mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 171-177

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 171

Introduction: As service (kainkaryam) is related to experiencing love, and that love is governed by the entity which is loved, he goes on to explain the entity which is to be loved.

idhilE thirumEniyaiyum guNangaLaiyum sollum.
இதிலே திருமேனியையும் குணங்களையும் சொல்லும்.

Simple meaning: In this, the divine form (thirumEni) and auspicious qualities (kalyANa guNas) are described.

vyAkhyanam: That is, this word which talks about the recipient of service, talks of the divine form and auspicious qualities of the recipient [ISvaran] which are the prerequisites for kainkaryam and are the matters for experience. Just as it has been mentioned in yajur vEdham, kAndam 4-2-29:

“sadhA paSyanthi sUraya:”;

“thath vishNO: paramam padham
sadhA paSyanthi sUraya:”

(nithyasUris always see that parama padham (SrI vaikuNtam) of vishNu)

thaiththirIya upanishath 2-2

“sOSnuthE sarvAn kAmAn”

“yO vEdha nihitham guhAyAm paramE vyOman
sO aSnuthE sarvAn kAmAn saha brahmanA vipaSchithEthi“

(The one who meditates, realises the endless brahmam [ISvaran] as the dweller of the paramapadham as well as the recesses of the heart, he enjoys all his auspicious qualities with him) etc which speak of divine form and auspicious qualities. Besides his form, his nature is also as mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath. Anandhavalli 7

“rasam hyEvAyam labhdhvAnandhI bhavathi”  (this living being becomes blissful attaining the supreme being, who is an embodiment of love) that is endearing, and enjoyable as well as capable of multiplying the services rendered. As such, The term auspicious qualities includes  gyAna Sakthi etc., vAthsalya, Saurya and other qualities detailed in the first sentence, as needed for the sentient to seek him as his refuge; these should also be recounted here, for carrying out kainkaryam. Just as ISvaran’s basic nature has two essential attributes (AkAra dhvayam) [namely, being the means and being the end goal for the sentient entities], his divine qualities also have the two essential attributes (AkAra dhvayam), which lOkAchAryar has detailed in “paranthapadi”


sUthram – 172

Introduction: Now he says that the meaning of this word is related to his quality of being the lord, by saying….

SEshithvaththilE nOkku.
ஶேஷித்வத்திலே நோக்கு.

Simple meaning: The focus is on ownership.

vyAkhyAnam: Even though all the qualities of the entity being experienced (ISvaran) are inseparable, and all these qualities are referred to when the term nArAyaNa is recited, since the fourth case [Aya in nArAyaNAya] denotes the entity to whom kainkaryam is being carried out, among the qualities, only the quality of being lord [SEshithvam] is firmly related to the activity of carrying out kainkaryam. Thus the word nArAyaNAya denotes his quality of being the lord, here.


sUthram – 173

Introduction: He proceeds to describe the utility of such relationship of ownership.

prAptha vishayaththil kainkaryamiRE rasippadhu
ப்ராப்தவிஷயத்தில் கைங்கர்யமிறே ரஸிப்பது.

Simple meaning: Only servitude to the appropriate entity, is enjoyable.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, unlike servitude to the others which is sorrowful as mentioned in  manusmruthi 4-160:

“sarvam paravaSam dhu:kham” (being under others’ control is sorrowful) and also manusmruthi 4-6:

sEvA Svavruththi” (service to others is like a dog’s life), which is prohibited,

service to the appropriate, which is also ordained, as mentioned in paramasamhithai:

yEna yEna dhAthA gachchathi thEna thEna saha gachchathi
thath yathA tharuNa vathsA vathsam vathsO vA mAtharam
chchAyA vA sathya anugachchEth thathA prakAram” (parama samhithai)

(the liberated soul (muktha jIva) follows the supreme lord just like the cow its calf and the calf its mother and the shadow following the creatures)

and also in (vihagEndhra samhithai 24-14; gAruda purAnam pUrva kaNdam 222-25):

vAsudhEva tharuchchAyA nAthi SIthA na karmachA
narakAngAra samanI sA kimartham na sEvyathE

