mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 131-140

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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sUthram – 131

Introduction: He elucidates this togetherness by saying:

ivaLOdE kUdiyE vasthuvinudaiya uNmai.
இவளோடே கூடியே வஸ்துவினுடைய உண்மை.

Simple meaning: Only in conjunction with her is his existence.

vyAkhyAnam: That is as stated in:

“Sriya: pathir nikhila hEya prathyanIka kalyAnaika thAna: svEthara samastha vasthu vilakshaNanantha gyAna Anandhaika svarUpa:” (being the divine consort of srimahAlakshmi, opposite of all the lowly qualities, repository of all the auspicious qualities, supreme to everything other than himself, embodiment of immeasurable wisdom and bliss) (SrI gIthA bhAshya avathArika)

His quality as Sriya:pathi, divine spouse of SrI mahAlakshmi is stated first and foremost, before detailing knowledge (gyAna), bliss (Anandha) etc, because she is the primary proof for his intrinsic nature (svarUpa).

Therefore, the conjugal presence which is in consonance with his svarUpa is explained.


sUthram – 132

Introduction: Now, lOkAchArya describes her togetherness that is in line with her intrinsic quality.

ISvara svAthanthryaththaiyum chEthananudaiya aparAdhaththaiyum kaNdu agala mAttAL.
ஈஶ்வர ஸ்வாதந்??/த்ர்யத்தையும் சேதநனுடைய அபராதத்தையுங்கண்டு அகலமாட்டாள்.

Simple meaning: She would not leave, sighting either  his independence or  sentient’s offence.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, she would not leave either by seeing the ISvara’s independence that could weigh sentient’s multiples of offences or this sentient’s offences which are not expiatable even until the duration of the principle of time as stated in: ”yadh brahma kalpa niyatha anubhavEpi anASyam” , fearing what would be the outcome.

SrivaikuNta sthavam 61:

yath brahma kalpa niyuthAnubhavEpyanAsyam
thath kilbisham srujathi janthuriha kshaNArdhE
Evam sadhA sakala janmasu sAparAdham
kshAmyasyahO thadhapisandhi virAmamAthrAth

(The living being commits sins here in half a second which cannot be erased even by suffering through million times the duration of a brahmA’s lifetime. You pardon me in half a second, surprisingly, though i had sinned in all my births)


sUthram – 133

Introduction: By this lOkAcharya explains what is available to the sentient.

chEthananukku ivai iraNdaiyum ninaiththu ancha vENdA.
சேதநனுக்கு இவையிரண்டையும் நினைத்து அஞ்சவேண்டா.

Simple meaning: The sentient need not fear these two (ISvara’s independence or the chEthana’s offences).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as she takes care of the sentient, he need not fear either the independence of ISvara or his own offences, and worry about the consequences.


sUthram – 134

Introduction: Now, he describes the essential meaning of  this “mathup”.

iththAl ASrayikkaikku ruchiyE vENduvadhu, kAlam pArkka vENdA engiRadhu.
இத்தால் – ஆஶ்ரயிக்கைக்கு ருசியே வேண்டுவது, காலம் பார்க்கவேண்டா என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this,  it is said that for surrendering (taking refuge), only taste (urge, ruchi) is required, auspicious time need not be sought.

vyAkhyAnam: Thus for a sentient taking refuge in the recommending (prushakAra) and approving (upAya) authorities, urge in such surrendering in their togetherness is only required, auspicious time for such surrender is not to be sought for.


sUthram – 135

Introduction: Now, to highlight the significant desideratum of her recommendatory authority, lOkAchArya highlights the difference between surrender in her divine presence and without that:

ivaL sannidhiyAlE kAkam thalai peRRadhu; adhu illAmaiyAlE rAvaNan mudindhAn.
இவள் ஸந்நிதியாலே காகம் தலை பெற்றது; அது இல்லாமையாலே ராவணன் முடிந்தான்.

