mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 221-230

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்

sUthram – 221

Introduction: After defining this upAya, he quotes several texts wherein such emphasis has been made, as example for this, starting with ”mAmEva”:

mAmEva yE prapathyanthE”, “thamEva chAdhyam”, “thvamEva upAya bhUthO mE bhava”, “ARenakku nin pAdhamE SaraNAgath thanthozindhAy” enRum sollugiRapadiyE.

”மாமேவ யே ப்ரபத்யந்தே”, “தமேவ சாத்யம்”, “த்வமேவோபாய பூதோ மே பவ”, “ஆறெனக்கு நின்பாதமே சரணாகத் தந்தொழிந்தாய்” என்றுஞ்சொல்லுகிறபடியே.

Simple meaning: As has been stated in: “mAmEva yE prapadhyanthE”, “thamEva chAdhyam”, “thvamEva upAya bhUthO mE bhava”, “ARenakku nin pAdhamE saraNAgath thandhozhindhAy”

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in the texts bhagavath gIthA 7-14 “mAmEva ye prapadhyanthE” (those who seek only me as the refuge), bhagavath gIthA 15-5 ”thamEva chAdhyam purusham prapadhyE” (You should surrender only unto him who is the primeval lord), ahirbhudhdhnya samhithai 36-38 ”thvamEva  upAya bhUthO mE bhava” (only you should be the means for me),  thiruvAimozhi 5-7-10”ARu enakku nin pAdhamE SaraNAgath thanthozhindhAy” (you gave me your divine feet only, as the means), wherever the reference occurs to the divine feet which are the means, there is this emphasis, such as ”mAmEva”,  “thamEva” ”thvamEva”, ”nin pAdhamE”.

sUthram – 222

Introduction: What is the distinguishing factor? lOkAchArya says:

iththAl “vraja” engiRa svIkAraththil upAya bhAvaththaith thavirkkiRadhu.
இத்தால், ‘வ்ரஜ’என்கிற ஸ்வீகாரத்தில் உபாய பாவத்தைத் தவிர்க்கிறது.

Simple meaning: By this, in the word “vraja”, seeking refuge, the sense of upAya bhAva (the act of seeking refuge being considered as upAyam) is averted.

vyAkhyAnam: That is,  if the word Ekam (only) has to be distinguished from other means. it would amount to repetition [since he has already rejected other means in the verse sarva dharmAn parithyajya]; if it has to be distinguished from other dhEvathas [such as indhran, kubEran et al], by saying “mAm” as an exclusive form as the charioteer, he has already excluded them; thus, this Ekam word indicates exclusion of upAyam from the word vraja which is spoken of next [in other words, our act of surrendering to ISvaran too is not the upAyam].

sUthram – 223

Introduction: As obtaining of the goal is impossible until after  acceptance of  upAya, this is vital. Yet, how do we get rid of making this as the means for obtaining the goal? lOkAchArya explains this through the next sUthram:

svIkAram thAnum avanAlE vandhadhu.
ஸ்வீகாரந்தானும் அவனாலே வந்தது.

Simple meaning: Acceptance (of means) also came because of him.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, just as this process of obtaining the desired and obviating the undesirable happened due to him, acceptance of the means, which comes earlier itself, also resulted because of him. Thus, this act of surrendering can be considered as upAyakAryathvam (that which makes bhagavAn to become happy with the sentient for accepting him) and not as upAyam (means to attain him) [in rAmAnuja sampradhAyam, this is a very important part: emperumAn alone is the upAyam; it is not the act of surrender carried out by the chEthana (sentient entity). At best, the act of surrendering will make emperumAn to be happy with the chEthana and make emperumAn to grant mOksham to the chEthana]

sUthram – 224

Introduction: What is meant by “resulted because of him”?

srushtyavathArAdhi mukaththAlE paNNina krushipalam.
ஸ்ருஷ்ட்யவதாராதி முகத்தாலே பண்ணின க்ருஷிபலம்.

Simple meaning: Result of his labour in creation (srushti), incarnation (avathAra) etc.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, when the chEthana, in the absence of sensory organs, totally ignorant of the desire for mOksha, was lying without any distinction from insentient, ISvaran gave the chEthana sensory organs and also blossoming of wisdom, he came on his own in incarnations to approve and accept him, just as it has been sung by nammAzhwAr in thiruvAImozhi 2-7-6 “edhir sUzhal pukku” (going opposite to the chEthana, surrounding him in all ways), and also established his archA form to create taste in the chEthana for attaining him and to have firm faith in him through his auspicious qualities and deeds. Thus his labour bore fruit.

sUthram – 225

Introduction: He quotes authentic text to prove this:

“adhuvum avanadhu innaruLE”.
“அதுவும் அவனது இன்னருளே”.

Simple meaning: “adhuvum avanadhu innaruLE” – It is also by his grace.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, just as it has been said in thiruvAimozhi 8-8-3 “uNarvil umbar oruvanai avanadhu aruLAl uRaR poruttu en uNarvin uLLE iruththinEn” (to attain him (through his grace) , who is the controller of nithyasUris and who is beyond even their comprehension, I retained him in my mind). As soon as he completed saying that he retained emperumAn in his knowledge which is in the form of desire [to be with emperumAn] AzhWAr said, ”adhuvum avanadhu innaruLE” (that acceptance is also because of his grace). Therefore, acceptance of our seeking by him is also a result of his labour for us.

sUthram – 226

Introduction: Therefore, one should have absolute trust in him when he could grant us mOksham even without our surrendering.

iththai ozhiyavum thAnE kAryancheyyum enRu ninaikkak kadavan.
இத்தை ஒழியவும் தானே கார்யஞ்செய்யும் என்று நினைக்கக்கடவன்.

