mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 178-184

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 178

Introduction: lOkAchArya then explains the final word “nama:” and gives its  meaning.

“nama:” – kainkaryaththil kaLai aRukkiRadhu.
நம: கைங்கர்யத்தில் களையறுக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: “nama:” removes the weed in service.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, though the word “weed”  normally means the removal of ahankAra and mamakAra, just as it would refer to the obstacles (virOdhi) of svarUpa virOdhi (not being devoted exclusively to him), upAya virOdhi (adopting something / someone other than himself as the means to attain him), and purushArtha virOdhi (seeking something other than eternal service unto him), here the removal of weed is about removal of obstacle in purushArtham (kainkaryam) since here the reference to obstacles comes after the reference to prayer for service.

sUthram – 179

Introduction: What is the weed for service?

kaLaiyAvadhu thanakkennap paNNumadhu.
களையாவது தனக்கென்னப் பண்ணுமது.

Simple meaning: ”weed” is what is done for oneself (self-enjoyment).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, doing for oneself, for self-enjoyment is similar to 

“bhOkthAham mama bhOgOyam “ (I am the enjoyer, the enjoyment is mine)  engaging in the activity (of service) with the thought of making it an instrument for one’s own happiness; when devoid of the belief that this is for ISvaran’s bliss, and possessed of a sense of enjoyment and consciousness of the self as the enjoyer, it turns out to be not desirable (as purushArtham).

sUthram – 180

Introduction: Further, he says that in this (word- nama:), the obstacles to the attainment of service (kainkarya prApthi virOdhi) also shall get removed.

idhilE avidhyAdhigaLum kazhiyuNNum.
இதிலே அவித்யாதிகளும் கழியுண்ணும்.

Simple meaning: In this (all types of) ignorance shall also be removed. 

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in this “nama:” which prays for the removal of ego (ahankAra) and delusion of ownership (mamakAra), ignorance (avidhya) which is the root cause for karma (deeds) and which treats what is not self as self (in other words, body as AthmA), consequential deeds which are performed and the resultant relationship with nature (prakruthi) are all removed. This is the reason that SrI bhAshyakAra [rAmAnuja] also prayed in his gadhya, which is an explanation for dhvaya, while recounting the meaning  of the word “nama:”, in the chUraNai (aphorism) “manO vAk kAyai:”  included removal of karmas born out of deeds which are performed, though not ordained; in the chUraNai “anAdhi kAla pravruththa” he included the removal of ignorance and in the chUraNai, “madhIyAnAdhi” he included removal of relationship with nature (prakruthi).

(vishNu purANam 6-7-11)
anAthmanyAthma buddhiryA chAsvE svamithi yA mathi:

samsAra tharU sambhUthi bIjamEthath dvidhA sthitham

(the misconception of the body as the soul, and sense of belonging/ownership in things which do not belong to oneself are the two types of seeds for the manipulation of the tree of samsAra.)

SaraNAgAthi gadhyam:
manO vAk kAyai: anAdhi kAla pravruththa anantha akruthya karaNa kruthyAkaraNa bhagavadhapachAra bhAgavadhApachAra asahyApachAra rUpa nAnA vidha ananthApachArAn Arabdha kAryAn anArabdha kAryAn kruthAn kriyamANAn karishyamAnAmScha sarvAm aSEshatha: kshamasva

(You should pardon all my errors and sins continuing in countless births, by all the three faculties of mine, namely by speech, by body, and by mind, carrying out activities which are not ordained, not carrying out deeds which are ordained, that would include my misdemeanor unto you, your devotees, and unbearable offences of mine,  the sins committed by me which have started yielding their fruits, which have not yet started to yield, and those which would start, and the sins I had committed, now committing and shall be committing)

SaraNAgAthi gadhyam:
anAdhikAla pravruththa viparItha gyAnam Athma vishayam

kruthsna jagath vishayamcha viparItha vruththamcha aSEsha vishayam
adhyApi varthamAnam varththishyamAnamcha sarvAn kshamasva

(You should pardon my contrarious knowledge regarding self as well as the world (of mistaking one for another) which has been continuing since time immemorial, my improper conduct, and similar indiscretions in all the matters, both at the present and the future time)

SaraNAgAthi gadhyam:

madhIyAnAdhi karmapravAha pravruththAm bhagavathsvarUpa thirOdhAnakarIm
viparIdhagyAna jananIm svavishyAyAScha bhOgyabhudhdhEr jananIm 
dhEhEndhriyathvEna bhOgyathvEna sUkshmarUpEna chAvasthithAm
dhaivIm guNamayIm mAyAm dhAsabhUtham SaraNAgathOsmi
   thavAsmi dhAsa: ithi vakthAram mAm thAraya