Simple meaning: By her presence, the crow (kAkAsura) escaped and in her absence rAvaNa perished.

vyAkhyAnam: By the presence of her who is the very icon of compassion (“dhEvyA kAruNya rUpayA”), the independence of ISvara who is absolutely independent also had his independence subsided by abundant kindness toward the kAkAsura, stirred by whose offences the brahmAsthra was aimed at him, was saved:”krupayA parya pAlayath”. In the absence of such pacifying presence of her, rAvaNa perished, totally disabled, without any other go. Though both were similarly placed in regard to lack of refuge and disability, for a far lesser offence rAvaNa lost his life to the arrow of SrI rAma, (while kAkAsura escaped  because of her divine presence). Therefore, for those seeking refuge, her presence only is essential. Thus, the word “SrImath” was explained.

(SrirAmAyaNam – sundharakANdam 38-35)
sa tham nipathitham bhUmau SaraNya: SaraNAgatham

vadhArhamapi kAkuthstha: krupayA paryapAlayath

(kAkuthstha [SrI rAma] who can be approached as refuge, saved that kAkAsura with compassion although he was eligible to be killed by way of punishment for his misdemeanour.)


sUthram – 136

Introduction: Now he starts explaining the word “nArAyaNa“:

purushakAra balaththAlE svAthanthryam thalai sAyndhAl thalai edukkum guNangaLaich chollugiRadhu nArAyaNa padham.

புருஷகார பலத்தாலே ஸ்வாதந்த்ர்யம் தலை சாய்ந்தால் தலையெடுக்குங் குணங்களைச் சொல்லுகிறது நாராயணபதம்.

Simple meaning: The word “nArAyaNa” states the (auspicious) qualities which arise when his independence subsides due to the strength of her recommendations.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the word “nArAyaNa” describes his inherent qualities, which are stirred by her counselling and abundant beauty, because of which his acute anger at the offences of the sentient  prompting him to disapprove of him, subsides.


sUthram – 137

Introduction: When asked as to what are these qualities? lOkAchArya says:

avaiyAvana – vAthsalyamum, svAmithvamum, sauSeelyamum saulabhyamum gyAnamum Sakthiyum.

அவையாவன – வாத்ஸல்யமும், ஸ்வாமித்வமும், ஸௌஶீல்யமும், ஸௌலப்யமும், ஜ்ஞாநமும், ஶக்தியும்.

Simple meaning: These are vAthsalya (motherly forbearance), svAmithva (possessor), sauSeelya (tenderness), saulabhya (easiness of attainment), gyAna (knowledge), and Sakthi (power).

vyAkhyAnam: Of these:

vAthsalya is the love shown by the cow to her calf, taking the dirt off the calf very pleasantly and giving milk for it to grow and taking on enemies by the horns and hoofs to protect  the young one. ISvara also considers the faults as positive qualities, bears with them as good by his own sweetness akin to milk (“pAlE pol  sIr”), and looks at his devotees and antagonists as stated in:”kathanchana na thyajEyam (none is ever to be let down)”  and “abhayam sarva bhUthEbhya: (refuge to all beings)”.

(SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam-18-3)
mithrabhAvEna samprAptham na thyajEyam kathanchana

dhOshOyadhyapi thasyasyAth sathAmEthathagarhitham

(I shall never let down even a person who approaches pretending to be a friend. Even if he is at fault, it is very good reason; it is not to be despised of, for good people.)

svAmithva is a relationship with the sentient that creates all the qualities from adhvEsham (removal of antagonism) to kainkaryam (servitude).

sauSeelya: In spite of  being the lord of both the worlds and consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, he mixes with all even without their expecting it, never once making them look at their smallness or his greatness and feeling that it is his gain.

saulabhya: He becomes easy to be perceived by the human eyes and approached as refuge,  though he is beyond such perception.

gyAna: His  wisdom which at once enables him to know the desires to be fulfilled for the sentient and obviate the undesirables for him clearly and comprehensively at one go.

Sakthi: His unthinkable ability to make the lowly samsAris at once equal to the nithyas who never had even the scent of the earthly affairs.

Of these vAthsalya etc are the cause for the  souls to surrender to him, and gyAna and Sakthi are the cause for fulfilment of the desires of the souls who have taken refuge.

