Category Archives: Srivachana bhUshaNam

SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 129

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar is saying “vEdhAntham ordained these other upAyams to uplift the chEthana from inferior position to superior position”.

sUthram 129

iththai pravaththippiththadhu parahimsaiyai nivarththippikkaikkAga.

Simple Explanation

These other upAyams where nurtured to eliminate greater harm.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

iththai …

That is – as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 2.45 “thraiguNya vishayA vEdhA:” (vEdhams are focussed on the well-being of the ones having the three qualities (sathva (goodness), rajas (passion), thamas (ignorance))), just as a mother, without making any distinction, will lovingly care for children who have disabilities such as blindness, deafness along with children who have good faculties, as SAsthram, being more caring than thousand mothers and fathers, irrespective of one having abundance of thamas or rajas, would not want to let them get destroyed, instructs means and goals matching such persons’ qualities; just as a stick is used to lead a creeper on to a pole, through these ways, it is trying to lead such persons towards its essence; since it will nurture these other means and goals, starting from SyEna vidhi (a ritual to destroy one’s enemy) up to prapaththi (total surrender to bhagavAn) for chEthanas according to their situation; thus, this upAsana (bhakthi yOga) was nurtured to eliminate greater harm.

parahimsai

Greater harm; just as paradhEvathA, paragathi means greater God, greater path and so on. That is, the animal sacrifices which are mentioned subsequent to SyEna vidhi (in that sequence of steps). Can such animal sacrifices be said as harm? It is still mentioned in SAsthram as ordained harm. In “agnIshOmIyam paSumAlabhEtha” (In the yagya, the animal should be harmed to be offered to agnIshOma dhEvathA), the word Alamba means harming as said in nAnArathna mAlai – thriyakshara kANdan 296 “Alamba: sparSa himsayO:” (Alamba means physically harming). With this, kAmya karmas (actions done for fulfilment of one’s own desires) are implied. As pUrva vihitha himsai (previously ordained activity) indicates SyEna vidhi, the subsequently highlighted kAmya karmas are implied here.

Alternatively, though ordained, for those prapannas who understand their servitude towards bhagavAn and being ananyaprayOjanar (expecting nothing but kainkaryam), while these karmas which involve animal sacrifices have to be observed as worship towards bhagavAn who is present as antharyAmi in agni, indhra et al, if these animal sacrifices are done as part of kAmya karmas, being an independent person (without servitude), towards agni, indhra et al with the expectation of reaching svarga (heaven),  they will be considered very inferior and will be treated as parahimsA. Because of this reason, piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully identified this kAmya karma as parahimsA.

Just as other upAyams though focussed on bhagavAn, which are ordained in SAsthram, are identified as calamitous for gyAnis, here too, based on the nature of the person, these karmas can be said as parahimsA. dharmadhEvathA himself said “athapAthaka bhIthasthvam” (being scared for the other upAyams which are sins), identifying other upAyams as sins. The puNya (virtuous deeds) which are desirable for bubhukshus (enjoyment seekers), are treated at par with sins for mumukshus (liberation seekers) [since both will bind one in this world]. Thus, in all ways, here, kAmya karma is identified as parahimsA. It is explained this way, since he has previously explained this in parandha rahasya [padi] saying that kAmya karma is forbidden for those who practice bhakthi yOgam.

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 128

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully explains the reason for that.

sUthram 128

aushadha sEvai paNNAdhavargaLukku abhimatha vasthukkaLilE aththaik kalasi iduvAraippOlE, ISvaranaik kalandhu vidhikkiRadhiththanai.

Simple Explanation

Just as those who feed medicine wrapped inside food items which are dear to those who refuse the medicine, vEdhAntham is mixing ISvaran in other upAyams and ordaining them [for those who refuse to surrender to ISvaran directly].