Simple meaning: Even without this, he will do our work on his own.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, since it is he who works for our acceptance, he does not do our work for this [our act of surrendering]; even without this [act of surrender on our part] the chEthana should firmly believe that ISvaran will carry out the activities for uplifting the chEthana, fulfilling the desires and obviating the undesired.

sUthram – 227

Introduction: Why should he (the sentient, soul) think so?

allAdha pOdhu upAya nairapEkshyam jIviyAdhu.
அல்லாதபோது உபாய நைரபேக்ஷ்யம் ஜீவியாது.

Simple meaning: Otherwise, (ISvaran’s) quality of not expecting upAya nairapEkshyam (assistance in means), would not sustain.

vyAkhyAnam: If we do not think that he would protect us even without our seeking his help, the quality of his being the protector without any expectations would not survive. We should not think that this seeking is also required for him to act.

sUthram – 228

Introduction: Then what happens to this acceptance (svIkAram)?

idhu sarvamukthi prasanga parihArArtham, budhdhi samAdhAnArtham, chaithanya kAryam, rAga prAptham, svarUpa nishtam, aprathishEdhadhyOthakam.

இது ஸர்வமுக்தி ப்ரஸங்க பரிஹாரார்த்தம், புத்தி ஸமாதாநார்த்தம், சைதந்ய கார்யம், ராக ப்ராப்தம், ஸ்வரூப நிஷ்டம், அப்ரதிஷேத த்யோதகம்

Simple meaning: This gives  a solution to the possible doubt of mOksha for all; doubt of the divine intervention to save as he has not done until now; work of the intellectual faculty of the sentient; obtainable through his love; the discipline of the intrinsic self (svarUpa nishtam); enlightening ISvaran that he [chEthana] is no more preventing ISvaran when he comes to protect him.


sarvamukthiprasanga parihArArtham: If the sentient need not do anything and ISvaran will grant him mOksham, then this should be granted to everyone. In order to prevent this from happening, the sentient carries out the act of surrendering, though that is not the means.

budhdhi samAdhAnArtham: The sentient may want to know as to why he had been granted mOksham only today and not all along. In order to satisfy his intellect, he has to carry out an act.

chaithanya kAriyam: Since sentient has knowledge, there has to be an outlet for that knowledge; hence he surrenders.

rAga prAptham: rAga refers to desire / love. Since sentient develops affection towards ISvaran, he carries out the act of surrendering.

svarUpa nishtam: The svarUpam (basic nature) of sentient is that he is a servitor to ISvaran. As a servitor he has to carry out service to ISvaran and this act is one such.

apradhisEshadhyOthakam:  apradhisEsham is non-avoidance. When ISvaran comes to help the sentient, the sentient accepts that by not running away from ISvaran. dhyOthakam is making an announcement. Thus, the sentient informs ISvaran, through the act of surrendering that he will not prevent him anymore from coming to his help.

sUthram – 229

Introduction: Now he describes the acts of ISvara, as earlier said before mAm, here also.

kIzh thAnum piRarumAna nilaiyaik kulaiththAn; inguththAnum ivanumAna nilaiyaik kulaikkiRAn.

கீழ் தானும் பிறருமான நிலையைக் குலைத்தான்; இங்குத்தானும் இவனுமான நிலையைக் குலைக்கிறான்.

Simple meaning: Earlier he destroyed the thought of others (other upAyams) and himself being the means together; here, he destroys the thought of chEthana and himself being the means together.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in “sarva dharmAn parithyajya”, when he asked to give up all the other means (upAyas), he destroyed the situation of other upAyams and he himself (the giver) being together. In other words, he alone is the upAyam and the others are to be given up. In ”Ekam” now, since he removes the sense of being means from acceptance (svIkAram of upAya), he destroys the situation of himself (the upAya) and the sentient who surrenders (who perceives that his act of surrender, which is acceptance of means, as upAya) being the upAyam together. In other words, only he is the upAya  and the sentient’s act of surrendering is not the upAya. Calling other means as others is as stated in thiruvAimozhi 5-8-3 “unnAl allAl yavarAlum” (I will not ask for protection from anyone else other than you) [insentient entities such as karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgams are spoken of as others here] .

sUthram – 230

Introduction: Then he explains the fault in the sentient accepting ISvaran as the means through his (sentient’s) efforts.

avanai ivan paRRum paRRu ahankAra garbham; avadhyakaram.
அவனை இவன் பற்றும்பற்று அஹங்கார கர்ப்பம், அவத்யகரம்.

Simple meaning: The sentient’s seeking him is egoistic, deplorable.

vyAkhyAnam: The seeking of the protector (without any filial reason but intrinsic ownership) by the sentient who is protected by him as part of himself, is a self generated act and egoistic; it is also deplorable like a son asking his father to give in writing that the father will protect him.

adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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