AzhvAr felicitates the four characteristics of vAthsalya etc as “nigaril pugazhAy” (of unrivalled compassion” to be the basis of such surrender.

Talking of gyAna and Sakthi is inclusive of prApthi and pUrthi as they are also needed for completion of the process of the sentient’s elevation (attainment).


sUthram – 138

Introduction: Now for the query: what purposes these (six) characteristics serve here, lOkAchArya says:

kuRRam kaNdu veruvAmaikku vAthsalyam; kAryam seyyum enRu thuNigaikku svAmithvam; svAmithvam kaNdu agalAmaikku sauSeelyam; kaNdu paRRugaikku saulabhyam; virOdhiyaip pOkkith thannaik kodukkaikku gyAna SakthigaL.

குற்றங்கண்டு வெருவாமைக்கு வாத்ஸல்யம்; கார்யஞ்செய்யுமென்று துணிகைக்கு ஸ்வாமித்வம்; ஸ்வாமித்வங்கண்டு அகலாமைக்கு ஸௌஶீல்யம்; கண்டு பற்றுகைக்கு ஸௌலப்யம்; விரோதியைப் போக்கித் தன்னைக் கொடுக்கைக்கு ஜ்ஞாநஶக்திகள்.

Simple meaning: vAthsalya is for the sentient not to get frightened about his own faults while he is intent on surrendering; svAmithva is for the sentient to be confident that ISvaran will do his needful; sauSeelya is for the sentient entity not withdrawing, upon seeing the greatness of svAmithva ; saulabhya is for taking ISvaran as refuge; gyAna and Sakthi are for ISvaran to remove the obstacles and give himself.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, for the sentient who is intent on surrendering to be free from fear of his own faults, there is vAthsalya that facilitates his accepting the faults as source of enjoyment; to quell the doubt whether the lord shall accept or not and to get the firm belief, there is svAmithva which also makes ISvaran as gainer or loser of the chEthana; after looking at the quality of svAmithvam which makes ISvaran as the owner of both vibhUthis (spriritual and materialistic realms), to ensure that chEthana, on looking at his own lowliness does not withdraw from ISvaran’s presence, ISvaran manifests his quality of sauSeelya by which he mingles with those who are lowly; saulabhya is the quality by which ISvaran makes his divine form to be subject matter oif chEthana’s eyes without doubting whether he is beyond the grasp of sensory organs; gyAna and Sakthi are to dispel the sentient’s obstacles for goal (prApya virOdhi), to offer himself as the final goal (prApya), and  to facilitate the sentient knowing his earlier condition and the propitious status ahead making it possible for him to reach that.


sUthram – 139

Introduction:

inguch chonna saulabhyaththukku ellai nilam archchAvathAram.
இங்குச் சொன்ன ஸௌலப்யத்துக்கு எல்லைநிலம் அர்ச்சாவதாரம்.

Simple meaning: The pinnacle of the saulabhya described here is the archAvathAra (deity forms).

vyAkhyanam: That is, for the word saulabhya used here to indicate easily  available means  for the sentient is archA avathAra where he assumes a form that is most beloved to his surrendered souls as a permanent repository, his auspicious body, as stated in “thamar ugandhadhu evvuruvam avvuruvam thAnE” (He is of that form which is pleasing to his devotees).


sUthram – 140

Introduction: He further explains this:

idhu thAn para vyUha vibhavangaL pOlanRikkE kaNNAlE kANalAmpadi irukkum.
இதுதான் பரவ்யூஹ விபவங்கள் போலன்றிக்கே கண்ணாலே காணலாம்படி இருக்கும்.

Simple meaning: Unlike para, vyUha and vibhava, this is perceivable by the eyes.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, this archA (divine form manifested in temples) is always visible to the eyes since he is constantly in our presence , unlike para (SrIvaikuNtanAthan) and vyUha (thiruppARkadalnAthan) forms which are beyond sensory perception due their being beyond  our geographical limitations; or vibhava (incarnations) which are not discernible due their being in the past, beyond our time element.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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