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

aushadha sEvai …

For infants, children et al who would refuse to consume a great medicine which will quickly cure the serious diseases they are having, their most caring mothers et al will mix that medicine in food items which are dear to them [such as honey, jaggery etc]. Similarly, if the sidhdhOpAyam (bhagavAn as upAyam) which is explained as in thiruvAimozhi 3.4.5 “nachchu mA marundham engO” (the great medicine which is desired) is ordained as the medicine, having abandonment of self-effort as a pre-condition, [many] chEthanas who are used to self-effort since time immemorial, will not accept that. vEdhAntham, being unable to give up on them, ordains upAsanam [bhakthi yOgam which is in the form of self-effort  which is dear to them, as the upAyam for mOksham, along with ISvaran who is sidhdhOpAyam as the angam [limb] for such upAsanam.

Just as in the example, where the food item which is dear to the children is not the one which cures the disease and the medicine which was wrapped inside is the cure, here in this principle too, it is well understood that instead of the upAsanam, ISvaran who is mixed in that upAsanam is the upAyam.

When the medicine is taken directly, the disease will be cured immediately; when the medicine is wrapped with a desired food item and is taken, the cure will be delayed; similarly when ISvaran is mixed with upAsanam, he will give the results in a delayed manner.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 127

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

These other means which are having defects such as being contradictory to true nature of self etc, are emphasised as proper means to attain mOksham for the chEthanas by vEdhAnthas which ordain the noble means for the well-being of the AthmA as said in muNdaka upanishath 2.2.6 “OmithyAthmAnam dhyAyatha” (Meditate upon the paramAthmA using the meaning of praNavam), bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 1.4.15 “AthmAnamEva lOkamupAsItha” (The people of the world should meditate upon paramAthmA only) and in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 6.5.6 “AthmAvA arE dhrashtavya: SrOthavya: manthavyO nidhidhyAsithavya:” (the paramAthmA who is apt to be heard and thought of, is to be meditated upon until he is seen) [Note: These are considered as part of bhakthi yOgam]. To mercifully explain the reason for this, piLLai lOkAchAryar is raising the question of a seeker.

sUthram 127

vEdhAnthangaL upAyamAga vidhikkiRapadi en ennil.

Simple Explanation

Then why do portions of vEdhAnthams ordain these as upAyam (means)?

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

No specific commentary.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 126

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar is attributing another defect for upAyAntharam (other means, mainly bhakthi yOgam).

sUthram 126

barthru bhOgaththai vayiRu vaLarkkaikku uRuppAkkumApOlE, iruvarkkum avadhyam.

Simple Explanation

Just as the pleasure given to the husband is used as a livelihood by a woman, pursuing other means will lead to blemish for both bhagavAn and AthmA.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

barthru …

That is – a wife using the pleasure which she gives to her husband, which should be done without any expectation, as a means to conduct her livelihood, will lead to causing blemish to the husband who likes that wife and to the self, who is the wife of such husband; similarly, an AthmA using bhakthi which is a form of enjoyment acquired by enjoying the greatness of bhagavAn, as the means for mOksham, will lead to causing blemish for ISvaran who united with the AthmA considering him to be a servitor and for the AthmA who is known as the servitor of such ISvaran. piLLAn too explained this in the following manner – having bhakthi yOgam as upAyam is similar to a wife sleeping with her husband in the night and forcefully asking for a fee while waking up in the morning.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 125

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

When asked “Just as a son will offer dhakshiNai (fee offered in respect) during gOdhAnam, after receiving the same from the father, can the AthmA offer something to bhagavAn, which was received from him previously?” piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully explains.

sUthram 125

avan thandhaththaik kodukkumidaththil adaivilE kodukkil anupAyamAm, adaivu kedak kodukkil kaLavu veLippadum.

Simple Explanation

While offering what was already given by bhagavAn, if it is done in the proper way, that is an improper means; if it is done an in improper manner, one’s robbery will become known.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

avan …

avan thandhaththaik kodukkumidaththil

As said in SrIvishNu dharmam “vichithrA dhEhasampaththir ISwarAya nivEdhithum | pUrvamEva kruthA brahman hasthapAdhAdhisamyuthA ||” (Oh brAhmaNa! To offer oneself and other materials, AthmA previously got connected to the amazing body with hands and legs) and in thiruvAimozhi 3.2.1annAL nI thandha Akkai” (During the time of creation, having merciful heart, you gave me a body), the body and senses which were originally given by him, must be engaged in mediating upon him, worshipping him, offering obeisances to him etc as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.65manmanA bhava madhbhakthO madhyAjI mAm namaskuru ” (you be the one who keeps his mind on me, one who is my devotee and one who worships me; you offer your salutations to me) and SrI bhagavath gIthA 9.14sathatham kIrthayanthO mAm yathanthaS cha dhrudavrathA:” (always being engaged with devotion in singing about me, having firm will).

