mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 141-150

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full series


sUthram – 141

Introduction: Can we see these characteristics in archAvathAra?
lOkAchArya says: we can see all of them in namperumAL.

ivai ellAm namakku namperumAL pakkalilE kANalAm.
இவையெல்லாம் நமக்கு நம்பெருமாள் பக்கலிலே காணலாம்.

Simple meaning: We can see all these for ourselves  in namperumAL.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, these auspicious characteristics, displayed for (sentient’s) convenience [to attain him] and (his) acts of fulfilling their desires, can be seen in our namperumAL, us  who are desirous to see.

sUthram – 142

Introduction: Next, lOkAchArya cites the characteristics which highlight these qualities in the divine form of namperumAL,  and says that namperumAL who is standing with these is our refuge.

thirukkaiyilE pidiththa dhivyAyuthangaLum, vaiththu anjal enRa kaiyum, kaviththa mudiyum, mugamum muRuvalum, AsanapadhmaththilE azhuththina thiruvadigaLumAy niRkiRa nilaiyE namakkuth thanjam.

திருக்கையிலே பிடித்த திவ்யாயுதங்களும், வைத்து அஞ்சல் என்ற கையும், கவித்த முடியும், முகமும் முறுவலும், ஆஸநபத்மத்திலே அழுத்தின திருவடிகளுமாய் நிற்கிற நிலையே நமக்குத் தஞ்சம்.

Simple meaning: The divine weapons he holds in his divine hands, the hand that comforts the devout not to fear, the crown sitting majestically on his head, the alluring face and the enchanting smile, the benevolent feet struck firmly on the seat of lotus, all combining into his poise, is our only refuge.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the divine conch and the divine disc (Sankha and chakra) held in his hands symbolising the gyAna and Sakthi deployed in the activities for protection, the divine held to assure the sentient not to fear, symbolising vAthsalyam,  the long divine crown on his divine head highlighting his svAmithvam, the face and smile depicting his sauSeelya, his divine feet firmly fixed on the seat of lotus to be seen by all and at once taken as refuge indicating his saulabhya – all these go to give protection to us who have no other refuge.

sUthram – 143

Introduction: For those who are rooted in the upEya (the goal, the lord) as the upAya (means to attain), both these  are available in his divine form as signs of his attribute of rakshakathva (being the protector) and bhOgyathva (being the source of bliss, enjoyableness).

rakShakathva bhOgyathvangaL iraNdum thirumEniyilE thORRum.
ரஷகத்வ போக்யத்வங்கள் இரண்டும் திருமேனியிலே தோற்றும்.

Simple meaning: Both his rakshakathva and bhOgyathva appear in his divine form.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, his rakshakathvam is displayed in the divine weapons held by the divine hands and the glorious crown on his head as stated in thiruvAimozhi 8-3-6 ”aniyAr  Azhiyum Sankhamum Endhum“ (holding the beautiful disc and conch) and thiruvAimozhi 3-1-1 “mudich chOdhiyAi unadhu mugach chOdhi malarndhadhuvO “(did the luster of your face grow up to blossom as your crown?”) as aids for protection; the comforting hand asking not to fear, the face and the smile and the feet pressed to the lotus of seat indicate the bhOgyathva (enjoyability) as each of these is the boundary for his deivine beauty. Thus, lOkAchArya described the meaning of the word “nArAyaNa”.

sUthram – 144

Introduction: Now, he proceeds to describe the word, “charaNau“.

“charaNau” – thiruvadigaLai.
சரணௌ – திருவடிகளை.

Simple meaning: “charaNau”…the feet.

He describes the meaning obtained by this word of dual plurality [reference to the two divine feet].

sUthram – 145

iththAl sErththi azhagaiyum upAya pUrththiyaiyum sollugiRadhu.
இத்தால் சேர்த்தியழகையும், உபாய பூர்த்தியையும் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: By this the beauty of their togetherness and completion of upAya (being the means) are stated.

vyAkhyAnam: By referring to the two feet, as in “iNaith thAmarai adi”, they look beautiful and captivating like two lotus flowers in their full bloom. Also this pair rejects the possibility of another as a helping agency as it won’t countenance such upAyAnthara which is another means other than itself. Hence its perfection as the means: upAya pUrthi.

sUthram – 146

Introduction: Now he proceeds to describe its exclusive characteristic of being the singular means (upAya) [for the attainment (upEya).]

pirAttiyum avanum vidilum thiruvadigaL vidAdhu; thiN kazhalAy irukkum.
பிராட்டியும் அவனும் விடிலும் திருவடிகள் விடாது; திண்கழலாயிருக்கும்.

