mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 201-210

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 201

Introduction: Next he describes the prefix, “pari”.

‘pari’ engiRa upasargaththAlE – pAthakAdhigaLai vidumA pOlE ruchi vAsanaigaLOdum lajjaiyOdum kUda maRuval idAdhapadi vidavENum engiRadhu.

‘பரி’ என்கிற உபஸர்க்கத்தாலே – பாதகாதிகளை விடுமா போலே ருசி வாஸனைகளோடும் லஜ்ஜையோடுங் கூட மறுவலிடாதபடி விடவேணுமென்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By the prefix “pari”, he says that these should be given up with a sense of shame and like giving up acts of heinous sins, without even the trace of their tastes or scent so that they do not recur.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, though the word as in “pari sAkalyE” could mean “everything”, as this sense has already been expressed in “sarva”, it is not applicable here in that meaning; ”pari” indicating emphasis, would mean, as said in manusmruthi 11-54:

brahma hathyA surApAnO sthEyam gurvanganAgama:
mahAnthi pAthakAnyAhu: samsargaSchApi thai: saha

(killing a brAhmaNa, drinking intoxicating materials, stealing gold, uniting with AchArya’s dharmapathni (wife) and being friendly  with those who indulge in these crimes are referred to as (five) heinous sins), giving up all the heinous sins with no scope for their recurrence, feeling ashamed of having indulged in them hitherto. While giving up the other means, as dharma dhEvathA said in vishNu  dharmam 66-71,

atha pAthaka bhIthasthvam sarvabhAvEna bhAratha
vimukthAnya samArambhO nArAyaNaparO bhava

(Oh one born in the clan of bharatha! Now, if you are fearful of carrying out the sin (of observing other upAyams), giving up such efforts with full consent of your mind, be involved with only SrIman nArAyaNa as the means) he shall feel a sense of shame for adopting other means, and give them up with the taste of having indulged in such means with his conscience and the scent of having indulged unconsciously, thinking “How can I indulge in such activities which are inimical to my basic nature of having only bhagavAn as the only means?”

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sUthram – 202

Introduction: Now he describes the meaning of the word, “lyap”

lyappAlE “snAthvA bhunjItha” ennumA pOlE, upAyAntharangaLai vittE paRRa vENum engiRadhu.
ல்யப்பாலே “ஸ்நாத்வா புஞ்ஜீத” என்னுமாபோலே, உபாயாந்தரங்களைவிட்டே பற்ற வேணும் என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By (the usage of ) ‘lyap’, the mandate is to seek him, only after giving up [other means], as dictated in “snAthvA bhunjItha” (one should eat only after bathing).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by the ‘lyap’ mode of “parithyajya”, the meaning conveyed is that instead of doing as in uSa samhithai 5-50

SrAdhdha bhOjanakAlE thu dhIpO yadhi vinaSyathi
punarannan na bhOkthavyam bhukthva chAndhrAyaNam charEth

(while eating food during SrAdhdham (obsequies) if the lamp gets put out, one should stop eating. If the person continues to eat, he should perform chAndhrayaNa prAyaSchiththam (expiation)), one should follow the dictum “snAthvA bhunjItha” (eat only after bathing). Thus, when attaining bhagavAn through him as the means, this should be done only after  giving up the other means.


sUthram – 203

Introduction: He elaborates on this concept, further.

“chachAla chApancha mumOcha vIra:” engiRapadiyE ivai anupAyangaLAna mAthramanRikkE kAlkattu engiRadhu.
”சசால சாபஞ்ச முமோச வீர:” என்கிறபடியே இவை அநுபாயங்களான மாத்ரமன்றிக்கே கால் கட்டு என்கிறது.

Simple meaning: As told in “chachAla chApancha mumOcha vIra:” besides not being the means for the attainment, they are also (obstacles for movement) like shackles on the legs.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated in SrImadh rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 59-139  SlOka

yO vajra pAthASani sannipAthAn na chukshubhE nApi chachAla rAjA |
sa rAma bANAbhihathO bhruSArtha: chachAla chApancha mumOcha vIra: ||

(rAvaNa, who would not be shaken even if hit by vajrAyudha (famous weapon belonging to indhra) or struck by thunder, was shaken up when SrI rAma’s arrows hit him. Being a warrior (knowing that SrI rAma will not hit an unarmed warrior), he let go of his bow), SrI rAma did not stop hitting him until he dropped the bow in his hand. As soon as he dropped it, SrI rAma told him, as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam SlOkam  “gachchAnujAnAmi” (you are allowed to retreat to safety). Thus, other means not only do not facilitate attainment, but obstruct it.


sUthram – 204

Introduction: Further, he highlights that engagement with such means would lead to loss of attainment, with an example:

chakravarththiyaip pOlE izhakkaikku uRuppu.
சக்ரவர்த்தியைப்போலே இழக்கைக்கு உறுப்பு.