adaivilE kodukkil

Offering it thinking that it is bhagavAn’s property. If given this way,

anupAyamAm

Since it is an act of merely returning his property to him and will not count as something given by the individual, it will not be an upAyam (means) for the result.

adaivu kedak kodukkil

Offering it thinking that is owned by the individual self. If given this way,

kaLavu veLippadum

Stealing bhagavAn’s property will come to light. His offering will be similar to stealing rAjamahEndhranpadi (a divine crown of periya perumAL) and subsequently offering it in a grand assembly to periya perumAL himself.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 124

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

When asked “But why can’t we get mOksham by preforming bhakthi yOgam, just as unmatching sea shell and lemon are offered to get precious gem and kingdom in return?” piLLai lOkAchAryar says “AthmA is not even qualified to do so”.

sUthram 124

thAn dharidhran AgaiyAlE thanakkuk kodukkalAvadhu onRillai.

Simple Explanation

Since AthmA is devoid of any possession, he cannot offer anything.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

thAn …

That is – in those examples, one at least owns a sea shell or lemon which can be offered to get something valuable in return; but here, unlike that, as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.9.9 “yAnE nI en udaimaiyum nIyE” (I am yours and my possession is yours as well), AthmA and AthmA’s posession are both owned by bhagavAn and hence AthmA does not have anything in him. It is hence explained that there is nothing which can be given as the reason for the result.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 123

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar is saying “Further, there is another defect for other upAyams (specifically bhakthi yOgam), namely pala visadhruSathvam (the means not being a match for the end result)”.

sUthram 123

rathnaththukkup palakaRaipOlEyum rAjyaththukku elumichchambazham pOlEyum palaththukku sadhruSamanRu.

Simple Explanation

Just as a sea shell is not a match for a precious gem and lemon is not a match for kingdom, these other means are not a match for the end result.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

rathnaththukku …

That is – as in some islands, people wear sea shells as ornaments, they will give precious gems in exchange for sea shells; a generous king will give a kingdom to a person who comes seeking such kingdom and offering a lemon; though these are done in this manner, for the very valuable precious gem and the kingdom which is a great wealth, the sea shell and lemon respectively are no match. Similarly, though ISvaran who is attained by bhakthi as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 8.22 “bhakthyA labhyas thvananyayA” (I am attainable by bhakthi which does not seek anything else) and SrI bhagavath gIthA 11.54 “bhakthyA thvananyayA Sakya:” (I am knowable and attainable by bhakthi which does not seek anything else), grants the mOksham which is considered as the ultimate result, only seeing AthmA’s bhakthi [yOgam], it is not a match for the result.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 122

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar explains the most forbidden nature of upAyAntharams (other means) which are destructive for the true nature of the self, through the words of a venerable personality.

sUthram 122

thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn paNikkumbadi – madhirAbindhu miSramAna SAthakumbamaya kumbagatha thIrtha salilam pOlE ahankAra miSramAna upAyAntharam.

Simple Explanation

thirukkurugaippirAn piLLA’s words – Other means (bhakthi yOgam etc), which are mixed with ahankAram (self effort), are similar to holy water in a golden pot which is mixed with a drop of alcohol.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn …

thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn

One who obediently studied under the divine feet of bhAshyakArar (emperumAnAr) who is omniscient, who is very dear to such emperumAnAr, one who has great expertise in the principles of all SAsthrams. Because of these reasons, he remains most  trustworthy.

paNikkumbadi

The way he mercifully explains.

madhirA (madhirai)

Alcohol which is a well forbidden object and which will make other items forbidden when a drop of it came in contact with those objects; since this is cited as an example for ahankAram, the well forbidden nature of such ahankAram, and the objects which come in to contact with it will also become forbidden are revealed.

