mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 101-110

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 101

Introduction: In another way, lOkAchArya establishes that these two reveal his being the antharyAmithva (inner dweller), upAyathva (being the means), and upEyathva (end goal, prApyam, kainkaryam).

antharyAmithvamum upAyathvamum upEyathvamum AgavumAm.
அந்தர்யாமித்வமும், உபாயத்வமும், உபேயத்வமுமாகவுமாம்.

Simple meaning: antharyAmithva (omniscient, being the inner dweller), upAyathva (being the means), and upEyathva (being the end goal, prApyam, kainkaryam) are the meanings we get by these two kinds of samAsams.

vyAkyAnam: As has been stated in the sacred texts like antharyami brAhmaNa etc., being antharyAmi (omniscience) by which he dwells in all the sentient and insentient objects, he is the regulator of all; from word “ayana” arising out of the root “iN-gathau” or “aya-gathau” in the active or passive modes we get upAyathva and upEyathva. As we take the word “nAra” to mean objects sans qualities, in bahuvrIhi samAsam [when iSvaran resides in them as antharyAmi], in active mode also the word “ayana” can be taken to be upAya upEya indicative and see the word “nAra” to indicate  sentient objects excluding insentient ones.  This meaning has been highlighted in pAdhmOththara purAnam 254-52:

nArasthvithi sarva pumsAm samUha: parikathyathE |
gathirAlambhanam thasya thEna nArayaNa smrutha: ||

नारस्त्विति सर्वपुंसां समूह: परिकथ्यते |
गतिरालम्बनं तस्य तेन नारायण: स्मृत:||

நாரஸ்த்விதி ஸர்வ பும்ஸாம் ஸமூஹ: பரிகத்2யதே |
க3திராலம்ப4நம் தஸ்ய தேந நாராயணஸ் ஸ்ம்ருத: ||

(by the term nAra, all the (indestructible) living things are stated. He is nArAyaNa because he is the destination  attained, and also the means for attaining)

and

nAra SabdhEna jIvAnAm samUha: prOchyathE budhai: |
thEshAm ayana bhUthathvAn nArAyaNa ihOchyathE ||

नार शब्देन जीवानां समूह: प्रोच्यते बुधै: |
तेषामयन भूतत्वान्नारायण इहोच्यते  ||

நாரஶப்தே3ந ஜீவாநாம் ஸமூஹ: ப்ரோச்யதே பு3தை4: |
தேஷாமயந பூ4தத்வாந் நாராயண இஹோச்யதே ||

(The living clusters is called nAra by the wise; for these clusters he is the destination and also means for attaining and so he is called nArAyaNa)


sUthram – 102

Introduction: Since prApyathva, which is arising out of passive voice, is not excluding omniscience in all fashion, relationship is also attainable. ISvara’s all round relationships is evident in this word, says lOkAchArya:

“empirAn endhai” engaiyAlE, ISvaranE ellA uRavu muRaiyum enRu sollum.
“எம்பிரானெந்தை” என்கையாலே, ஈஶ்வரனே எல்லாவுறவுமுறையுமென்று சொல்லும்.

Simple meaning: By stating, “empirAn, endhai” (my benefactor, my father) AzhvAr indicates that ISvara is all the relatives to him.

vyAkyAnam: That is, thirumangai AzhvAr, chanting the meaning of the word “nArAyaNa” says, empirAn, endhai, ennudaich chuRRam, enakku arasu, ennudai vANAL” (my benefactor, my father, my relative, my king, my life) meaning ISvara is the all-round relatives to the jIva, in this word.


sUthram – 103

Introduction: Being such relatives to the soul, what is he doing for the jIva? lOkAchArya says, even when we are servile to others, he stands firmly for us.

nAm piRarkkAna anRum avan namakkAy irukkum.
நாம் பிறர்க்கான அன்றும் அவன் நமக்காயிருக்கும்.

Simple meaning: Even when we are servile to others, he stands firm for us.

vyAkyAnam: That is, even at times when we are “good” to other people, he is always good to us, as usual.


sUthram – 104

Introduction: What does he do to us even  when we are inattentive to him, but loyal to others?

irA madam UttuvAraip pOlE uLLE padhi kidandhu saththaiyE pidiththu nOkkik koNdu pOrum.

இரா மடம் ஊட்டுவாரைப்போலே உள்ளே பதி கிடந்து ஸத்தையே பிடித்து நோக்கிக்கொண்டு போரும்.

Simple meaning: Like a mother feeding her vagrant son, secretly by the night, at public place, unseen by others, he stays in us firmly ensuring our welfare.

vyAkyAnam: Like some people feeding the vagrant, vainglorious, lazy and irresponsible people who, out of headiness decline to accept help publicly, in public places, by the night, without others’ knowledge, ISvara protects the jIvas even when out of ego and ignorance they stays away, staying inside them without their seeing him as the antharyAmi, with deep concern.


sUthram – 105

Introduction: Thus, by the word “nArAyaNa”, lOkAchArya has described the nature of ISvara who is the recipient of the services.

“Aya” engiRa iththAl, “senRAl kudaiyAm” engiRapadiyE ellA adimaigaLum seyya vENum enRu abEkSsikkiRadhu.