Simple meaning: This is (the cause for) loss as in the case of chakravarthi (dhaSaratha).

vyAkhyAnam: Remembering the earlier promise of boons (to kaikEyi)  which could not be negated now, by clinging to the filial dharma, chakravarthi dhaSaratha lost the bliss of living with perumAL who is mentioned as in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 37-13 “rAmO vigrahavAn dharma:” (SrI rAma is the epitome of dharmam). In the same way, engaging with means which appear to be inapt would lead to losing the opportunity of living with matters related to bhagavAn who is dharmam from time immemorial, just as it has been mentioned in “krishNam dharmam sanAthanam” (krishNan is the epitome of dharmam from yore)


sUthram – 205

Introduction: To counter the criticism of people who do not know the meaning of giving up all the other dharmams, lOkAchArya says:

sarva dharmangaLaiyum vittu enRu sollugaiyAlE silar ‘adharmangaL pugurum’, enRArgaL.
ஸர்வதர்மங்களையும் விட்டு என்று சொல்லுகையாலே, சிலர் ‘அதர்மங்கள் புகுரும்’, என்றார்கள்.

Simple meaning: Some people said, “giving up all dharma” would facilitate creeping of adharmic tendencies.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, the dharmam which is to be given up, says “idham kuru, idham mAkArshI:” (do this, do not do that). Thus, when that which is to be given up is also negated along with that which is to be followed, it will become similar to opening the door for entities which had been shut out earlier.


sUthram – 206

Introduction: lOkAchArya dispels this doubt.

adhu kUdAdhu; ‘adharmangaLaichchey’ enRu sollAmaiyAlE.
அது கூடாது; ‘அதர்மங்களைச்செய்’ என்று சொல்லாமையாலே.

Simple meaning: That is not possible, because there is no mandate asking to “do adharma”.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by asking to give up all other means, entry of adharma is not possible because the mandate is for giving up activities that are incongruent to the sentient’s intrinsic nature of singular means, and not for doing acts of adharma.


sUthram – 207

Introduction: As avoidance of activities of adharma is also word-wise including dharma, asking to give up may also mean asking to perform them, say some.  He rejects this argument.

‘thannadaiyE solliRRu AgAdhO?’ ennil.
‘தன்னடையே சொல்லிற்றாகாதோ?’என்னில்.

Won’t it amount to saying so automatically?


sUthram – 208

Introduction: He says, it will not; as the word ”dharma” does not indicate removal of adharma.

AgAdhu; dharma Sabdham adharma nivruththiyaik kAttAmaiyAlE.
ஆகாது; தர்மஶப்தம் அதர்மநிவ்ருத்தியைக் காட்டாமையாலே.

Simple meaning: No, it will not; as the word “dharma” does not indicate removal of adharma.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, asking to give up dharma would not mean asking to do adharma by itself. This would only mean adoption of activities devoid of adharma but not asking to engage in acts of adharma per se. This is a guideline for vihitha anushtAnam, appropriate activity.


sUthram – 209

Introduction: The question arises, even if the word dharma is not vital in avoidance of adharma, will not the use of the word “sarva” by including all, indicate this also?

kAttinAlum, aththai ozhindhavaRRaich cholliRRAm iththanai.
காட்டினாலும், அத்தை ஒழிந்தவற்றைச் சொல்லிற்றாமித்தனை.

Simple meaning: Even if it indicates,  it would mean only those excluding it.

vyAkhyAnam: Even if it indicates so, as it talks of activities, we should take into account only activities which are mandated as to be done, as here it is not meant.


sUthram – 210

Introduction: How do we exclude these activities which may be adharmic?

thannaiyum, ISvaranaiyum, phalaththaiyum pArththAl avai pugura vazhi illai.
தன்னையும், ஈஶ்வரனையும், பலத்தையும் பார்த்தால் அவை புகுர வழியில்லை.

Simple meaning: If one looks at self, ISvara, and the pala (kainkaryam) such adharmic activities have no scope to creep in.

vyAkhyAnam: As adharmic activities are not up to the pleasure of ISvara, and as the sentient soul surrendered to him shall not do anything to displease him, looking at both ISvara and himself, there is little scope for such an event. The sentient is focussed on avoidance of any act that would end up as self attempt at attainment of goal; ISvara does not tolerate or countenance any conscious self-focussed act from the sentient in attainment; the pala (attainment) is also the result of his pleasure toward the sentient offering absolutely selfless service totally focussed on the pleasure of ISvara. Therefore in all these three possibilities such acts have no scope for entry as they are opposed to the svarUpa of the sentient, ISvara and the pala (kainkaryam). So, we should take this to mean the acts which are excluded herein.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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