mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 151-160

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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sUthram – 151

Introduction: But was there a reference to the prApya? He says, all the three mentioned earlier are prApya.

kIzh chonna mUnRum prApyamiRE.
கீழ்ச் சொன்ன மூன்றும் ப்ராப்யமிறே.

Simple meaning: All the three described earlier are prApya.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, all these three namely, the togetherness with SrI mahAlakshmi, the shining auspicious characteristics,  and the resplendent, endearing physical form are prApya as stated in:

“SriyA sArdhdham AsthE” (He is with SrI mahAlakshmi),

SivapurANam SlOkam:

vaikuntEthu parElokE SriyAsArdham jagathpathi:
AsthE vishnurachinthyAthmA bhakthair bhAgavathais saha (Siva purANam)

(vishNu, who is difficult to know,  is gracefully seated in SrI vaikuNtam, the supreme place, with SrIdhEvi, and devotees who are immersed in his divine qualities and deeply rooted in service unto him)

sarvAn kAmAn aSnuthE” (enjoys all the bliss),

thaiththirIya-Anandhavalli 2-2

yO vEdha nihitham guhAyAm paramE vyOman
sO aSnuthe sarvAn kAmAn saha brahmaNA vipaschithEthi

(one who knows the limitless  brahmam as dwelling in paramapadham and also the deep recess of his own heart, enjoys all the auspicious qualities of the omniscient supreme being, with him)

and, yajur-kANdam 4-2-29; rig vEdha vishnu sUktham:

“sadhA paSyanthi” (they see him for ever).

thath vishnO: parama padham sadhA paSyanthi sUraya:

(nithyasUris always see that supreme paramapadham of vishNu.)

These statements confirm that all the three are for his experience and so are prApya (attainable end).

sUthram – 152

Introduction: Then, why does he (AthmA) make these the upAya? For this lOkAchArya says that this is because of his inability (for any more action).

ivan ‘seyalaRudhiyAlE upAyam AkkugiRAn iththanai’.
இவன் செயலறுதியாலே உபாயமாக்குகிறானித்தனை’.

Simple meaning: Because of his inability, he has rendered them as the upAya.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the sentient entity, with nothing to offer and with no other refuge, just like an incapacitated person gives milk, which is food, as medicine, is making bhagavAn, the goal, as the means for attaining him.

sUthram – 153

Introduction: By this he is pointing out the uniqueness of this upAya:

“charaNau SaraNam” engaiyAlE upAyAnthara vyAvruththamAna upAyam engiRadhu.
சரணௌ ஶரணம்என்கையாலே உபாயாந்தர வ்யாவ்ருத்தமான உபாயம் என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By saying, “charaNau SaraNam”, he distinguishes this upAya from all others.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as the prApya itself is referred to as prApaka, this is clearly distinguished from all other upAyas where the prApyams are different from the prApakas.

(In all other instances, the means is different from the end to be attained. But here, the end itself is the means for attaining it, and there lies its uniqueness.)

sUthram – 154

Introduction: Next he gives the meaning for the activity part in the manthra viz “prapadhyE”.

“prapadhyE” – paRRugiREn.
ப்ரபத்யே- பற்றுகிறேன்.

Simple meaning: “prapadhyE”.(I seek).

vyAkhyAnam: As this word is derived from the root “padhagathau”  meaning, “movement”, and as the other entity is supreme, he gives the meaning “I seek” for this word, “prapadhyE”.

sUthram – 155

Introduction: As this can indicate all the three faculties of mind, speech and action, which one does he indicate?

vAchikamAgavum kAyikamAgavum paRRinAlum pERRukku azhivillai (izhavillai); “gyAnAn mOksham” AgaiyAlE mAnasamAgak kadavadhu.

வாசிகமாகவும் காயிகமாகவும் பற்றினாலும் பேற்றுக்கு அழிவில்லை (இழவில்லை); ”ஜ்ஞாநாந் மோக்ஷம்ஆகையாலே, மாநஸமாகக்கடவது.

