannam

(Spoilt by the fault of narrow mindedness because of which I had lost my well-being without knowing the righteous thing, I seek your help. Please tell me that which shall definitely yield me the best result. I am your disciple. Please grant me the right sense as I have surrendered to you)

He taught in very great details about other means (upAyAntharam), to test arjuna’s mind  whether things would stop with those [for arjuna] and whether by seeing the faults in those means he would become qualified for this upAyam.

sUthram – 268

Introduction: But was it he who taught these other means by way of testing his mind?  Then why did the vEdhas prescribe them?

vEdha purushan upAyAntharangaLai vidhiththadhu, koNdip pasuvukkuth thadi katti viduvAraip pOlE, ahankAra mamakArangaLAl vandha kaLippaRRu svarUpa gyAnam piRakkaikAga.

வேதபுருஷன் உபாயந்தரங்களை விதித்தது, கொண்டிப் பசுவுக்குத் தடிகட்டி விடுவாரைப்போலே, அஹங்கார மமகாரங்களால் வந்த களிப்பு அற்று ஸ்வரூபஜ்ஞாநம் பிறக்கைக்காக.

Simple meaning: vEdhas prescribed them to control him [sentient] from his own sense of self,  to enable the enlightenment of self, devoid of such mental obstacles and belonging (ahankAra mamakAra), like binding a fat unruly cow.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, vEdhas, which are very dear, impartial and totally reliable to the sentient beings for mOksha, had given these mandates:

bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 6-4-21:

“thamEva dhIrO vigyAya pragyAm kurvItha brAhmaNa:
nAnudhyAyAth bahUn SabdhAn vAchO viklAbanam hi thath”

(one who is well versed in the vEdham because of the knowledge thus gained should meditate only on that supreme entity by hearing and memorising. He should not even think of those words which do not talk about him, since  thinking about  such words would tantamount to just scorching those words)

muNdaka upanishath 2-2-6:
OmithyEva dhyAyathAthmAnam swasthi va: pArAya thamasa: parasthAth”

(To attain the supreme being beyond prakruthi (primordial matter), meditate on the supreme being as “Om”; this will bring you benefits)

bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 3-4-15:
“AthmAnameEva lOkamupAsItha”

(meditate on the supreme paramAthmA who is apt to be seen)

bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 6-5-6:
AthmA vA arE dhrashtavya: SrOthavyO manthavyO nidhidhyAsithavya:”

(the supreme being who is apt to be heard about and thought of, is apt to be meditated upon and seen). 

Though these are other means (upAyAnthara), to regulate this sentient entity whose sensory organs drag him along, like controlling a fat cow which roams all over the fields eating at random without any control, to rein in his ahankAra and mamakAra which are major hurdles in his seeking the refuge, and make him realise that:

laghvathri smruthi 1:
janmAnthara sahasrEshu thapO gyAna samAdhibhi:
narANAm kshINa pApAnAm krishnE bhakthi prajAyathE

(after observing karma gyAna bhakthi yoga in several thousands of births, men get devotion unto Krishna, their sins being wiped out) such pride-giving observances of meditation, chanting, performance of acts for control of sensory organs etc shoud lead to the attainment of servitude to him with total dependence on him and not to  happiness in such mere acquisitions.

sUthram – 269

Introduction: But is giving up these aspects which pave the way for enlightenment about svarUpa gyAna, not a fault on the part of the sentient?

sanyAsi munbuLLavaRRai vidumA pOlE ivvaLavu piRandhavan ivaRRai vittAl kuRRam vArAdhu.
ஸந்யாஸி முன்புள்ளவற்றை விடுமாபோலே இவ்வளவு பிறந்தவன் இவற்றைவிட்டால் குற்றம் வாராது.

Simple meaning: Just as an ascetic (sanyAsi) giving up all that he already had is not wrong, (for the sentient) giving up these will not be fault.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, like a person entering the vow of sanyAsa ASrama giving up the acts relevant to his earlier status will not be at fault, a sentient who attained the wisdom about his intrinsic characteristics and left the acts that were opposed to the sidhdhOpAya, will not be at fault.

sUthram – 270

Introduction: lOkAchArya says that since these get merged with other forms later, there is no harm to his svarUpam (basic nature)

ivan thAn ivai thannai nErAga vittilan.
இவன்தான் இவை தன்னை நேராக விட்டிலன்.

Simple meaning: Even so, he did not give up these just for the sake of giving up.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, this sentient has not given up karma gyAna etc., in their nature, but only as a prelude to seeking and obtaining the attainable sidhdha sAdhana.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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About sarathyt

Disciple of SrImath paramahamsa ithyAdhi pattarpirAn vAnamAmalai jIyar (29th pattam of thOthAdhri mutt). Descendant of komANdUr iLaiyavilli AchchAn (bAladhanvi swamy, a cousin of SrI ramAnuja). Born in AzhwArthirungari, grew up in thiruvallikkENi (chennai), presently living under the shade of the lotus feet of jagathAchArya SrI rAmAnuja, SrIperumbUthUr. Learned sampradhAyam principles from vELukkudi krishNan swamy, gOmatam sampathkumArAchArya swamy and many others. Full time sEvaka/servitor of SrIvaishNava sampradhAyam. Taking care of portal, which is a humble offering to our pUrvAchAryas. is part of SrI varavaramuni sambandhi Trust ( initiatives.

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