mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 211-220

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 211

Introduction: He now proceeds to delineate the third word, “mAm”:

mAm – sarva rakshakanAy, unakkuk kaiyALAy, unnisaivu pArththu, un dhOshangaLai bhOgyamAgak koNdu, unakkup pugalAy, nIr sudumA pOlE sErppArE pirikkum pOdhum vidamAttAdhE rakshikkiRa ennai.

மாம் – ஸர்வரக்ஷகனாய், உனக்குக் கையாளாய், உன்னிசைவு பார்த்து, உன் தோஷத்தை போக்யமாகக் கொண்டு, உனக்குப் புகலாய், நீர்சுடுமாபோலே சேர்ப்பாரே பிரிக்கும்போதும் விடமாட்டாதே ரக்ஷிக்கிற என்னை.

Simple meaning: mAm – me, who is your all-round protector;  your servant; expecting your acceptance;  taking your faults as pleasurable; your refuge; bearing even your heinous faults just like water, which is by nature cool, but  is absorbing heat.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, for everyone to trust without doubt whether he would save us or not, avowed to protect everybody; without anybody having to doubt if he would, in his exalted status, look down on us and ignore  to remain aloof; to be commanded, “sEnayOr ubhayOr madhyE ratham sthApaya” bhagavath gIthA 1-20 and 1-21 (last line and first line respectively)

hrishIkESam thadhA vAkhyam idhAmAha mahIpathE
sEnayOr ubhayOr madhyE ratham sthApaya mE achyutha

(Oh King! [narrated by sanjayan to dhritharAshrtran] arjunan, looking at krishNa, said the following: Oh achchyutha! Stop my chariot between the two armies”)

and used as a servant; eager to protect you, expecting your acceptance to be protected as mentioned in lakshmI thanthram 17-78

sarvagyOpi hi sarvESO sadhA kAruNikO’pisan
samsAra thanthra vAhithvAth rakshyApEkshAm prathIkshathE

(sarvESvaran, though omniscient and full of compassion, has to conduct samsAram without slipping from the path of righteousness. Thus, he expects only the desire from the sentient “Please protect me”); for you to remain without fear whether he would despise you for your faults, considering your faults of showing mercy on people who are not to be showered mercy upon and remaining confused about what is correct and what is incorrect; as the only refuge for you and all those who are around even when it is not the apt condition for you to take refuge; ignoring even the words of pirAtti, who recommends your protection, if she comes up with some negative injunctions, as he is unable to part with you and give up from protecting you, just as cold water sustains even when heated .


sUthram – 212

Introduction: Next lOkAchArya gives the meaning for ”mAm”, as he shows his form in the vibhava avathAra (form taken during incarnation), distinguishing  it from other forms.

iththAl para vyUhangaLaiyum dhEvathAntharyAmithvaththaiyum thavirkkiRadhu.
இத்தால் பரவ்யூஹங்களையும் தேவதாந்தர்யாமித்வத்தையும் தவிர்க்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this he excludes para, vyUha, dhEvathAntharyAmi forms.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by “mAm”, me, he refers to himself, who is born and standing close by  to be seen, as distinguished from the para and vyUha forms which are in the unseen realms which are not approachable or discernible, and the antharyAmi form of being the in-dwelling soul of other dhEvathas such as agni, indhra et al who are acceptable to those who seek other upAyams.


sUthram – 213

Introduction: Now he describes the meaning that arises out of his asking us to seek him, giving up all the dharmas.

dharma samsthApanam paNNap piRandhavan thAnE ‘sarva dharmangaLaiyum vittu ennaip paRRu’ engaiyAlE sAkshAth dharmam thAnE engiRadhu.

தர்ம ஸம்ஸ்தாபநம் பண்ணப் பிறந்தவன்தானேஸர்வதர்மங்களையும் விட்டு என்னைப் பற்றுஎன்கையாலே ஸாக்ஷாத் தர்மம் தானேயென்கிறது.

