mumukshuppadi – sUthrams 231-240

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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ஸ்ரீ முமுக்ஷுப்படி மூலமும், மாமுனிகள் வ்யாக்யானமும்


sUthram – 231

Introduction: Then what is protection?

avanudaiya svIkAramE rakShagam.
அவனுடைய ஸ்வீகாரமே ரக்ஷகம்.

Simple meaning: His acceptance only is protection.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, he being vested with the responsibility of the sentient, undertakes and accepts to protect him; this acceptance is protection.


sUthram – 232

Introduction:

To clarify that this upAya (ISvara) does not tolerate any of the human efforts, he points out the difference between this and the other upAyas (means).

maRRai upAyangaLukku nivruththi dhOsham, idhukku pravruththi dhOsham.
மற்றை உபாயங்களுக்கு நிவ்ருத்தி தோஷம், இதுக்கு ப்ரவ்ருத்தி தோஷம்.

Simple meaning: For the other upAyas (being related to mental) inaction is the fault; for this, putting self efforts is the fault.

vyAkhyAnam: For other upAyams, which look up to the sentient’s efforts for fruition of their svarUpam (basic nature), inaction on the part of sentient will be a fault. However, being readily available means (sidhdha upAya) where ISvaran is concerned, the human efforts are the debilitating factor since svayathna in svarakshana (self-effort in self-protection) is deprecated.


sUthram – 233

Introduction: He cites text to prove human effort is not needed.

“siRRa vENdA”.
சிற்றவேண்டா”.

Simple meaning: “siRRa vENdA” (Don’t waver).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in the thiruvAimozhi pAsuram 9-1-7, “maRRonRu illai” (there is nothing else) while singing of  sidhdhOpAya [ISvaran is the readily available means], AzhvAr says “siRRa vENdA” (do not waver or worry your mind); there is no need  to carry out any activity in detail.


sUthram – 234

Introduction: This has been detailed in this SlOka.

nivruththi kIzhE solliRRu.
நிவ்ருத்தி கீழே சொல்லிற்று.

Simple meaning: nivruththi was detailed earlier.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, in “sarva dharmAn parithyajya”,  it was shown that the chEthana needs to withdraw from all efforts.


sUthram – 235

Introduction: But is gratitude needed? Will it amount to be an upAya?

upakAra smruthiyum chaithanyAththAlE vandhadhu; upAyaththil antharbaviyAdhu.
உபகார ஸ்ம்ருதியும் சைதந்யத்தாலே வந்தது; உபாயத்தில் அந்தர்பவியாது.

Simple meaning: Sense of gratitude (upakAra smruthi) came out of intellect; it shall not enter into becoming an upAya.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated by AzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 2-7-8 “ennaith thImanam keduththAy” (you rid me of evils from my mind) and thiruvAimozhi 2-7-7 “maruvith thozhum manamE thandhAy” (you mercifully gave me the mind which will carry out acts of service to you fittingly), the expression of gratitude by this sentient to his protector is an act of the intellect and it shall not lead to the thought that ISvara rendered the help only because of this. Thus, he has completed describing the fourth word (Ekam).


sUthram – 236

Introduction: Now he starts describing the fifth word, “SaraNam”, first by giving the meaning.

“SaraNam” – upAyamAga.
ஶரணம் – உபாயமாக.

Simple meaning: SaraNam – as a means (upAya).


sUthram – 237

Introduction: Though this word can give other meanings, he proves that it refers only to the “upAyam” here, with reasons.

indha SaraNa Sabdham – rakshithAvaiyum gruhaththaiyum upAyaththaiyum kAttak kadavadhE Agilum, ivvidaththil upAyaththaiyE kAttugiRadhu; kIzhOdE sEra vENdugaiyAlE.

இந்த ஶரணஶப்தம்ரக்ஷிதாவையும் க்ருஹத்தையும் உபாயத்தையும் காட்டக்கடவதேயாகிலும், இவ்விடத்தில் உபாயத்தையே காட்டுகிறது; கீழோடே சேர வேண்டுகையாலே.

Simple meaning: Though this word “SaraNam” can indicate the protected, residence and upAya, here it indicates only upAya, (as it has to be read) in conjunction with previous texts.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, as stated in ahibhudhdhnya samhithai 36-36

upAyE gruha rakshithrO: Sabdha: SaraNam ithyayam
varthathE sAmpratham chaisha upAyArthaika vAchaka:

(the word SaraNam refers to means, residence and protection; now this word refers only to upAyam), though the word SaraNam is capable of indicating the protected, house, and upAya, in this context it refers to upAya only. Since the context is “Seek me, giving up all dharmas”, to be congruent to that part, only the meaning upAyam will be apt here.