(You should make me, who tells you “I am your servitor, I have taken refuge under you and belong to you”, to cross this prakruthi (primordial matter) which has come about because of multiplicity of my past deeds, which hides the svarUpam (true nature) of bhagavAn (such that I do not know it), which creates contrarious knowledge in me (to mistake one entity for another), which creates an impression in me that it is sweet, which makes entities such as physical form, sensory organs to appear as sweet for enjoying, which is an implement for your playful pastime and which is full of three qualities of sathva (purely good), rajas (passion) and thamas (laziness))

sUthram – 181

Introduction: Yet, the essential meaning for this is freedom from the trace of self-enjoyment and satisfaction (while carrying out service to him) and therefore lOkAchArya expounds it further by describing as to how we should be, while rendering service (kainkaryam)

unakkE nAmAtcheyvOm” ennumpadiyE Aga vENum.
“உனக்கே நாமாட்செய்வோம்என்னும்படியே ஆகவேணும்.

Simple meaning: We should become as described in “unakkE nAmAtcheyvOm”.

vyAkhyanam: That is, while rendering service, we should remove the thought of doing service for you as well as for us but serve you entirely for your pleasure as stated in thiruppAvai pAsuram 20 “unakkE nAmAtcheyvOm” (we will carry out kainkaryam only for your pleasure). AzhwAr also stated in thiruvAimozhi 2-9-4 “thanakkE Aga enaik koLLum IdhE” (You should take me for only yourself).

sUthram – 182

Introduction: Now he lists out the possible obstacles for this kainkaryam in the next two sentences:

saundharyam antharAyam; kIzhch chonna kainkaryamum appadiyE.
ஸௌந்தர்யம் அந்தராயம்; கீழ்ச் சொன்ன கைங்கர்யமும் அப்படியே.

Simple meaning: Beauty is an obstacle; the service described earlier is also similar to that.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, his bodily beauty is also an obstacle to the service (kainkaryam) as it would distract our mind. The kainkaryam meant in the chathurthi [(Aya) in the word “nArAyaNAya” which just preceded this word], is also an obstacle since it has scope for self-enjoyment and hence it will be an impediment for the blossoming of ISvaran’s countenance.

sUthram – 183

Introduction: Therefore, he describes the necessity for constant prayer to him to keep off this obstacle.

kainkarya prArththanai pOlE, ippadhaththil prArththanaiyum enRumuNdu.
கைங்கர்ய ப்ரார்த்தனைபோலே, இப்பதத்தில் ப்ரார்த்தனையும் என்றுமுண்டு.

Simple meaning: Similar to the prayer for service (kainkaryam), the prayer for removal of obstacles for such service is also to be there at all times.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, like the service which is prayed for in the chathurthi (Aya), is not seasonal but goes on forever, this prayer for removal of obstacles for such service (kainkarya virOdhi nivruththi) is also bound to continue for all times, both during the time here in this world and the time to come after reaching his SrIvaikuNtam which is the attainable land.

sUthram – 184

Introduction: Is there scope for such selfish thoughts about the  soul’s selfish enjoyment there, where none of the (human) faults exists?

“marundhE nangaL bhOga magizhchchikku”, ennA ninRadhiRE.
மருந்தே நாங்கள் போக மகிழ்ச்சிக்கு”, என்னாநின்றதிறே.

Simple meaning: AzhwAr said, “marundhE nangaL bhOga magizhchchikku”.

vyAkhyAnam: The celestial personalities praise him: “Oh our lord! You have yourself become an antidote for our excessive happiness that leads to self-conscious desire for taking that enjoyment as ours”. These are the words of the nithyasUris who are always with him, in his service, and so there is scope for self-indulgence in this happiness which necessitates this prayer for them. Thus it is established that this prayer is for all times. That is why while defining mukthas, it is said: “nama ithyEva vAdhina:” (they always say not for us, nama:) denying this self indulgence.

Thus, purushakAra (agency of recommendation), nithya yOga (its inseparable togetherness), vAthsalya (the characteristics arising out of it, like vAthsalya etc.,), dhivya mangaLa vigraha (his resplendent divine form) which highlights these qualities, upAyathva (the nature of his being the means to attain it), upAya svIkAra (accepting that as the means), the recipient for that service is the divine couple, sarvasSEshithva (the absolute supremacy of that divine couple), and kainkarya virOdhi nivruththi (nature of service to them, and removal of obstacles to this) have been described.

Thus mAmunigal vyAkhyAnam for dhvaya prakaraNam.

emperumAnAr, lOkAchArya, jIyar thiruvadigalE SaraNam.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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