Simple meaning: Even if pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) and he give up the sentient entity, the feet would not; they would be firm (thiN kazhal).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, even if pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) who is described in Srimadh bhAgavatham as the who recommends for the sentient beings complains to ISvara about them as in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-9-2 “thannadiyAr thiRaththagaththuth thAmaiyALAgilum sidhaiguraikkumEL” (even if SrI mahAlakshmi who sits on the lotus flower complaints about the followers of ISvara), or he, who is with all the auspicious qualities and who tells her in response “ennadiyAr adhu seyyAr seydhArEl nanRu seydhAr” (my follower will not do that; even if he did, it was only for a good cause) lets go of the sentient being, the divine feet [of ISvaran] would not betray the devout. They are “thiN kazhal”, strong feet.

sUthram – 147

Introduction: Besides this overwhelming influence of the auspicious characteristics, by his very intrinsic nature the sentient being is to be devout to his feet. lOkAchArya explains this with an example:

SEshi pakkal SEshabhUthan izhiyum thuRai; prajai mulaiyilE vAy vaikkumA pOlE.
ஶேஷிபக்கல் ஶேஷபூதன் இழியும் துறை; ப்ரஜை முலையிலே வாய் வைக்குமாபோலே.

Simple meaning: The attitude of the sentient surrendering unto the feet of the lord is similar to a nursing child seeking the mother’s bosom.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the sentient entity who is aware of his position as the servant of ISvaran, out of intrinsic nature always reaches for his feet, just as the infant which is still suckling always reaches only for the mother’s bosom for sustenance, though other limbs too are available..

sUthram – 148

Introduction: What is said of the feet is applicable to the entire divine body of ISvaran.

iththAl, pirAttikku iruppidamAy guNaprakASagamumAy SiSubAlanaiyum agappadath thiruththich chErththuk koLLum thirumEniyai ninaikkiRadhu.

இத்தால், பிராட்டிக்கு இருப்பிடமாய், குணப்ரகாஶகமுமாய், ஶிஶுபாலனையும் அகப்படத் திருத்திச் சேர்த்துக்கொள்ளுந் திருமேனியை நினைக்கிறது

Simple meaning: By this, we are reminded of the effulgent and divine thirumEni (physical form) of ISvaran’s which is the residence for SrI mahAlakshmi, the generating source for all auspicious characteristics, that attracted even SiSubAla and granted him remedy.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by referring to the feet the word “charaNau” it does not just stop with referring to a small part of the divine form, the divine eet alone, but to the divine auspicious form SrIman nArAyaNa, as said in mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi 57 “thiru irundha mArvan”(the one with SrI mahAlakshmi, who has the recommendatory role, dwelling on his divine chest).  He is the repository for SrI mahAlakshmi, and also all the characteristics stated in the word “nArAyaNa” [as seen in sUthram 136]. It includes SiSupAlan who is mentioned of in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4-3-5 “alavalamai thIrtha azhagan” (one who has the beauty and who mercifully forgave SiSupAlan for all his silly rants) who was forgiven by krishNa and given refuge by manifesting his physical beauty, just as it has been mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 7-5-3 “thiruvadi thAtpAladaindha” ((SiSupAlan who) took refuge under the divine feet). Such is the compassionate nature of ISvaran that he includes even the bitterest enemy in his grace.

sUthram – 149

Introduction: Next lOkAchArya gives the meaning of the word “SaraNam”

“SaraNam” – ishta prApthikkum anishta nivAraNaththukkum thappAdha upAyamAga.
ஶரணம் – இஷ்டப்ராப்திக்கும் அநிஷ்ட நிவாரணத்துக்கு தப்பாத உபாயமாக.

Simple meaning: SaraNam, as an unfailing means (upAya) for attaining the desired and obviating the undesired.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated in ahirbudhnya samhithai 36-36:

“upAyE gruha rakshithrO: Sabdha: SaraNam ithyayam
varthathE sAmpratham chaisha upAya arthaika vAchaka:”

(The word Saranam has three meanings:’ means’, ‘house’ and ‘protector’; here, the4 word SaraNam refers only to ‘means’)

though the word “SaraNam” would also mean the protected, house and means (upAya), here it refers only to ‘means’ (upAya) as the purpose of upAya is fulfilling the desires and obviating the obstacles. Hence he refers to it here as the unfailing means for attaining the desired and obviating undesired.  To the query as to what are the desirables and what are the undesirables, lOkAchArya states very elaborately in his grantham “paranthapadi”. Also, in his Sriya:pathippadi, he states:”undesirables are: ignorance (avidhya), attachment and enmity (rAga, dhvEsha) out of such avidhya, activities (karma) which are virtues or vices (puNya, pApa), the four classification of sentient entities (of celestials, humans, animals, and  plants), the trails of sufferings (like AdhyAthmika, Adhidhaivika and Adhibaudhika, suffering caused by self, caused by deities and caused by nature, respectively). The desirables are: travelling in the archirAdhi mArga (after the sentient is freed from the earthly body), attainment of the eternal supreme abode, namely SrIvaikuNtam, dharSan (vision) of the supreme lord (SrIman nArAyaNa), and servitude towards enjoyment of his characteristics” briefly.  These are to be taken as stated here also.

sUthram – 150

Introduction: Now he explains the meaning behind terming the indicated entity as upAyam.

iththAl prApyam thAnE prApagam, engiRadhu.
இத்தால், ப்ராப்யந் தானே ப்ராபகம், என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this, the prApyam itself is shown to be the prApakam.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, what was earlier stated to be the prApya (attainable goal) itself is the prApaka (means for attaining it).

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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