SAthakumba

Gold.

thanmaya kumbam

Unlike a pot which is made of some other metal inside but covered with gold on the outside, this is a pot which is fully made of gold; with this, the purity of the container (AthmA, in this case) is explained.

thadhgatha thIrtha salilam

Pure water in that pot. With this, the purity of the water in that pot (bhakthi yOgam, in this case) is highlighted.

adhupOlE ahankAra miSramAna upAyAntharam

Since piLLai lOkAchAryar identifies the similarity between the example and the principle which is explained, here also, we need to explain the purity of the container and the aspect which is present in the container. That is, the AthmA (self) which is the container for bhakthi is pure due to its natural purity as said in SrIvishNu purANam 6.7.22 “AthmA gyAnamayOmala:” (AthmA is full of gyAnam; is pure) and its purity acquired by being completely subservient to bhagavAn; such bhakthi too is pure due to being fully focussed on bhagavAn; when there is no ahankAram, there is no defect. With this, it is explained that, just as pure water which is present in a golden pot, becomes forbidden by coming in contact with a drop of alcohol, pure bhakthi which is focussed on bhagavAn which is present in pure AthmA which is subservient to bhagavAn, due to coming in contact with ahankAram which is in the form self effort, will be forbidden by gyAnis, to be rejected by them.

To match paNikkumbadi, “enRu” (it is said) should be added in the end of the sentence.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 121

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar is showing the contradiction which will arise when the previously explained principle is not accepted.

sUthram 121

ippadik koLLAdhapOdhu Ethath pravruththiyil prAyaSchiththa vidhi kUdAdhu.

Simple Explanation

When it is not considered in this manner (engaging in other upAyams will lead to destruction of the true nature of the self), engagement in other upAyams will not have atonement prescribed.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

ippadik koLLAdhapOdhu …

ippadik koLLAdhapOdhu

When these other upAyams are not considered as destructive for the true nature of the self.

Ethath pravruththiyil prAyaSchiththa vidhi kUdAdhu

As said in lakshmI thanthram “sakrudhEvahi SAsthrArtha: kruthOyam dhArayEnnaram | upAyApAya samyOgE nishtayA hIyathEnayA l apAya samplavE sadhya: prAyaSchiththam samAcharEth || prAyaSchiththiriyam sAthra yath puna: SaraNam vrajEth | upAyAnAm upEyathva svIkArEpyEthadhEvahi ||” (A chEthana who has performed surrender just once will be protected. When the other upAyams which are dangerous, are pursued by such person, he is considered to have slipped from his surrender. When such forbidden acts are performed unintentionally, he must atone for that. The atonement is nothing but performing the act of surrendering, again. This is the atonement for considering other upAyams as proper upAyam as well) – when a prapanna unintentionally engages in other upAyams, just as in the case of engaging in forbidden activities, a repeat surrender should not have been ordained. Repeat surrender is not a fresh surrender, but just remembering previous surrender only.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvachana bhUshaNam – sUthram 120

SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImadh varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

piLLai lOkAchAryar mercifully explains the defects arising due to other upAyams (means) causing destruction of the true nature of the self.

sUthram 120

vardhathE mE mahath bhayam” engaiyAlE bhaya janakam; “mA Sucha:” engaiyAlE Soka janakam.

Simple Explanation

Just as it is said in jithanthE sthOthram 9 “vardhathE mE mahath bhayam” (causing great fear), these cause fear; similarly, just as it is said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66 “mA Sucha:” (Don’t worry), these cause sorrow.

vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

vardhathE …

That is –

  • as said in jithanthE sthOthram 9 “kAlEshvapicha sarvEshu dhikshu sarvAsu chAchyutha | SarIrEcha gathauchApi vardhathE mE mahath bhayam ||” (Oh achyutha who does not abandon devotees! When I see all the times, all the holy abodes, my body and other upAyams, I am getting very scared), it is said “I am getting very scared seeing the time, place and body which are apt for pursuing other upAyams and seeing those other upAyams too”
  • after hearing about the other upAyams arjuna became anguished, and hence krishNa instructed the upAyam that is apt for the true nature of the self (i.e. prapaththi) and mercifully removed the sorrow

From these two, we can understand that these prApakAntharams (other means) which are contrary to the true nature of the self, will cause fear and sorrow for gyAnis.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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