Simple meaning: Since he, who was born to establish the dharma himself, is asking to give up (other) dharmas and to seek refuge  in him, he states that he himself is the real dharma.

vyAkhyAnam: As stated in,SrI bhagavath gIthA 4.8:
parithrANAya sadhUnAm vinASAya cha dhushkruthAm

dharma samsthApanArthAya sambhavAmi yugE yugE

(To protect the pious, to annihilate the evil doers, as well as to establish the principles of righteousness which go in the path of vEdhas, I incarnate in yugams (eras) repeatedly) since he, who was born to facilitate our attaining him, himself says for mOksha (attaining me), give up all other dharmas shown in SAsthras as means, and seek me, it is clear that they are not dharmas, but he himself is, as indicated in “krishNam dharmam sanAthanam”, the established sanAthana dharma.


sUthram – 214

Introduction: What is stated by this?

iththAl, vitta sAdhanangaLil ERRam sollugiRadhu.
இத்தால், விட்ட ஸாதநங்களில் ஏற்றஞ் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: The superiority of the means (upAya), compared to the sAdhanas given up, is stated.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, by saying so, he indicates the superiority of this means (himself) over all the means given up earlier.


sUthram – 215

Introduction: To the query “what is that?” lOkAchArya says:

adhAvadhu – sidhdhamAy, paramachEthanamAy, sarva SakthiyAy, nirapAyamAy, prApthamAy, sahAyAnthara nirapEkshamAy irukkai.

அதாவது, ஸித்தமாய், பரமசேதநமாய், ஸர்வஶக்தியாய், நிரபாயமாய், ப்ராப்தமாய், ஸஹாயாந்தர நிரபேக்ஷமாயிருக்கை.

Simple meaning: That is, he is ready to seek and get (sidhdha), supreme sentient being (parama chEthana), omnipotent (sarvaSakthi), inseparable (nirapAya), attainable (prAptha), not expecting assistance of any other agency (sahAyAnthara nirapEksha).

vyAkhyAnam: By this, the superiority of this means compared to the ones which were given up as aforesaid, is described:

sarvESvaran is

sidhdha – being readily available for the sentient to reach him since he is sanAthana dharma [existing from time immemorial) instead of the sentient having to take efforts on his own to reach him;

paramachEthana – supremely omniscient as stated in muNdakOpanishath 1-1-10 “yas sarvagyas sarvavith yasya gyAnamayam thapa:” (that supreme being who knows the basic nature and basic qualities of all entities and whose vow is full of knowledge)

sarvaSakthi – omnipotent as stated in SvEthASvathara upanishath “parA’sya Sakthi: vividhaiva SrUyathE svAbhAvikI gyAnabala kriyAcha” (it is known that for this supreme entity, superior and multifarious abilities, intinsic knowledge and strength (for creation etc) are present)

nirapAya – remaining away from possibilities of being separable by chEthana because it is sidhdha (established);

prAptha – instead of being unattainable by the sentient who is dependent (parathanthra), remaining attainable by him

nirapEksha – without the aid of any other means (sahAyAnthara nirapEksha) due to the reasons listed above such as parama chEthana etc.


sUthram – 216

Introduction: He now proceeds to establish the attainability without the aid of any other means (sahAyAnthara nirapEksha), through the next three sentences:

maRRai upAyangaL sAdhyangaL AgaiyAlE, svarUpa sidhdhiyil chEthananai apEkshiththirukkum; achEthanangaLumAy, aSakthangaLumAy irukkaiyAlE kArya sidhdhiyil ISvaranai apEkshiththirukkum. indha upAyam avaRRukku edhirththattAy irukkaiyAlE ithara nirapEkshamAy irukkum.

மற்றை உபாயங்கள் ஸாத்யங்களாகையாலே, ஸ்வரூபஸித்தியில் சேதநனை அபேக்ஷித்திருக்கும்; அசேதநங்களுமாய், அஶக்தங்களுமாயிருக்கையாலே கார்ய ஸித்தியில் ஈஶ்வரனை அபேக்ஷித்திருக்கும். இந்த உபாயம் அவற்றுக்கு எதிர்த்தட்டாயிருக்கையாலே, இதர நிரபேக்ஷமாயிருக்கும்.