‘ஆய’ என்கிற இத்தால் ‘சென்றாற்குடையாம்’ என்கிறபடியே எல்லா அடிமைகளும் செய்யவேணுமென்று அபேக்ஷிக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By “Aya”, all possible modes of servitude  are prayed as stated in “senrAl kudaiyAm, irundhAl singAdhanamAm”.

vyAkyAnam: That is, by the fourth causative “Aya”, like ananthAzhvAn in the pAsuram “senrAl kudaiyAm, irunthAl singAthanamAm” all possible services are requested to be granted.


sUthram – 106

Introduction: As the word  “nama:” indicates absolute servitude to him, with self negation,  can the jIvA ask to be engaged in any service, by desiring it in the first place? It is not plausible, say some. But, with the word “nama:” can anyone after denying self-centered  relationship,  seek servitude?

namassAlE thannOdu uRavillai enRu vaiththuk kainkaryaththai prArththikkak kUdumO ennil.

‘நமஸ்ஸாலே தன்னோடு உறவில்லையென்று வைத்துக் கைங்கர்யத்தை ப்ரார்த்திக்கக் கூடுமோ?’ என்னில்;

Simple meaning: Can one pray for service to be granted after denying relationship to the self?


sUthram – 107

Introduction: lOkAchArya cites SrI kulaSEkara in his answer

“padiyAik kidandhu un pavaLavAi kANbEnE” engiRapadiyE kainkarya prArththanai vandhERiyanRu; svarUpa prayuktham.

”படியாய்க் கிடந்து உன் பவளவாய் காண்பேனே” என்கிறபடியே கைங்கர்ய ப்ரார்த்தனை வந்தேறி அன்று; ஸ்வரூப ப்ரயுக்தம்.

Simple meaning: As stated in the pAsuram, “padiyAik kidandhu un pavaLa vAi kANbEnE”, prayer for servitude is not assumed quality, but in-born nature.

vyAkyAnam: That is, “I would lie as a granite stone at your threshold to see your coral lips” is a prayer of extreme slavishness to him, and not a prayer with selfishness for self enjoyment; it is born out of desire to give utmost pleasure to him without which the soul will not exist. This prayer is the outcome, expression of such acute natural desire, and not assumed request.


sUthram – 108

Introduction: With these statements he proceeds to enumerate the prayer of the chathurthi (fourth causative) for service.

AgaiyAl “vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdum nAm” engiRa prArththanaiyaik kAttugiRadhu.
ஆகையால் “வழுவிலா அடிமை செய்யவேண்டும் நாம்” என்கிற ப்ரார்த்தனையைக் காட்டுகிறது.

Simple meaning: Therefore, the prayer, “vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdum nAm”  is shown.

vyAkyAnam: As prayer for servitude is not assumed quality but inherent nature of the soul, this chathurthi (fourth causative) highlights the prayer, we should render faultless service “vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdum nAm”.


sUthram – 109

Introduction: Then he describes the quality of the people who have the taste for such prApyam (kainkaryam, servitude) to be rendered without any break.

“kaNNArak kaNdu kazhivadhOr kAdhal uRRArkkum uNdO kaNgaL thunchudhal” engiRapadiyE kANbathaRku munbu uRakkamillai; kaNdAl “sadhA paSyanthi” AgaiyAlE uRakkamillai.

“கண்ணாரக்கண்டு கழிவதோர் காதலுற்றார்க்குமுண்டோ கண்கள் துஞ்சுதல்” என்கிறபடியே, காண்பதற்கு முன்பு உறக்கமில்லை, கண்டால் “ஸதா பஶ்யந்தி” ஆகையாலே உறக்கமில்லை.

Simple meaning: Before seeing him there was no sleep; after seeing him, ”sadhA paSyanthi (always seeing him)” and so there is no sleep.

vyAkyAnam: “imaiyOrgal kuzhAm thozhuvadhum sUzhvadhum sei thollai mAlaik kannArak kaNdu kazhivadhOr kAthal uRRAkkum undO kaNgal thunjudhal“, (“இமையோர்கள் குழாம், தொழுவதுஞ்சூழ்வதுஞ்செய் தொல்லைமாலைக் கண்ணாரக் கண்டு கழிவதோர் காதலுற்றார்க்குமுண்டோ கண்கள் துஞ்சுதல்”) says AzhvAr.  nityasUris stand in clusters, pray and prostrate to him and see him filling their eyes with his divine beauty and are unable to sleep just as they were not sleeping earlier because of the lack of knowledge about this bliss.


sUthram – 110

Introduction: By another reason he explains why the devotee is sleepless:

“pazhudhE palapagalum pOyina” enRu izhandha nALukkuk kUppidugiRavanukku uRanga viragillai.

”பழுதே பல பகலும் போயின” என்று இழந்த நாளுக்கு கூப்பிடுகிறவனுக்கு உறங்க விரகில்லை.

Simple meaning: For one who is crying ”pazhudhE pala pagalum pOyina” out of fear for the loss, sleep is not a possibility.

vyAkyAnam: That is, as AzhvAr says:

“sengaN adalOdha vaNNar adi aravaNai mel kaNdu thozhudhEn pala pagalum pazhudhE pOyina enRu anji azhudhEn“ (செங்கண் அடலோதவண்ணரடி அரவணை மேற்கண்டு தொழுதேன், பல பகலும் பழுதே போயினவென்று அஞ்சி அழுதேன்), that is, for a person who laments, “after experiencing/seeing his effulgent and enchanting form, I realised I had lost a lot of my time without this enjoyment” chances of sleeping in future are bleak.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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