But is the use of the word “SaraNam” required here, as giving up of the other means itself  indicates the utility of the (object of) upAyam? It is indeed needed at the time of its being the means (prApaka) and the end (prApyam) just as when one uses a boat to cross a river, he gives up the boat after crossing it; he does not need it any more,when he has to go on the land surface. The act of giving up is common to both upAyam and upEyam. At the time of taking ISvaran as the upAyam, other means are given up; at the time of enjoying the benefit, other benefits (such as aiSvaryam and kaivalyam) are given up. After giving up, what is the sentient hoping to do? Is he going to surrender to ISvaran or is he going to enjoy carrying out kainkaryam to him? Hence, to clarify this, the word SaraNam (that he is going to surrender to ISvaran, considering ISvaran himself as the upAyam) has to be clearly differentiated here.

Can it be said so? This giving up of the other means is mandated as part of accepting (svIkAram). So, as it is capable of showing the ability of the means [that ISvaran will grant upAyam to the sentient once he gives up all the other means], where is the need for the word “SaraNam”? It can not be said so, as more than the implied meaning, the phonetic is required.  Sri bhashyakArar [rAmAnujar] also said at the beginning of SrI bhAshyam “AkshEpatha: prApthAdh AbhidhAnikasyaiva grAhyathvAth” (More than the implied meaning, the meaning brought out by the words directly is to be considered).

Thus, as this word “SaraNam” is meaning upAyam here, and ISvaran has the ability to take the sentient as both prApyam (the end) and prApakam (the means), here he has described the acceptance as prApakam.


sUthram – 238

Introduction: Now he starts describing the sixth word, by giving the meaning of it.

“vraja – budhdhi paNNu.
வ்ரஜ- புத்தி பண்ணு.

Simple meaning: vraja  – approach

He describes it further.


sUthram – 239

Introduction: From the dhAthu (root) “vraja gathau” the meaning derived is: gathi (way, walk). “gathyarthA: budhyarthA:” persevere.

gathyarthamAvadhu budhyarthamAy, athyavasi enRapadi.
கத்யர்த்தமாவது புத்த்யர்த்தமாய், அத்யவஸியென்றபடி.

Simple meaning: Persevere in it, as the path to walk, to believe firmly.

vyAkhyAnam: That is, it is stated that the meaning of ‘gathi’ is the meaning of ‘budhdhi’ (knowledge, gyAna) and that one should persevere. In his grantha “parandhapadi”, lOkAchArya observed: “This budhdhi (knowledge) is an intellectual trait that is distinguished among those to be given up as upAyams, not admissible among those to be sought as upAyams, being firm when it comes to casting aside other upAyams, allowing emperumAn when he comes for protection, affirmation of the knowledge in the sentient entity, complete with prayer to emperumAn [to be the upAyam], being a reason for the pleasure and bliss of the lord, congruent to the intrinsic nature of the sentient, and not putting up with other means or delay in result”. This is applicable in this situation too.


sUthram – 240

Introduction: As ordinarily this indicates the movement of mental,verbral and physical  activities, why talk of mental effort only?  He answers this query:

vAchika kAyikangaLum idhukku apEkshithangaLAy irukkach cheydhEyum, “gyAnAn mOksham” AgaiyAlE mAnasamAna anushtAnaththaich chollugiRadhu.

வாசிக காயிகங்களும் இதுக்கு அபேக்ஷிதங்களாயிருக்கச் செய்தேயும், ஜ்ஞாநாந்மோக்ஷமாகையாலே மாநஸமான அநுஷ்டாநத்தைச் சொல்லுகிறது.

Simple meaning: Though verbal and physical acts are also expected of this, as ‘gyAnAn mOksha:’ (mOksham is through gyAna) is the dictum, he talks of the mental observance (mAnasa anushtAnam).

vyAkhyAnam: That is, just as AzhvAr stated in  thiruvAimozhi 6-5-11 “sindhaiyAlum sollAlum seigaiyinAlum” (by thought, word, and deed), this acceptance is to be done by all the three faculties. However, as a person thinks through his mind to take refuge under emperumAn, the verbal as well as physical acts will come together in the act. Thus, even though verbal and physical faculties will follow in this, since mental faculty is primary, as seen in the dictum ‘gyAnAn mOksha:’, it is indicative of the mental faculty.

Thus, he has given the word by word meaning for the first half of the SlOka.


adiyen sadagopa ramanuja dasan

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