(Why is not the shade of the divine tree vAsudhEva not attained  though it is neither very cold nor very hot but reduces the blazing heat of the hell?)

only enjoyable for the sentient being, since it is ordained .


sUthram – 174

Introduction: Now lOkAchArya gives the meaning for the case Aya in nArAyaNAya.

indhach chathurththi kainkaryaththai prakASippikkiRadhu.
இந்தச் சதுர்த்தி கைங்கர்யத்தை ப்ரகாஶிப்பிக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: This fourth case, “chathurthi” enlightens service (kainkaryam).

vyakhyAnam: That is, as this is obtainable after seeking the upAya which is an activity of the consciousness (awareness) of the servitude (SEshathva), besides giving the meaning for that, this chathurthi enlightens the service which is the reward for the upAya. Enlightening the service indicates enlightening the prayer for service. Service (kainkaryam) is any activity that brings a blossom of happiness to ISvaran’s face. This service takes the oral or physical activity form as stated in:

thaithirIya upanishath -bhruguvalli 10-5:

Ethath sAma gAyan nAsthE

(the released soul, muktha, is singing this sAmagAna) or

mahAbhAratham-SAnthi parvam 344-45:

nama ithyEva vAdhina:

sahithAschAbhyathAvantha thathasthE mAnavAdhrutham
kruthAnjaliputA hrushtA nama ithyEva vAdhina:”

(then those noble souls, SvEthadhvIpa vAsis, with folded hands, with happiness, ran along together chanting ‘nama:’)

and in paramasamhithai

yEna yEna dhAthA gachchathi |
thEna thEna saha gachchathi ||” (the mukthAthmA will keep following the lord wherever he goes).


sUthram – 175

Introduction: If this service is obtained by prayer, then is it not occasional? He answers this query:

kainkaryam thAn nithyam
கைங்கர்யந்தான் நித்யம்.

Simple meaning: Service is eternal (kainkaryam nithyam).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, service is the intrinsic nature of the sentient soul and as mentioned in mImAmsaka saying “akinchith karasya SEshathva anupapaththi:” (servitude is incongruent with one one who does not carry out service), service is eternal for the sentient soul. That is why our AchAryas observed:”nithya kinkara: praharshayishyAmi”,

sthOthra rathnam 46 : 

“bhavanthamEvAnucharaN nirantharam
praSAntha niSSEsha manOrathAnthara:
kadhAhamaikAntika nithya kinkara:
praharshayishyAmi sanAtha jIvitha:” 

(when am I going to please you, always following you, giving up all other desires totally, with a focussed sense of service to you as the supreme goal of life?)

and ”nithya kinkarO bhavAni” (SaraNAgathi gadhyam) (may i be of permanent service unto you).


sUthram – 176

Introduction: If it is eternal, should it be prayed for? He replies:

nithyamAga prArththiththE peRa vENum.
நித்யமாக ப்ரார்த்தித்தே பெறவேணும்.

Simple meaning: It has to be attained by praying eternally.

vyAkhyAnam: As the matter is of supreme value, as the surrendering sentient soul is absolutely under the control of his Lord, and as service is not possible in the absence of prayer, constant prayer has to be there to obtain it.


sUthram – 177

Introduction: For this to be attained by constant prayers, he gives the reasons:

SEshikku adhiSayaththai viLaikkai SEshabhUthanukku svarUpa lAbhamum prApyamum.
ஶேஷிக்கு அதிஶயத்தை விளைக்கை  ஶேஷபூதனுக்கு ஸ்வரூபலாபமும் ப்ராப்யமும்.

Simple meaning: Creating pleasure out of novelty with service to ISvara (SEshi), is the intrinsic benefit  and prApya for the serving sentient.

vyAkhyanam: That is, as shown by “nA kinchith kurvatha: SEshathvam” (mImAmsaka adage) (there is no SEshathva, for him who does not render service) as anything which is not pleasurable unto him is not possessed of servitude, for the serving sentient it is mandatory that his service is appropriate for his intrinsic nature and also generates a smile of pleasure on his countenance. Therefore, this has to be attained by constant prayer.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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