Simple meaning: As all other means are to be attained with self-effort (sAdhya), in the attainment of their intrinsic value (svarUpa sidhdhi) they expect the (aid of the) sentient; as they are insentient (achEthana) and incapable (aSaktha) in fulfilment of the act, they will expect (the aid of) ISvara. As this upAya is opposite of them, it is not expecting anything else (ithara nirapEksha).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, means (upAyas) other than this are achievable by the sentient’s efforts and so in their intrinsic nature, they expect the chEthana (sentient being) for taking the efforts. As they are insentient and incapable to know what are all to be done for him, in the fulfilment of his desires and obviation of the undesirable, they expect ISvara, who is possessed of the ability to grant the attainments.  This upAya is opposed to them in ready availability (sidhdhathva), supreme knowledge (parama chEthanathva)  and omnipotence (sarva Sakthathva).


sUthram – 217

Introduction: Now on he describes how in this word the auspicious characteristics which facilitate the surrendering sentient shine.

idhilE, vAthsalya svAmithva sauSeelya saulabhyangaLAgiRa guNa viSEshangaL nErAga prakASikkiRadhu.

இதிலே, வாத்ஸல்ய ஸ்வாமித்வ ஸௌஶீல்ய ஸௌலப்யங்களாகிற குணவிஶேஷங்கள் நேராக ப்ரகாஶிக்கிறது.

Simple meaning: In this (word) auspicious qualities such as vAthsalya, svAmithva, sauSeelya and saulabhya shine directly.

vyAkhyAnam: vAthsalya shines because, he taught arjuna all the required sacred meanings without considering his faults though he has slipped from dharma; besides speaking of his supremacy (parathva), since he made arjuna to see it for himself, (ownership) svAmithva shines; since he mingled freely with arjuna such that arjuna could address him as ”hE krishNa, hE yAdhava” his sauSeelya (ability to mix freely) shines; as he showed his aprAkrutha thirumEni (divine, auspicious form) to arjuna his  saulabhya (easy accessibility) shines. These characteristics are the prerequisites for the sentient to seek him as refuge and so they are described as shining directly.


sUthram – 218

Introduction: Of all these, saulabhya (easy accessibility) is the most desired, and so apart from the saulabhya manifested through his incarnation itself, his simplicity in showing himself as the charioteer is highlighted by lOkAchArya.

kaiyum uzhavu kOlum, pidiththa siRuvAyk kayiRum, sEnA dhULi dhUsarithamAna thirukkuzhalum, thErukkuk kIzhE nARRina thiruvadigaLumAy niRkiRa sArathya vEshaththai ‘mAm’ enRu kAttugiRAn.

கையும் உழவுகோலும், பிடித்த சிறுவாய்க் கயிறும், ஸேநா தூளிதூஸரிதமான திருக்குழலும், தேருக்குக் கீழே நாற்றின திருவடிகளுமாய் நிற்கிற ஸாரத்ய வேஷத்தைமாம்என்று காட்டுகிறான்.

Simple meaning: He shows his form as the charioteer, with the small whip in one hand, the (horse) leash in the other, the divine hair with the dust of the battlefield, and the divine feet firmly planted on the ground.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, he shows by the word “me”, the form of the charioteer, the divine hand and the whip held therein to guide and drive the horses, the rein bound in their mouth to move them or halt or turn to the  left and right, the divine hair without any protection, with dust of the battle field on it, the divine ankle bearing the small silver anklet, and the divine feet firm on the battlefield, as stated in thiruvAimozhi 3-6-10 “thEr kadaviya perumAn kanai kazhal” (the lord who sat on the chariot with the divine feet decorated with anklet)

Thus lOkAchArya has described the third word “mAm”.


sUthram – 219

Introduction: Next, he describes the fourth word, “Ekam”.

“Ekam”.
ஏகம்.

Simple meaning: “Ekam” – One.


sUthram – 220

Introduction: He describes the meaning for this word:

indha Eka Sabdham sthAna pramANaththAlE avadhAraNa arththaththaik kAttugiRadhu.
இந்த ஏகசப்தம் ஸ்தாநப்ரமாணத்தாலே அவதாரணார்த்தத்தைக் காட்டுகிறது.

Simple meaning: This word “Ekam”, by the significance of its place, indicates emphasis.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, he says, as at many places where this upAya (ISvara) is mentioned, like in ukAra, this word “Ekam” also indicates the meaning of the emphasis.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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