Simple meaning: Seeking through speech or action does not  obviate the attainment (no loss of the attainment);  as it has been declared, “gyAnAn mOksham” (moksham by gyAnam, knowledge) the seeking is through the mind.

vyAkhyanam: That is, it can be just oral as in the case of the prayer “bhava SaraNam” (be my refuge),

SrIvishNu purANam 3-7-33:
kamalanayana vAsudhEva vishNO dharaNidharAchyutha Sankha chakrapAnE

bhava SaraNamithIriyanthi yE vai thyaja bhata dhUradharENa dhAnapApAn

(Oh, messenger! You should remain far away from those who pray  “Oh lotus eyed lord! Oh vAsudhEva! Oh vishNu! Oh one who sustains the earth! Oh one who does not let go of the followers! and who are without any sins)

or like guhA the hunter or kAkA the demon by folding of hands, as said in

gAruda purANam pUrvakhaNdam 11-26:
anjali: paramA mudhrA kshipram dhEva prasAdhinI

(anjali , the act of folding the hands together, the supreme symbol, pleases the ISvara  very fast)

was staying put at one’s own place.  In both the cases there is no fear for loss or non-attainment of the desired gain. Since the dictum is: “gyAnAn mOksham”

mahAbhAratha-SAnthi 323 mOksha 3-87:
gyAnAn mOkshO jAyathE rAjasimha nAsthyagyA dhEvamAhur narEndhra

thasmAth gyAnam thaththvathO nvEshanIm yEnAthmAnam mOkshayEj janmamruthyO:

(Oh chief among the kings! Salvation is attained only by wisdom (gyAna); never by ignorance (agyAna). Thus spake the wise. So one should seek and gain that wisdom which shall release him from the cycle of births), seeking should be a mental activity. This intellectual aspect has been detailed in his grantham “parandhapadi”: In his grantham SrIya:padhippadi too, lOkAchAryar says that “This intellectual aspect is:

  1. An intellectual activity showing devotion exclusively unto him only, excluding all others.
  2. Absolutely distinct from all other means.
  3. In the form of allowing him to protect us.
  4. Performed once and once only.
  5. An antidote for the delay possible by wavering loyalty.
  6. Available for all by itself.
  7. Without any stipulations/conditions.
  8. Without expecting to be remembered by the sentient during his last moment of this life
  9. Very easy (for chanting, remembering, understanding, and internalizing)
  10. Including in it, the form of begging.
  11. Unshakable trust”

So, this is also to be remembered here

sUthram – 156

Introduction: Is such mental activity alone enough? Should not the surrender be undertaken by all the three faculties, as stated in thiruvAimozhi 6-5-11“sindhaiyAlum”? For these queries lOkAchArya replies:

upAyam avan AgaiyAlum ivai nErE upAyam allAmaiyAlum immUnRum vENum engiRa nirbandham illai.

உபாயம் அவனாகையாலும், இவை நேரே உபாயம் அல்லாமையாலும், இம்மூன்றும் வேணும் என்கிற நிர்ப்பந்தம் இல்லை.

Simple meaning: Since he is the upAya (means), and these others are not directly the upAya, there is no compulsion for all these three.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, upAya for the attainment is ISvara;  since seeking by the three faculties may appear to be upAyams but they are not. For fruition, only acceptance with firm belief is required.

Alternatively – Why is piLLai lOkAchArya specifically speaking about each faculty [in previous sUthram? Why could not he have rejected all three together? For this query he replies starting with “upAyam” [in this sUthram] where the emphasis lies. By this, it appears that seeking by all the three faculties, while not mandatory, such seeking would appear superficially to be the means; however, for attaining the end result, only firm faith through mind is required. In his grantha “parandhapadi” he has himself stated:

“This surrender can be by all the three faculties. They can be by a single faculty also. There will be no harm in attainment of the desired. For the perfection of the performer of the surrender, all the three faculties are required; for the attainment of the desired, single faculty is sufficient, like for perfection of upAya (bhagavAn) togetherness with SrI mahAlakshmi, presence of vAthsalya and other characteristics, and the auspicious form, all these are required.”

sUthram – 157

Introduction: As prapaththi (surrender) is advocated as a one time observance in:

lakshmI thanthram 17-90:

sakrudhEvahi sAsthrArtha: kruthOyam dhArayEnnaram
upAyAbhAsam yOgE nishtayA hIyathEnayA

(This surrender (prapaththi), when done even only once, carries the person across the ocean of births. This great penance slips away by adopting other means or by resorting to prohibited actions) and as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-34

“sakrudhEva prapannAya” (one who surrenders once alone) etc., why is it stated here in present tense?  For this doubt, lOkAchArya says:

varththamAna nirdhEsam sathvam thalai eduththu anjina pOdhu anusandhikkaikkAga.
வர்த்தமான நிர்த்தேஶம்- ஸத்வம் தலையெடுத்து அஞ்சினபோது அநுஸந்திக்கைக்காக.

Simple meaning: It is stated here in present tense, to facilitate the sentient to remember and recount it, when he fears when he is with noble thoughts.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, when he is troubled and confused by rAjasic or thAmasic thoughts and resorts to some upAya but later realises his error, instead of uttering:

lOka vikrAntha charaNau SaraNam thE vrajam vibhO” or

nin adiyiNai adaindhEn“ or

adik kIzh amarndhu pugundhEn”,

saying “prapadhyE” in present tense is similar to seeking his pardon, just as it has been said in

lakshmi thanthram 17-91:

“prAyaSchiththiriyam sAthra yath punas SaraNam vrajEth”

ApAya samplavE sadhya: prAyaschiththam samAcharEth
prAyaSchiththiriyam SAsthra yath puna:saraNam vrajEth
upAyAnAmupAyathva svIkArEbhyEvamEva hi

(One should immediately go for propitiation if wrong and proscribed practices occur. Carrying out the act of surrender is propitiation. Even when other means are sought as means for salvation, this is propitiation) and would not amount to repetition of surrender, but remembering the earlier surrender

sUthram – 158

Introduction: He gives a few advantages in this present tense, in surrendering:

upAyAndharangaLil nenju sellAmaikkum, kAlakshEpaththukkum, inimaiyAlE vida oNNAmaiyAlum nadakkum.

உபாயாந்தரங்களில் நெஞ்சு செல்லாமைக்கும், காலக்ஷேபத்துக்கும், இனிமையாலே விடவொண்ணாமையாலும் நடக்கும்.

Simple meaning: This remembrance is done to avoid the mind in getting diverted to other upAya (means), for gainful pastime and because of its  very pleasurable nature.

vyAkhyAnAm: That is, to avoid the mind from reverting to other means due to the earlier practice and habit, to expend the time gainfully as it would be difficult to use time otherwise, and the inability to give it up because of  its enjoyability, this remembrance is bound to be going on uninterruptedly.

sUthram – 159

Introduction: But, otherwise, for attaining the goal (phala) is it necessary to carry it out several times? For this doubt, lOkAchArya says:

pERRukkup palakAlum vENum enRu ninaikkil upAyam nazhuvum.
பேற்றுக்குப் பலகாலும் வேணுமென்று நினைக்கில் உபாயம் நழுவும்.

Simple meaning: If we think that we should be recounting several times, upAya will slip.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, instead of for the advantages cited in the previous SlOkas, if it is carried out several times as part of upAya, it will slip on its own, similar to brahmAsthra which slips on its own once a rope of jute is tied to the person on whom the asthram had been targeted. This is because, sidhdhOpAyam (readily available upAyam) will not tolerate any assistance from other upAyams.

Thus, he has described the meaning for the first sentence (of dhvaya mahAmanthra) of two sentences).

sUthram – 160

Introduction: Now, he starts describing the second sentence, stating that it describes prApyam (goal):

uththara vAkyaththAlE prApyam sollugiRadhu.
உத்தர வாக்யத்தாலே ப்ராப்யம் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: prApyam is stated by the latter sentence.

vyAkhyAnam: prApyam is the service rendered to the divine feet of the lord who is supreme to all (swAmy), god of all gods (sarvEsvara), divine consort of SrI mahAlakshmi (Sriya:pathi).

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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